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中考英语复习:初中英语重点单词短语整理,收藏了!

2018-03-09  昵称vMN36

中考复习单词 (七上-九下)

A

able adj. 有能力的

句型:be able to do(可以变换时态,不能跟can共用)

变形:unable adj. 没有能力的 disabled adj. 残疾的

ability n. 能力 disability n. 残疾,缺陷

above prep. 在……的上面,表示楼层上方

I live above you. 我住在你家楼上。

也可以表示温度上的超过 above zero

反义词:below

辨析:over 正上方 on 在上面(接触)

abroad adv. 国外 go abroad 去国外 be abroad 在国外

absent adj. 缺席的

短语:be absent from 缺席……

变形:absence n. 缺席

accept vt. 接受

辨析:receive vt. 收到

accident n. 事故

短语:car accidents 交通事故 do sth. by accident 碰巧做某事

according to 根据(to是介词)

according to sth./doing sth.

achieve vt. 获得

短语:achieve a balance between A and B 在A和B之间获得一个平衡

变形:achievement n. 成就(可数)

act vi. 行动

变形:action n. 行动 active adj. 活跃的 inactive adj. 不活跃的

actively adv. 活跃地 inactively adv. 不活跃地

vt. 表演

变形:actor n. 男演员 actress n. 女演员

action n. 行动

短语:take action to do 采取行动做某事

变形:act v. 行动 act to do

active adj. 活跃的,积极的

变形:actively inactive inactively activity

admire vt. 敬佩,仰慕

admire sb. for sth. 因……敬佩某人

advantage n. 优势(可数)

变形:disadvantage n. 劣势

advise vt. 建议 advise sb. to do sth.

变形:advice n. 建议(不可数) some advice on sth.

辨析:suggest vt. 建议 suggest doing

suggestion n. 建议(可数)

afford vt. 承担得起,买得起

短语:afford sth. 买得起某物 afford to do sth. 做得起某事

一般与can’t或couldn’t连用

against prep. 反对,靠着

短语:do sth. against the law 做违反法律的事情 stand against the wall 靠墙站着

be against doing sth. 反对做某事

age n. 年龄

at the age of 12 在12岁(注意12后面就不能再加years old)

表达年龄的方式:in one’s twenties/thirties....

at the age of 数字

when sb. be XX years old

agree vi. 同意

短语:agree to do 同意做某事 agree with sb. 赞同某人

agree on sth. 在……达成一致

变形:agreement n. 一致 agree= be in agreement

alive adj. 活着的(表语形容词,只能放系动词后)

辨析:lively adj. 活泼的,生动的 变形:livelier liveliest

live adj. & adv. 现场的 live show be covered live

living n. 生存,生活 make a living

all的短语总结:

all over 遍及 all day long 一整天 all year round 一整年

all the time 一直 at all times 总是 all right 好吧

above all 首要的是 first of all 首先 after all 毕竟

allow vt. 允许

短语:allow sb. to do sth. (注意被动:sb. be allowed to do 被允许做某事)

already adv. 已经 (现在完成时)

辨析:yet already用于肯定句,置于have和done中间或者句末

yet用于否定句或者疑问句,置于句末

amazing adj. 令人吃惊的

变形:amazed adj. 感到吃惊的 amazement n. 吃惊

ancient adj. 古代的

another pron. 另一个,表泛指 another 可数名词单数

考点:another 数字=数字 more 表示再来XX个

辨析:other 泛指,其他的,加名词复数或者不可数名词

others 泛指,指其他的东西或者别人,本身表示复数,后面不能加任何词

the other 特指两个中的另一个,或后面加名词复数表示一个范围内剩下的所有。

the others 特指一个范围内剩下的所有,后面不能再加名词,本身表复数。

如:I don’t like this pair of shoes, can you show me another pair?

Some people like playing basketball, while other people like playing football.

Some people like playing basketball, while others like playing football.

Where are the other students? (注意有了one’s就不能加the,如:It’s in my other hand.)

There are 20 teachers in our grade. 8 of them are men teachers, while the others are women teachers.

anything 任何事 anyone 任何人 anybody 任何人 anywhere 任何地方

复合不定代词:1) 看做三单 2) 形容词放在后面

3) 可以把else放在后面表示其他……

用于肯定句表示任何:Anyone can borrow books from here. 任何人都可以从这儿借书。

I can go anywhere. 我可以去任何地方。

用于否定句和疑问句代词some: Is there anything wrong with your computer?

There isn’t anything wrong with your computer.

= There is nothing wrong with your computer.

appear vi. 出现(没有被动语态)

变形:disappear vi. 消失 appearance n. 出现,露面,外貌

arrive vi. 到达 arrive in 大地点 arrive at 小地点

arrive here/there/home

同义短语:reach 地点 get to 地点 (get here/there/home)

区别:没有地点,只能用arrive I have arrived.

artist n. 艺术家

变形:art n. 艺术

-ist后缀:tourist 旅行家 pianist 钢琴家 dentist 牙医

as prep. 作为

短语:be famous as 作为……著名 Lu Xun is famous as a writer.

辨析:be famous for 因为……出名 Lu Xun is famous for his books.

conj. 随着……(引导时间状语从句)

As time goes by, he realizes his growth.

既然,由于(引导原因状语从句)

Come and play, as you are here.

短语和句型:

as a result 结果是 as....as.....和……一样……

not as ....as.... 不如……怎样 as...as possible 尽可能……

as good as 简直,和……一样 as well as 并且,和

as soon as 一……就……(时态规则主将从现,或者主过从过)

asleep adj. 睡着的

短语:fall asleep (对应延续性动词be asleep)

辨析:sleepy adj. 困倦的 feel sleepy

attend vt. 参加,出席

attend meetings attend school attend the lesson

辨析:join 组织/人 加入 take part in 活动/比赛 参加

attention n. 注意力

短语:pay attention to (to是介词,后加sth.或者doing sth.)

catch/attract one’s attention 引起某人的注意

bring sb. to the attention of 使……引起了……的注意

attract vt. 吸引

变形:attractive adj. 有吸引力的 attraction n. 吸引力,景点

辨析:attack vt. 攻击

Australia n. 澳大利亚

变形:Australian adj. 澳大利亚的 n. 澳大利亚人

avoid vt. 避免 avoid doing

awake adj. 醒着的

变形:wake vt. 叫醒 wake-woke-woken

B

base vt. 以……为基础

短语:be based on 以……为基础

变形:basic adj. 基础的

be短语总结:

about: be crazy about be worried about be excited about be curious about

of: be tired of be proud of be tired of be afraid of be full of

be guilty of be aware of

with: be satisfied with be bored with be pleased with be happy with

be filled with

at: be surprised at be amazed at be good at

for: be late for

in: be interested in

be used to doing 习惯于做某事 be of one’s age 与……同龄的

because of 由于

辨析:because because of 名词短语 because 从句

beat vi. 跳动 beat-beat-beaten

vt. 打败 beat sb.

辨析:win win 比赛 赢得比赛 beat 人 打败人

before adv. 以前,过去(放在句末,现在完成时的标志词)

如:He has never been there before.

conj. 在……之前(引导时间状语从句:主将从现或主过从过)

如:I will finish homework before I watch TV.

I finished homework before I watched TV.

