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初中英语|动词不定式与动名词

2017-08-08  明月斋

非谓语动词一

动词不定式在英语中,不充当句子谓语的动词,叫作非谓语动词。由于非谓语动词不受主语的限制,没有时态和语态,所以又叫非限定动词。非限定动词有三种形式:动词不定式;动名词和分词。

1.动词不定式的构成和性质

动词不定式是一种非谓语动词,所谓非谓语动词就是不能作谓语的动词。正因为如此,它不受主语的人称和数的限制,没有人称和数的变化,但它具有动词的某些特征,可以带宾语和状语构成不定式短语。其构成是:“to + 动词原形”,否定式是“not to +动词原形”。to是不定式符号,无词义。

2.动词不定式的用法

动词不定式除了不能作谓语外,可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语和状语。

①作主语

To learn English well is not easy.

To drive fast is quite dangerous.

不定式作主语时常常用it作形式主语,不定式放在谓语之后以上两个例句可以写成:

It is not easy to learn English well.

It is quite dangerous to drive fast.

这种用法可以归纳成这样一个句型:

It is (not) +形容词+ (for sb.) to do sth.

It is very expensive for me to buy a car.

It is very difficult for a child to do that job.

有些形容词之后跟of+ 名词(代词宾语)+不定式。如:

It is very kind of you to say so.It is very good of you to come.

②作表语。如:

My job is to teach English.The first thing is to ring him up.

③作宾语。如:

She wanted to ask you a question.He forgot to turn off the light.

We decided to hold a class meeting.

常见的可以用不定式作宾语的动词有:like, love, begin, start, try, ask, prefer, hate, find等,有些形容词可接不定式,这种不定式也可作宾语。如:

I’m very glad to see youHe’s sure to come.

④作宾语补足语

不定式是用来补充说明宾语的,通常不定式的动作是宾语发出的。可以带不定式作宾补的动词有:ask sb. To do sth. want sb. To do sth.

tell sb. To do sth. like sb. To do sth. help sb. (to) do sth.,还有些动词可以跟省略to的不定式作宾语补足语。如:hear, watch, see, feel, make, let, have等。如:

I often help my mother do housework.

⑤作定语:常常放在所修饰的名词、代词之后,如:

I have a lot of of work to do.He wants something to drink.

⑥作状语。如:

He went to the station to meet his friend.(表目的)

She has gone to the market to buy some vegetables.(表目的)

I’m so glad to hear that you have passed the exam.(表原因)

The boy is too young to go to school.(表结果)

3.疑问词加动词不定式

疑问代词when, who, which和疑问副词when, where, why, how等加动词不定式,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语等成分。如:

I’m don’t know how to use the computer.(作宾语)

We can’t decide which one to buy.(作宾语)

The question is how to get there.(作表语)

When to start has not been decided.(作主语)

非谓语动词二

动名词:动名词具有名词的特性,它在句子里主要起到主语、宾语和介词宾语的作用。

1.动名词作主语

一般情况下表示一种抽象、泛指的动作,而不是一次性的具体的动作。动名词作主语时,常采用形式主语it

Swimming in this river is dangerous.

It is dangerous swimming in this river.

2.动名词作宾语

英语中有些动词只能接动名词作宾语,不能接不定式,这些动词有:

admit(承认)avoid(避开)can’t help(禁不住)

consider(考虑)deny(否认)enjoy(喜欢)

excuse(原谅)finish(完成)mind(介意)

practise(练习)miss(错过)suggest(建议)

I can’t help laughing.

I enjoyed reading this novel.

动名词与不定式作直接宾语的比较

remember doing sth.表示“记午过去做过的一件事”。

remember to do sth.表示“记得要去做某事”。

I remember seeing the man before.

forget doing sth.表示“忘记曾做过某事”。

forget to do sth.表示“忘记去做某事”。如

I forgot to turn off the lights when I left the room

regret doing sth.表示“对过去做过的一件事情后悔”。

regret to do sth.表示“对还没做,或正在做的事情感到后悔、抱歉”。如:

I regret telling you the bad news.

I regret to say I’m unable to help you.

stop doing sth.表示“停止正在做的事情”。

stop to do sth.表示“停下来,去做另一件事情”。如:

We stopped to see what happened.

Let’s stop talking about it.

try doing sth.表示“尝试着做某事”。

try to do sth.表示“设法做某事”。如:

I’ll try doing it in a new way.

I once tried to learn Japanese.

mean doing sth表示“意味着,意思是”

mean to do sth.表示“打算,想要做某事”。如:

Giving up the job means missing a good opportunity.

放弃这份工作意味着错过了一个好机会。

I mean to help him with it.

prefer to do sth ……rather than do sth

prefer doing sth. to doing sth.表示“喜欢做这件事而不喜欢做那件事”。如:

I prefer working to staying at home.

This pair of shoes needs repairing.

由于篇幅原因,今天就跟大家分享到这里,如果你觉得我的文章对你有帮助,可以点击账号查看我之前的文章。

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