句型:It will be XX years before 从句 表达某件事情要达成还需要多长时间

如:It will be 5 years before the subway is in use in Changzhou.

prep. 在……之前 before doing

如:You must finish homework before watching TV.

beginning n. 开始,起初

in the beginning=at first 一开始 at the beginning of 在……的开始

below prep. 在……的下面,表示楼层下方

I live above you. 我住在你家楼下。

也可以表示温度上的低于 blow zero

反义词:above

辨析:under 正下方

best adj. 最好的 the best place/time to do

adv. 最 like....best 最喜欢

be best known 最为人所知……

all the best

beyond prep. 超出……范围

短语:beyond my control beyond my ability beyond the visiting hour

go far beyond 远远超过

辨析:over表示数量,年龄上的超过 above是温度上的超过

bleed vi. 流血 bleed-bled-bled

短语:bleed to death 流血致死

变形:blood n. 血液(不可数名词)

bored adj. 感到无聊的 be bored with 对……厌烦了

变形:boring adj. 乏味的,令人无聊的 bore vt. 使……无聊

born adj. 天生的

短语:a born artist

be born 出生 (一般用过去时)

borrow vt. 借来 borrow sth. from sb.

辨析:lend vt. 借给 lend sth. to sb.= lend sb. Sth.

both conj.&pron. 两个(都)

短语和句型:both 复数:There are many trees on both sides of the road.

both of: Both of the twins like flying kites.

both A and B: Both Tom and Jerry like flying kites.

辨析:all 三者及以上都 neither 两者都不 either 两者中任取一个

none 三者及以上都不

break vt. 打破

短语:break into 闯入(有被动) break down 坏了,抛锚(没有被动)

break out 爆发(没有被动)

变形:broken adj. 坏了的

breath n. 呼吸

短语:out of breath 上气不接下气 take a deep breath

变形:breathe vi. 呼吸 breathe heavily

British adj. 英国的 n. 英国人

变形:Britain n. 英国

but prep. 除了

句型:have no choice but to do 别无选择只能做……

not....but.... 不是……而是 He is not a teacher but a doctor.

注意:but/except/as well as/together with/with放在主语后,谓语动词要用就远原则

如:Nobody but the twins is going to Nanjing tomorrow.

by prep. 用(强调方式,后只能加名词单数) by car by e-mail

prep. 在……旁边 by the river

prep. 被,由 be made by an article by Lu Xun 鲁迅写的文章

prep. 到……为止 by 将来时间点 (一般将来时)

By 过去时间点 (过去完成时)

adv. 经过 pass by 经过

短语:by the way 顺便问一下 by oneself 独自 by accident 碰巧

C

call vt. 称呼 call sb. sth.

What do you call him? (疑问词不能用how) a boy called Tom 一个叫Tom的男孩

vt. 打电话 call sb. back 给某人回电话

n. 电话 give you a call 给你打一个电话

calm adj. 平静的 keep calm

n. 平静

v. 平静 calm down 平静下来

变形:calmly adv. 平静地

cancel vt. 取消,终止(注意过去式和分词要双写l ed)

capital n. 首都

the capital of ...

care vi. 关心,关注 care about 关心,在意 care for 照顾

n. 关心 take care of 照顾

词性转换:careful adj. 小心的,认真的 carefully adv. 认真地,仔细地

careless adj. 粗心的 carelessly adv. 粗心地 carelessness n. 粗心

carry短语:

carry on 继续开展,继续下去 carry out 开展,执行

cause n. 原因

短语:the cause of=the reason for ……的原因/起因

vt. 引起,导致=lead to

centre n. 中央 in the centre of

变形:central adj. 中央的

certain adj. 确定的

句型:It is certain that....

变形:certainly uncertain uncertainly

challenge n. 挑战(可数)

变形:challenging adj. 有挑战性的

change vt. 改变

句型:change a lot 改变很多:Changzhou has changed a lot over the years.

n. 改变(可数) changes in numbers 数量上的变化

n. 零钱(不可数) Here’s your change.

cheer vi. 欢呼

短语:cheer for 为……加油 cheer up 使……振奋

变形:cheerful adj. 兴高采烈的

choose vt. 选择 choose to do 选择做某事

choose sb. as 选择某人担当……

变形:choose-chose-chosen

名词 choice 选择(可数) have no choice but to do别无选择只能做某事

close vt. 关闭 变形:closed adj. 关着的

adj. 近的,亲密的 be close to take a close look at

变形:close adv. 近的(形象的) sit close to

closely adv. 密切地,亲密地(抽象的) work closely

collect vt. 收集,搜集

变形:collection n. 收集物

come on 得了吧,快点,加油(表鼓励,催促等语气)

come其他短语总结:come up with 想出,提起 come down 崩塌

come out 出版

变形:coming adj. 即将到来的

comfortable adj. 舒服的

变形:uncomfortable adj. 不舒服的 comfortably adv. 舒服地

common adj. 普通的,平常的

辨析:normal adj. 正常的

compare vt. 比较

短语:compare A to B 把A比作B compare A with B 把A与B做比较

句型:Compared with A, B ..... 与A相比,B……

complain vi. 抱怨

短语:complain about sth. to sb. 向某人抱怨某事

变形:complaint n. 抱怨,投诉 complaint letter 投诉信

complete vt. 完成 complete doing

adj. 完全的,彻底的

变形:incomplete 不完全的 completely adv. 完全地,彻底地

communicate vt. 交流,交际 communicate with sb. 与某人交流

变形:communication n. 交流,交际

community n. 社区,小区

competition n. 竞赛,比赛,竞争

confident adj. 有信心的

变形:confidence n. 信心

connect vt. 连接

短语:connect sth. to/with sth. 把……连接到……/把……与……连接起来

动词填空注意谓语非谓语,主动与被动:

The computer is connected to the Internet. (谓语被动)

The railway connects Shanghai to Nanjing. (谓语主动)

The railway connecting Shanghai to Nanjing has been in use. (非谓语主动)

The computer connected to the Internet is Jim’s. (非谓语被动)

consider vt. 考虑

短语:consider sb. as .... 认为某人是(注意被动 sb. be considered as ....)

consider doing sth. 考虑做某事

continue vt. 继续

continue to do 继续做另一件事 continue doing 继续做刚中断的事情

control n. 控制

短语:out of control 失控 beyond my control 超出我的控制

vt. 控制 (注意过去式,过去分词,现在分词要双写尾字母)

conversation n. 谈话

correct adj. 正确的

变形:correctly incorrect incorrectly

cost vt. 花费

辨析:take 句型:sth./Doing sth. take sb. some time. It take sb. some time to do sth.

(主语必须是事情或者物,只能花时间)

spend 句型 sb. spend some time/money (in) doing sth.

sb. spend some time/money on sth.

(主语必须是人,既能花钱又能花时间)

cost 句型:sth./Doing sth. take sb. some money. It cost sb. some money to do sth.

(主语必须是事情或者物,只能花钱)

pay 句型:sb. pay some money for sth.

(主语必须是人,只能花钱)

n. 费用,成本 the cost of ……的费用

could 情态动词

表示能力,是can的过去时:I could swim at the age of 12.

表示请求,是委婉语气,不是过去时:Could you tell me 宾语从句(从句时态不降级)

表猜测,可能性小:It could be Mr. Green.

couple n. 几个,一对,夫妻

短语:a couple of 可数名词复数

注意:couple做主语表示一对夫妻,谓语动词不用三单。

如:The couple are doing housework now.

courage n. 勇气(不可数名词)

变形:encourage vt. 鼓励 encourage sb. to do sth.

cover n. 封面,盖子

vt. 覆盖 cover .... with be covered in/with

vt. 报道 cover...live 现场直播 be covered live

vt. 包含,涉及

create vt. 创造

变形:creative adj. 有创造力的 creation n. 创造物

cross vt. 穿过,从表面横穿过

cross=go across

变形:crossing n. 十字路口

crowded adj. 拥挤的 more and more crowded

变形:crowd vi. 拥挤 n. 人群 the crowd

cut vt. 剪下,切下 cut-cut-cut

短语:cut down 砍树 cut out 剪下 cut into 切成…… cut in 打断,插嘴

cut...short 缩短

D

daily adj. 日常的 daily life 日常生活

同类单词:weekly yearly monthly

danger n. 危险

短语:in danger 陷入危险 out of danger 脱离危险

变形:dangerous adj. 危险的

deal n. 很多

短语:a great deal of 大量的,只能加不可数名词

辨析:a great number of 大量的,只能加可数名词

vi. 处理

短语:deal with 处理

句型:how to deal with sth.=what to do with sth.

decide vt. 决定

短语:decide to do 决定做某事

变形:decision n. 决定(可数)

deep adj. 深的

adv. 深地(形象的,看得出的深) walk deep into the city

辨析:deeply adv. 深深地(程度上的) influence sb. Deeply

depend on 依靠,取决于(注意没有被动语态)

如:The result depends on your attitude.

句型:It depends. 看吧,待决定。

如:-Will you come tonight.

-It depends. If he comes, I will come to.

辨析:It’s up to you. 取决于你。

-Will you come tonight.

-It’s up to you. If you come, I will come to.

develop vt. 发展,形成

短语:develop a habit

变形:developed adj. 发达的 less developed countries

developing adj. 发展中的 developing countries

development n. 发展

devote vt. 把……贡献于

句型:devote ... to sth./doing sth. 把……贡献于……

devote oneself to doing 致力于做某事

dictionary n. 字典

短语:look up the word in the dictionary 在字典里查这个单词

die vi. 死

短语:die of 死于(疾病) die from 死于(天灾人祸)

延续性状态 be dead

变形:dead adj. death n. dying adj. 奄奄一息的

different adj. 不同的

句型:be different from 与……不同

变形:differently adv. 不同地 difference n. 不同点(可数)

difference句型:make a difference to 对……有影响,有作用

difficulty n. 困难

句型:have difficulty/trouble/problems (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难

have difficulty/trouble/problems with sth. 在……方面有困难。

注意感叹句:What difficulty I have doing

变形:difficult adj. 困难的

direct adj. 直接的 take a direct flight

变形:indirect adj. 间接的 directly adv. 直接地

vt. 执导

变形:director 导演

discover vt. 发现,发觉

辨析:find 找到(已知的已存在的) find out 查明事情真相

discover 发现(未知的已存在的东西) invent 发明(不存在的东西)

如:find my way find out the murderer

discover electricity invent the lights

变形:discovery n. 发现(可数)

discuss vt. 讨论

discuss sth. with sb. 和某人讨论某事

变形:discussion n. 讨论

divide vt. 分,分开

短语:divide....into.... 把……分成 (注意被动 sth. be divided into....)

变形:dividing line 分界线

doubt vt. 怀疑

句型:I doubt 疑问句式的宾语从句。

I never doubt that从句

There is no doubt that从句

dream n. 梦

v. 做梦

短语:dream of/about 梦想

dress vi.&vt. 穿着,穿衣

短语:dress up 乔装打扮 dress up as a ghost

dress sb. 给某人穿衣服 sb. be dressed in 衣服 某人穿着……(衣服)

辨析:dress 人

wear 衣服= be dressed in=be in 表示穿着

put on 衣服 表示穿上,一般用于祈使句:Put on your coat. It is cold outside.

in 衣服 穿着,表示状态 You look nice in blue.= Blue looks nice on you.

drive vt. 驾驶 drive sb. to sp. 开车送某人去某地

vt. 驱使 drive sb. mad 把某人逼疯(注意被动 sb. be driven mad)

dry adj. 干的

vt. 弄干

变形:dried adj. dried food 干粮

during prep. 在……期间

during one’s stay at/in sp. 在某人待在某地期间 during my stay there

during the past/last few years 近几年来(现在完成时标志词)

辨析:while 在……期间 while 从句 during 名词短语

while I stayed there=during my stay there

E

each pron. 每个,每件

用法:each 名词单数(作主语看作三单):Each student has a notebook.

each of the 名词复数(作主语看作三单):Each of the students has a notebook.

放在主语后,做同位语(不作三单):The students each have a notebook.

辨析:every

区别:1) every 不能放of前,但可以用every one of

2) every一定要表示范围在三者及以上中的每一个,而each可以表示两者中的每一个

There are many trees on each side of the road. (不能用every)

3) each强调个体,every强调整体。

Each of the students __________ hard on ___________ lessons.

A. works; their B. works; his C. work; their D. work; his

education n. 教育

短语:basic education基础教育 further education 深造

effort n. 努力(可数)

精力(不可数)句型:put one’s effort into doing 竭尽全力做某事

either pron. 两者中任意一个

either 名词单数:either side of the road

either of: Either of the twins is going to Nanjing. (谓语用三单)

conj. Either....or.....(谓语动词就近原则)

adv. 也不(用于否定句)I can’t swim. He can’t either.

electronic adj. 电子的

else adv. 另外,其他

用法:1) 放在疑问词后面:what else 还有什么 who else 还有谁

2) 放在复合不定代词前:something else 还有别的什么 nothing else 没有别的

考点:其他某人的 someone else’s

辨析:other 其他的 other 名词复数 else 后面不能加名词复数

empty adj. 空的

end n. 结尾

in the end=at last=finally at the end of .... 在……的结尾

vi. 结束 (延续性动词为be over)

变形:endless adj. 无止境的

energy n. 精力(不可数)

变形:energetic adj. 精力充沛的

enough adv. 足够的

短语:enough n. adj. enough (只能用原级)

句型:enough n./adj. enough to do

相关句型:too....to.....太……而不能

So...that...../such.....that..... 如此……以至于……

enter vt. 进入

考点:enter和into不能共用 enter the room=go into the room

environment n. 环境

especially adv. 尤其

辨析:specially adv. 专门

Europe n. 欧洲

变形:European n. 欧洲人 (考点:a European)

everybody 每个人 everyone 每个人 everything 每个东西,每件事情

everywhere 到处

复合不定代词:1) 看做三单 2) 形容词放在后面

3) 可以把else放在后面表示其他……

强调所有,缺一不可:Everything is ready. 一切都准备好了。

I don’t think everyone can answer it. 我不认为所有人都会做。(部分否定)

Is everyone here? 大家都到了吗?

exactly adv. 确切地,精确地

What do you mean exactly?

adv. 正是如此

---Is the man under the tree your father? ---Exactly.

excellent adj. 杰出的,出色的

excited adj. 感到激动的

短语:be excited about

辨析:exciting adj. 令人激动的 excitedly adv. 激动地

注意:voice, look, feeling这样的名词虽然不是人,但也是表达人自身的情感,要用excited修饰。

如:There is an excited look on his face.

expect vt. 期待

except sb. to do sth.

辨析:look forward to doing sth.

experience n. 经历(可数) 经验(不可数)

a teacher with full experience an awful experience

explain vt. 解释

explain sth. to sb. 向某人解释某事

explore vt. 探索

变形:explorer n. 探索者

express vt. 表达

变形:expression n. 表情,表达

extra adj. 额外的

F

fail vi. & vt. 失败

fail to do 做某事失败

变形:failure n. 失败

fall vi. 掉落

fall over 摔倒 fall down 掉下来 fall off/fall from 地点 从……掉下来

fall asleep 睡着 fall in love with sb. 爱上某人 fall behind 落后

变形:fall-fell-fallen

famous adj. 出名的,著名的

短语:be famous for 因……出名 be famous as 作为……出名

fear n. 害怕,恐惧 in fear

介词 名词相当于副词:with joy with excitement

feel lv. & vt. 感觉到

短语:feel well 身体好 feel sleepy 感到困倦

变形:feeling

few pron. 不多的,少数的

用法:后面加可数名词复数 few表示几乎没有 a few表示还有一些

辨析:little 表示几乎没有,后加不可数名词

a little 表示有些,加不可数名词; a little 也可以表示一个小,加可数名词单数

如:There is a little water in the cup. There is a little boy at the school gate.

a bit表示有点儿,加形容词或副词=a little bit

a bit of表示一点儿,加不可数名词

固定短语:very few/little only a few/a little 只有一点点

quite a few/a little 有相当多

fight vt. 打仗 fight-fought-fought

fight sb. fight for sth. 为……打架,抗争

n. 打仗 a snowball fight 打雪仗

变形:fighter n. 战斗者

fill vt. 装满

fill... with .... 用……装满……

be filled with= be full of 充满

final adj. 最后的 final appearance n. 决赛 in the final

变形:finally=in the end=at last

first adv. 首先

短语和句型:

do sth. first 先做某事 first do sth.=do sth. for the first time 第一次做某事

at first=in the beginning 起初 first of all=above all 首要的是

the first to do 第一个做某事

It is the first time that sb. have/has done sth. (从句要用现在完成时)

辨析:the 序数词 表特指,事情已做过;a 序数词表泛指,事情还没做过。

如:This is the second bike that I have bought. I want to buy a third one.

fit adj. 适合的 be fit for

vt. 合身 sth. fit sb. very well

辨析:fit指大小上合适 suit强调适合,指颜色,款式等 match是物与物是否搭配,或者人与人在某种能力上是否可匹敌

force vt. 逼迫

force sb. to do sth. (注意被动 sb. be forced to do)

foreign adj. 外国的 foreign languages 外语 foreign countries 外国

变形:foreigner n. 外国人

forget vt. 忘记

短语:forget to do 忘记去做某事 forget doing 忘记做过某事

变形:forgetful adj. 健忘的

form vt. 形成 (注意被动语态)

n. 表格,形式 in the form of 以……的形式

free adj. 自由的,空闲的,免费的

短语:do sth. for free 免费做某事 be free for sb. 对……是免费的

in one’s free time 在某人空闲的时候

French adj. 法国的 n. 法国人,法语

变形:France n. 法国

full adj. 满的

full moon 满月 full marks 满分

be full of=be filled with 充满,满是

fun n. 乐趣(不可数)

句型:It is fun to do sth. 做某事是乐趣

have fun=have a good time=enjoy oneself doing sth. 做某事玩得很开心

考点:感叹句中要用what引导,并且不能加a:

What fun it is to do .... What fun I have doing ....

furniture n. 家具(不可数)

further adj. (程度上)较远的,进一步的

further research 进一步的研究 further education 深造

can’t walk any further

变形:furthest adj. /adv. 最深远

G

general adj. 总的,普遍的

短语:general manager 总经理 in general 总的来说

变形:generally adv. 普遍地 generally speaking 总得来说

get off 下车

get短语总结:get on 上车 get up 起床 get away 逃脱,离开

get used to sth/doing sth. 习惯于做某事 get on/along well with sb. 与某人相处好

get sb. to do sth. 让某人做某事

gift n. 礼物,天赋

短语:have a gift for 有……的天赋

give短语:

give up 放弃 give out=hand out 分发

go wrong 弄错,出错

go短语总结: go over 复习 go on 继续 go by (时光)流逝

go for 去从事 go into hiding 躲起来

guard vt. 保卫

短语:guard sth. guard against sth. 防范,提防

H

had better 最好(可缩写为’d better, 情态动词,无时态变化)

had better do 最好做某事 had better not do 最好不要做某事

hand短语:

hand in 上交 hand out 分发 by hand 手工的

happen vi. 发生 没有被动语态

句型:

happen to do 碰巧做某事 sth. happen to sb. 某人发生了某事

辨析:take place 计划性地发生 happen 是偶然发生

hard adj. 辛苦的,艰辛的 hard work 困难的工作 a hard day’s work

adv. 努力 work hard 努力工作

hard-working adj. 勤奋的,努力的

辨析:hardly adv. 几乎不

have sb. do sth. 让某人做某事

have sth. to do 有某事要做(本人做)

have sth. done 让某物被做(找人做)

have nothing to do with 与……无关

have something to do with 与……有关

health n. 健康

变形:healthy adj. 健康的 unhealthy adj. 不健康的 healthily adv. 健康地

healthier adj. 更健康的 healthiest adj. 最健康的

hear短语:

hear of/about 听说 hear from 收到某人的来信 sb.

hear sb. do sth. 经常听见某人做某事/听见某人做某事全过程

hear sb. doing sth. 听见某人正在做某事

如:I often hear him play the piano. 我常常听见他弹钢琴。

I heard him leave. 我听见他走了

I heard him playing the piano when I passed the room. 当我经过房间时听到他在弹钢琴。

heat n. 热量(不可数)

变形:hot

height n. 高度 What’s the height of sth? = How tall be sth?

help

vt. help sb. (to) do sth. help sb. with sth.

n. need help with sth. 需要某方面的帮助 with the help of 在……的帮助下

helpful adj. 有帮助的,乐于助人的

反义词:helpless

-ful: hopeful useful helpful careful cheerful forgetful meaningful colourful harmful

-less: hopeless useless helpless careless homeless sleepless meaningless endless harmless

highly adv. 高度地 think/speak highly of 对……高度评价

辨析:high adv. 高地(形象上的) fly high jump high

hold vt. 握住 hold-held-held

短语:hold on 别挂断

vt. 举行(有被动) hold a meeting

hope vt. 希望

短语:hope to do

hope that从句(从句一般用将来时)

hope for sth. hope for success

辨析:wish: wish sb. to do (hope没有这个用法)

wish 从句表示不太容易实现的愿望,用虚拟语气

n. 希望

变形:hopeless adj. 绝望的 hopeful adj. 有希望的 hopefully adv. 有希望地

honest adj. 诚实的

an honest boy 反义词:dishonest

to be honest 老实说,一般放在开头做独立短语

however adv. 然而

置于开头,后加“,”。

therefore 因此 moreover 此外 otherwise 否则 anyway 无论如何,不管怎样

humorous adj. 幽默的

词性转换:humour n. 幽默 have a sense of humour

hundred/million/thousand

1) 数字 单数 five hundred workers 五百个工人

2) 复数 of hundreds of people 五百个人

数字 单数 of the 复数/代词宾格 five hundred of the workers 工人中的五百个

hurry vi. &n. 急忙,匆忙

短语:hurry to do 急急忙忙做某事 hurry to sp. 急急忙忙去某地

do sth. in a hurry=be in a hurry to do 急急忙忙做某事

Hurry up! 快点

变形:hurried adj. 急急忙忙的 be hurried to do

I

if conj. 如果(引导条件状语从句,时态主将从现)

辨析:unless 除非=if not

conj. 是否(引导宾语从句,从句该用什么时态就用什么时态)

辨析:whether (可以加选择疑问句,if只能加一般疑问句)

如:I don’t know whether he will come or not. (不能用if)

经典例句:I don’t know if he will come. If he comes, I will call you.

ill adj. 生病的

变形:illness n. 疾病 worse 比较级 worst 最高级

辨析:ill和sick ill只能做表语,放在系动词后面

sick可以做定语,放在名词前

imagine vt. 想象,设想

短语:imagine doing 想象做某事

变形:imagination n. 想象力

important adj. 重要的

变形:importance n. 重要性 the importance of .....的重要性

unimportant adj. 不重要的

impress vt. 给……留下印象

短语:impress sb. deeply

变形:impression n. 印象 give sb. a deep impression

in fact 事实上

其他短语:in general 总的来说 in all 总计 in hospital 住院

in order to 以便于 in fear of one’s life 为生命担忧

in your dreams 你做梦

increase n. 增加 a rapid increase in population

vi. 增加(数量上,人口,产量) increase rapidly

influence vt. 影响 influence sb.

n. 影响 have an influence on

insist vt. 坚持认为

insist that从句

vi. 坚持

insist on doing 坚持做某事

instead adv. 反而,却

Instead, he likes it very much.

We can take a taxi instead. (改做某事 do sth. Instead)

instead of 而不是,代替

We will go to the library instead of the park.

We will go swimming instead of going running.

instruction n. 指示,说明(可数)

instrument n. 器具(可数)

interest n. 令人感兴趣的事,兴趣

短语:places of interest 名胜古迹 have/show a great interest in 对……很感兴趣

变形:interesting adj. 有趣的 interested adj. 感兴趣的 be interested in

interview n. 面试,采访 have an interview with sb.

vt. 采访 interview sb.

变形:interviewer n. 采访者

introduce vt. 介绍

短语:introduce sb. to sb. 把……介绍给……

变形:introduction n. 介绍

invent vt. 发明

变形:inventor n. 发明家 invention n. 发明

invite vt. 邀请

invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事 invite sb. to sp. 邀请某人去某地

invitation n. invitation letter 邀请函

J

join vt. 加入 join us join the club (加入团体组织,人)

长动作:be in be a member of

辨析:take part in 参加活动,比赛 attend 强调出席会议,上学,上课

journey n. 旅程,旅行

just adv. 刚才(现在完成时标志词)

放在have和done中间,用于肯定句 He has just finished his homework.

adv. 仅仅,只

*just now 刚才(一般过去时标志词) He came here just now.

K

keep lv. 保持

keep sb. doing keep (on) doing keep sb./sth. adj. keep sb. from doing

keep ... in order keep silent keep off 避开 keep .... away from 使远离

keep in touch 保持联系 keep sb. from sth. 保护,使免受

vt. 保守,保存

keep a secret keep ... to oneself 把……藏在心中

knock vt. 敲,撞

短语:knock on(at) the door knock into sb. 撞上某人

know sth. off (the desk) 把……从……撞下来 know over sth. 撞翻某物

L

last adj. 最后的,上一个 last time

adv. 最近,上一次 I last saw him in Nanjing.

v. 持续(注意已经是延续性动词,并且没有被动,have lasted=have been on)

如:The film lasts 2 hours. 这部电影持续两小时。

变形:lasting adj. 持久的

latest adj. 最新的

同义词:up-to-date(注意前面冠词用an)

lay vt. 放置(注意常考被动) lay-laid-laid

辨析:lie(躺)-lay-laid

lie (说谎)-lied-lied

用法:lay sth. sp. 把某物放置在某地

lead vt. 带领,领导 lead-led-led

短语:lead to 导致=cause lead to sth./doing sth.

lead sb. to ..... 把某人带入

n. 领先地位 take the lead

n. 主角 play the lead role of

变形:leader n. 领导

learn vt. 学习 learn-learnt-learnt

短语:learn to do 学习做某事 learn from 向……学习

learn a lot/much about 对……很了解 learn more about 对……了解更多

least adj. 最少的 the least 不可数名词 最少的……

adv. 最(不) the least adj. the least expensive

n. 最小,最少 at least 至少 at most 至多

leave vt. 离开

leave sp. 离开某地 leave for sp. 动身去某地 leave sp. for sp. 离开某地去某地

延续性动词:be away while I am away 在我离开的时候

vt. 把……落在某地,遗留

与forget辨析:I have left my homework at home.

leave a message 留一个字条

vt. 使处于某种状态

leave the light on/off leave the door open/closed leave me alone

leave the tap running

过去分词做定语表示剩下的

I have 20 yuan left.

less pron. & adj. 较少的

短语和句型:

less than 少于(既能加可数,又能加不可数) less 不可数名词 than 比……少

less adj. less expensive 次贵的

level n. 水平

a high level 高水平 a low level 低水平

lie n. 谎言 tell a lie tell lies

vi. 说谎 lie to sb. lie-lied-lied-lying

vi. 躺,位于 lie-lay-lain-lying

like adj. 像

What be sb./sth. like?=How be sb./sth.?

What 助动词 sb./sth. look like?=How 助动词 sb./sth. look? (有like只能用what提问,有look主语前用助动词)

我难以想象没有水的生活会是什么样。I can’t imagine what life will be like without water.

list n. 清单 to-do list 待做事项清单

短语:a list of

live vt. 过着……的生活 live a happy life

vi. 居住,生活 live on 以吃……为生

adj. & adv. 现场 live show cover...live

变形:alive lively living

living n. 生存,生计

短语:make one’s living 谋生 do sth. for a living 做某事谋生

living conditions 生活条件

adj. 有生命的 living things 生物

lonely adj. 孤独的 feel lonely a lonely house

辨析:alone=by oneself=on one’s own 独自

look短语总结:

look for 寻找 look up 查(字典) look after 照顾 look around 环顾四周

look over 检查(作业) look through 浏览 look at 看着 look out at 看着外面的……

look out of 看着……的外面 look out 小心 look into 调查

lose vt. 丢失,失去 lose-lost-lost

短语:lose one’s way 迷路 lose heart 失去信心

变形:lost adj. 迷失的 get lost 迷路

loss n. 失去 the loss of

luck n. 运气 Good luck! (用于情景对话中回答别人要去参加考试,面试,比赛等)

变形:lucky adj. 幸运的 luckily adv. 幸运地 unlucky adj. 不幸的

unluckily adv. 不幸地 luckier 比较级 luckiest 最高级

M

main adj. 主要的

变形:mainly adv. 主要地

make lv. 成为 make friends

Vt. 制作 be made of 看得出的材料

be made from 看不出的原材料

be made in 产地

be made by 生产者

make... out of 用(材料)制作……

使役动词 使得

make sb. do sth. 让某人做某事

Sb. be made to do 某人被让做某事

make sb./sth. adj. 让某物/某人怎么样

make sb./sth. done 让某人/某物被…… make me understood/heard

短语总结:

make a fire 生火 make a mess 搞得一团糟 make mistakes 犯错误

make up 编造 make up of 组成 make a difference to 对……产生影响

make one’s mind 下定决心

manage vt. 设法

短语:manage to do 设法做某事

变形:manager n. 经理

mark n. 分数,污渍(可数)

vt. 标志

married adj. 已婚的

短语:get married to sb.(非延续性动词) be married to sb.(延续性动词)

如:He has been married to his wife for 20 years. = It is 20 years since he got married to his wife.

变形:marry vt. 嫁,娶 marry sb.

如:When did you marry her?

match n. 比赛,火柴

vt. 与……很搭配 Sth. match sth. very well.

Your coat matches your shoes very well.

与……相匹敌 sb. match sb.

No one can match him in our class.

matter n. 事情 What’s the matter?

vi. 要紧 It doesn’t matter. 回答I’m sorry.

What matters most is that he hasn’t realized his mistake. 最要紧的是……

may

1) 表请求:May I do sth? Yes, you may./Yes, you can.

No, you may not./No, you can’t./No, you can’t.

2) 表许可:You may go to the party.

3) 表猜测:He may come, but he isn’t sure.

maybe adv. 也许,可能

辨析:may may be

maybe是副词,可放在任何位置,不影响原句的结构:Maybe he is right.

may是情态动词,放在主语后面,后加动词原形:He may come today.

may be是情态动词加be动词,表示可能是:He may be right.

mean vt. 意思是,意味着

变形:meaning n. 意思 meaningful adj. 有意义的 meaningless adj. 无意义的

medicine n. 药(不可数)

辨析:pill n. 药片(可数)

短语:take medicine 吃药 take pills

变形:medical adj. 医疗的,医学的

mention vt. 提及,说起

句型:Don’t mention it. 不客气。 回答Thank you.

mess n. 乱七八糟 be in a mess

message 可数名词 信息

take a message 用于电话中给某人传个口信

leave a message 留个字条

method n. 方法(可数)

middle n. 中间

短语:in the middle of 在……中间

变形:medium adj. 中等的 medium height

might 情态动词

表猜测,可能性 可能性较小 He might come, but he hasn’t decided.

mind n. 头脑

短语:make up one’s mind to do sth. 下定决心做某事

change one’s mind 改变某人的想法

on one’s mind 挂在心上,惦念

vt. 介意 mind doing mind sb./one’s doing

考点:Would you mind回答方式:

介意:You’d better not. I’m sorry you can’t. (注意委婉)

不介意:Of course not. Not at all. Go ahead.

注意:Never mind.是没关系,用来回答I’m sorry.

miss vt. 错过 miss doing

vt. 想念 miss sb.

变形:missing adj. 丢失的,失去的 go missing

mistake n. 错误(可数) make mistakes

vt. 搞错 mistake sb./sth. for .... 把……误认为……

mistake her for a real princess

moment adv. 此刻

短语:at the moment 在此刻(现在进行时标志词)=at present

at that moment 在那个时候(过去进行时标志词)

more pron. &adv.&adj. 更多

短语和句型:

more than 超过

more 名词 than 比……多

no more not...any more 再也不

考点:many more 可数名词复数 much more 不可数名词

learn more about 对……了解更多

more adj. (多音节形容词比较级) more interesting 更有趣

most pron. &adv.&adj. 最多

短语和句型:

at most 至多

the most 名词 最多的……

need...most 最需要

most adj. (多音节形容词最高级) the most interesting 最有趣

move vt. 移动,搬动

短语:move to 搬到 move into 搬进 move away 搬离 move out of 搬出

变形:movement n. 活动,移动

music n. 音乐(不可数)

变形:musical adj. 音乐的 n. 音乐剧(可数)

musician n. 音乐家

must 情态动词

表命令:必须 You must do it now.

辨析have to:have to是客观条件导致的不得不,而must是主观上必须做

否定:mustn’t 禁止做

考点:must提问,否定用needn’t或don’ have to回答

如:Must I finish homework today? Yes, you must. No, you needn’t./you don’t have to.

表猜测,可能性:一定 He must be Mr. Green.

注意不可能是can’t.

N

nature n. 自然

变形:natural adj. 自然的

necessary adj. 必要的

变形:unnecessary

need vt. 需要

句型:need to do 需要做某事 don’t need to do 不需要做某事

need sth 需要某物 don’t need sth. 不需要某物

need sb. to do sth. 需要某人做某事 Sth. need doing 某物需要被做

needn’t 情态动词 needn’t do 没必要做某事

n. 需求(可数) satisfy one’s needs 满足某人的需求

in need 有需要的 people in need

in need of 需要…… in need of time

neighbour n. 邻居

neither conj. 也不

Neither...nor..... 既不……也不……连接两个主语时看后一个主语确定谓语动词

就近原则还适用于:either...or.....; not only....but also和there be句型

pron.(两者)都不

Neither of the twins has a bike. 这一对双胞胎都没有自行车。(neither和either做主语都看成第三人称单数)

adv. 也不

1) 倒装句结构:Nor/Neither be动词/助动词/情态动词 主语。

如:He can’t swim. Nor/Neither can I.

He isn’t happy. Nor/Neither am I.

He doesn’t like red. Nor/Neither do I.

(注意:a. neither表示也不,前面一句话得是否定句; b. 仍然遵循主将从现规则:If he doesn’t come, neither will I.)

如果表达某人也是,即前面一句若是肯定,那么把neither换成so,如:

He can swim, so can I.

He is happy, so am I.

He likes red, so do I.

2) Me, neither. = Neither do/can/am I. 我也不。

nervous adj. 紧张不安的

never adv. 从不(一般现在时标志词) I never eat chocolate at night.

adv. 从没 (现在完成时标志词)I have never seen him before.

nod vi. 点头(注意过去式过去分词现在分词双写d)

noise n. 噪音

变形:noisy adj. 吵闹的 noisier noisiest

noisily adv. 吵闹地

none pron. 没有一个

None of ..... ……中没有一个

辨析:neither (两者)没有一个 none (三者及以上)没有一个

nothing 没有东西(没有出现具体东西) none 没有一个(出现具体东西)

How much/many .....? None.

What is 地点? Nothing.

northern adj. 北方的

变形:north n. 北方

如:in northern China= in the north of China= in North China

其他同类型单词:eastern southern western southwestern northwestern

southeastern northeastern

not only .... but also ...... 不但……而且…… (谓语动词就近原则)

就近原则:neither...nor.... 既不……也不……

either...or.... 要么……要么……

There be 句型

notice n. 布告

vt. 注意,察觉

短语:notice sb. do sth. 注意到某人经常做某事/注意到某人做了某事的全过程

notice sb. doing sth. 注意到某人正在做某事

number n. 数量

考点:a (great)number of和the number of的区别

a (great) number of=many,仅表示物体的量,后面要直接加可数名词的复数,谓语动词不用三单。

如:A (great) number of students are going to Nanjing tomorrow.

the number of表示……的数量,后面必须加特定范围,必须有限定词再加可数名词的复数,谓语动词用三单。

如:The number of the students in our class is 56.

注意:the number对应的多和少不能用many, much或little,而要用small, large或big.

如:The number of the students in our class is larger than that of yours.

O

off adv. 离开,脱离

短语:let off 放(烟花) have XX days off 放……天假

take off 起飞,脱掉 get off 下车 turn off 关掉(电器)

put off 推迟 fall off (从某地)掉下来

offer vt. 主动提供 n. 录取通知书

offer sth. to sb. =offer sb. Sth.

special offer 特价优惠

once adv. 曾经,一度(一般过去时)

=used to

adv. 一次

open vt. 打开,开业

延续性动词:be open

adj. 开着的

短语:open up 开启,开创

operate vi. 做手术

短语:operate on sb.

变形:operation do an operation on sb.

opposite n. 对立的人或物

短语:the opposite of ……的相反 Australian seasons are the opposite of ours.

prep. 在……的对面;与……相反

Sth. be opposite sth. 在……的对面 The supermarket is opposite our school.

order vt. 命令,点菜

order sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事

n. 命令 receive an order to do sth. 收到做某事的命令

n. 订单(可数)

n. 顺序 keep .... in order 使……保持井然有序

短语:in order to do 为了做某事 in order that从句 为了……

organize vt. 组织

变形:organization n. 组织 organized adj. 有条理的,有效率的

organizer n. 组织者

over:

1) ……的正上方 There is a bridge over the river.

2) 从上方越过 A plane is flying over the forest.

3) 结束 The class is over. (是end和finish的长动作)

4) 超过(数量和年龄) There are over 30 students in our class.

The girls over 12 can take part in the activities.

5) 翻过来 fall over 摔倒 knock over 撞翻 go over 复习

6) 在……期间 over the years over the last/past few years (现在完成时标志词)

own:1. adj. 自己的 one’s own sth.=sth. of one’s own

2. 独自 on one’s own=by oneself=alone

3. vt. 拥有 I own it.

out adv. (从……里)出来,向外,外出

短语: go out 出去 work out 解出,解决 give out 分发

turn out 结果是,原来是 put out 扑灭 find out 查明

look out 小心 look out of 看着……的外面 look out at 看着外面的……

P

paint vt. 用颜料涂 n. 颜料(不可数)

短语:paint sth. 颜色

变形:painter n. 画家 painting n. 画

paper n. 纸(不可数名词) a piece of paper

n. 卷子(可数名词)

pass vt. 从旁经过 pass a shop

vt. 通过(考试) pass the exam

*pass的过去式是passed

passenger n. 乘客

past prep. (从旁)经过

go past a bookshop=pass a bookshop

辨析:past是从旁经过 through是从内部穿过 across是从表面横穿过

over是从上方越过

past是介词 pass是动词:pass=go past

n. 过去 in the past 在过去(一般过去时标志词)

adj. 过去的 in/during/over the past XX years 近XX年来(现在完成时标志词)

patient adj. 耐心的

n. 病人

变形:patience n. 耐心 patiently adv. 耐心地 impatient adj. 不耐心的

impatiently adv. 不耐烦地

peace n. 和平,安宁

变形:peaceful adj. 安宁的,平和的 peacefully adv. 安宁地,平和地

physics n. 物理学

pill n. 药片(可数) take pills

辨析:medicine n. 药(不可数)

pity n. 同情,怜悯

have/take pity on (不加a)

n. 遗憾,可惜 What a pity! (用于对方不能赴约时回答)

It is a pity that ....

plan vt. 计划 plan to do plan a day out 计划外出一天

n. 计划 plans for..... ……的计划

注意:plan不用将来时,plan要注意双写

pleasant adj. 令人愉悦的

a pleasant trip 反义词:unpleasant

变形:pleased adj. 感到高兴的 be pleased with 对……很满意

pleasure n. 荣幸

pleasure考点:With pleasure. 是别人请求帮助,还没有帮时所用的回答。

My pleasure./It’s a(my) pleasure. 是在帮助完后,别人表示感谢时所用的回答。

如:----It’s kind of you to do..../Thank you for..... ---My pleasure.

----Could you help me....? ---With pleasure.

plenty 大量,充足

plenty of 大量,足够 后面加名词可以可数也可以不可数

polite adj. 礼貌的

反义词:impolite 副词:politely

im反义词总结:impossible impolite improper impatient

pollution n. 污染(不可数)

短语:air pollution water pollution

变形:pollute vt. 污染 pollute air pollute water

polluted adj. 被污染的 a polluted river

population n. 人口

短语:the population of ……的人口

have a population of 人口为……

What’s the population of ……的人口是多少?

How large is the population of ……的人口是多少?

注意:population的形容词用large和small修饰,不用多和少。

possible adj. 可能的

句型:It is possible for sb. to do.... It is possible that

as....as possible 尽可能……=as .... as sb. can

变形:impossible possibility n. 可能性 (不可数)

句型:There is no possibility to do/that ....

power n. 力量,电力 power cut 断电

变形:powerful

practice vt. 练习,从事

practise doing 练习做某事

变形:practical adj. 实际的

praise n. 表扬(不可数名词) vt. 表扬

prefer vt. 宁愿选择,更喜欢

短语:prefer sth. to sth. 比起某物更喜欢某物(to是介词,比起)

prefer doing sth. to doing sth. 比起做某事更喜欢做某事(to是介词,比起)

prefer to do sth. to do (这里的to do是不定式)

注意:prefer过去式过去分词现在分词要注意双写r;一定要区分to是比起还是表目的

present n. 礼物

n. 现在 at present=at the moment=now 现在进行时标志词

vt. 颁发 present sth. to sb.=present sb. with sth. 给某人颁发某物

Sth. be presented to sb. = Sb. be presented with sth.

president n. 总统 the president of ....

prevent vt. 阻止

句型:prevent/stop sb. (from) doing sth. keep sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人做某事

prison n. 监狱

短语:in prison 坐牢(注意不能加冠词the)

private adj. 私人的

probably adv. 大概,或许(可能性较大)

He has probably arrived there.

perhaps一般放在开头,如:Perhaps he has arrived there.

problem n. 问题

have problems doing sth. 做某事有困难 have problems with sth. 在……方面有困难

have trouble/difficulty doing sth. 同义短语

produce vt. 导致,生产

变形:product n. 产品(可数) production n. 产量,生产(不可数)

progress n. 进步,进展(不可数名词)

make much progress 取得很大进步

promise n. & vt. 承诺,允诺

短语:promise to do 答应做某事

promise sb. sth. 承诺某人某物

pronounce vt. 发音

变形:pronunciation n. 发音

proper adj. 恰当的,合适的

变形:improper adj. 不恰当的 properly adv. 恰当地,正常地

proud adj. 自豪的,骄傲的

短语:be proud of 对……感到骄傲

变形:pride n. 骄傲 the pride of ……的骄傲

take pride in 对……感到骄傲

prove vt. 证明

短语:prove sth. to sb. 向某人证明某事

prove adj. 证明是……的 prove correct 证明是对的

prove that从句

注意:prove初中考点是当系动词用的,不用被动语态

provide vt. 提供

句型:provide sth. for sb.=provide sb. with sth.

public n. 民众,群体

短语:in public 公开地(注意不加冠词the)

adj. 公开的,公共的 public places

punish vt. 惩罚

变形:punishment n. 惩罚

purpose n. 目的

句型:The purpose of sth. is to do sth. ……的目的是做……

put短语总结:

put in 安装 put on 张贴 put away 收好 put out 扑灭

put off 推迟 put down 放下

Q

quality n. (产品的)质量

quarter n. 四分之一

three quarters 四分之三=three fourths

R

raise vt. 饲养,募集,升起

短语:raise a family raise money for raise your hand

变形:raising n. 升起 watch the raising of the national flag

辨析:raise是及物动词,有被动 The flag has been raised.

rise是不及物动词,没有被动 The sun rises in the east.

rapid adj. 快速的 a rapid increase in population

变形:rapidly adv. 快速地 increase rapidly

real adj. 真实的,真的(东西真的,假的)

辨析:true 复合事实的 a real tiger a true story

变形:really

realize vt. 意识到;实现

recently adv. 最近(现在完成时的标志词)

变形:recent adj. 最近的 recent news

refuse vt. 拒绝

短语:refuse to do 拒绝做某事

regret vt. 后悔

短语:regret to do 遗憾地做某事(还没做) regret to tell you 很遗憾地告诉你

regret doing 后悔做某事(已做过) regret riding bike here 后悔骑车来

relax vt.&vi. 放松

短语:help sb. relax make sb. relax oneself 使某人放松自己

变形:relaxed adj. 放松的 make sb. relaxed

relaxing adj. 令人放松的

remain vi. 逗留,保持不变

remain adj. 保持……的状态 remain awake 保持清醒

remind vt. 提醒,使想起(注意被动)

句型:remind sb. of sth. 使某人想起某事

remind sb. to do sth. 提醒某人做某事

repeat vt. 重复

reply n. 回复,回答

vi. 回答,回复 reply to 回答某人

report n. 报告(可数) a weather report a news report

vt. 报告,举报

句型:It’s reported .... 据报道

report sth. to sb. 向某人举报某事

变形:reporter n. 记者

respect vt. 尊敬,尊重

require vt. 要求,需要

短语:require sth. 需要某物

require to do sth. 需要做某事

require sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事

Sth. require doing. 某物要求被做了。(用法同need)

如:The room requires/needs cleaning.

research n. & vt. 研究,调查

rest n. 休息 have a rest

n. 剩下的 the rest of (谓语动词由of后面的名词决定)

如:The rest of the students are doing homework in the classroom.

The rest of the earth is covered with water.

return vi. 回 return to sp. 回到某地 return from sp. 从……回

vt. 归还 return sth. to sb. 把某物还给某人

注意点:return不能和back共用

risk vt. 冒险

短语:risk doing 冒险做某事

n. 冒险

run out 用完,耗尽

Sth. run out. 某物用光了(没有被动语态)

run out of 用光某物(有被动)

I run out of money. My money has run out. My money has been run out of.

S

sad adj. 悲伤的

变形:sadness n. 悲伤 sadly adv. 悲伤地

safe adj. 安全的

变形:safely adv. 安全地 unsafe adj. 不安全的 safety n. 安全

save v. 拯救,节约

satisfy vt. 使满意,满足

短语:satisfy one’s needs 满足……的需求 sth. satisfy sb. 某物使某人满意

变形:satisfied adj. 感到满意的 be satisfied with 对……感到满意的

satisfying adj. 令人满意的

say 说

句型:The book/magazine/newspaper says..... 书上/报纸上/杂志上写着……

It’s said that 据说

辨析:say 说话的内容 speak 语言 tell 人/a story.... talk about/of sth

talk with/to sb.

scientist n. 科学家

变形:science n. 科学

search vt. 搜查

短语:search 地点 search for sth. 搜查某物(找的对象)

secret n. 秘密 keep a secret keep secrets

adj. 秘密的 keep sth. secret

变形:secretly adv. 秘密地

sell vt. 卖 sell-sold-sold

短语:sell well 卖得好(无被动) sell out 卖光(有被动)

变形:sales 销售量

separate vt. 分开,隔开

短语:separate A from B 把A与B分开

serious adj. 严重的,严肃的

变形:seriously

serve vt. 服务 serve as 服役于(后加职业) serve as a pilot

变形:service n. 服务 be in service 投入使用

several pron. 几个,数个 (后面一定要加可数名词复数)

shape vt. 使成形,塑造 shape your future and your life

n. 形状

share vt. 分享,合用

share sth with sb

show短语总结:

show sb. sth.=show sth. to sb. 给某人看某物 show sb. around sp. 带领某人参观某地

show sb. how to do sth. 展示给某人看怎么做某事 show off 炫耀

silence 寂静,沉默

变形:silent adj. 沉默的

similar adj. 相似的,类似的

短语:be similar to

simply adv. 仅仅,简直

变形:simple adj. 简单的,简易的

since conj. 自……以来

用法:1) since 过去时间点: since yesterday

2) since 时间段 ago: since 2 years ago

3) since 从句(一般过去时):since I came here

句型:It is XX years since 从句(一般过去时)

It is 5 years since I came here. =I have been here since 5 years ago.

我来这儿五年了。

辨析:for 时间段

conj. 由于,既然(引导原因状语从句)

辨析:because是不知道原因:I was late because my bike was broken on the way.

since强调众所周知的原因:Since it’s raining outside, let’s stay at home.

single adj. 单身的,单个的

situation n. 情况,状况

辨析:condition situation指的是一件事情发展的情况;condition是一个物体所处于的状况

如:My car is in a good condition.

The situation is becoming better and better.

smooth adj. 光滑的,平坦的

变形:smoother smoothly

so conj. 所以 不能与because连用

adv. 如此,这么

辨析:so与such

1) so adj/adv. so clean so quietly

so adj. a/an n. so clever a boy

such 名词短语:such a clean classroom= so clean a classroom

such clean water

such useful books

2) 如果名词短语中有出现much, many, few, little(少)时,只能用so,不能用such,如:

so many books so much water so few books so little water

3) 当little表示小时,仍然按照原则1判断:

such little girls (little表示小,加可数名词) so little water(little表示少加不可数名词)

短语和句型:so far 到现在为止(现在完成时标志) so much for .... ……到此为止

so that 以便于,为了(引导目的状语从句)

social adj. 社会的

变形:society n. 社会

something/nothing/everything/nothing/someone/anyone/no one/everyone

复合不定代词:1) 看做三单 2) 形容词放在后面

3) 可以把else放在后面表示其他……

thing指代物:分别为某物 没有东西 所有的东西 没有东西

one指代人:为别为某人 任何人 没有人 所有人

somewhere 某地 anywhere 任何地方 nowhere 没有地方 everywhere 到处

space n. 太空 in/into space (space表太空前面不加冠词the)

空间(不可数)

空地 open space(可数)

spare adj. 空闲的,多余的 in one’s spare time

vt. 抽出,匀出 spare time to do sth. 抽出时间做某事

special adj. 特殊的

变形:specially 专门

speech n. 演说,演讲(可数)

speak的名词形式 speaker n. 发言人

spend vt. 度过 spend the holiday spend the whole day

花费 sb. spend some time (in) doing sth./on sth.

speed n. 速度

短语:at high speed at low speed at full speed at a speed of

vi. speed up 加速

spread n. 扩散 the spread of

vi. & vt. (消息,病毒)扩散 (一般不用被动)

铺开,散开(有被动) spread-spread-spread

如:The news spreads quickly.

Everything is spread everywhere.

standard n. 标准

短语:work to high standards up to standard

stair n. 楼梯

upstairs 在楼上 downstairs 在楼下

stay vi. Stay at 小地点 stay in 大地点

n. go to sp. for a stay during one’s stay in/at sp.

step n. 步骤,步伐,台阶 step by step

vi. 跨步 注意双写尾字母改过去式过去分词和现在分词

stomach n. 胃(复数直接加s)

straight adj. 笔直的 adv. 笔直地 sit straight

strength n. 力量

是strong的名词形式

succeed vi. 成功

句型:succeed in doing sth.

变形:success n. 成功 What a great success.

successful adj. 成功的 successfully adv. 成功地

suggest vt. 建议

短语:suggest doing 建议做某事

变形:suggestion n. 建议(可数)

辨析:与advice的区别(见advise)

suit n. 套装

Vt. 适合(指款式或颜色上是否适合)

变形:suitable adj. 适合的 be suitable for 适合……

support vt. 支持 support sb. to do sth. 支持某人做某事

n. 支持 with one’s support 在某人的支持下

without one’s support 没有某人的支持

suppose vt. 猜想,假定,料想

suppose that从句(注意:主语是第一人称,从句是否定句时,否定要前移)

如:I don’t suppose that he will believe it. 我认为他不会相信的。

be supposed to do 应该做某事

如:He is supposed to know the answer.

sure adj. 当然

句型:be sure of sth. 对……确定

be sure to do 确定做某事

be sure that从句 确定……

变形:unsure adj. 不确定的

surface n. 表面

短语:the surface of ……的表面

surprise n. 惊奇,诧异 to one’s surprise 令某人惊奇的是

vt. 使惊讶 sth. surprise sb. 某事使某人惊讶

变形:surprised adj. 感到惊讶的 surprising n. 令人惊讶的

T

take place 发生,举行(没有被动语态)

句型:The sports meeting will take place on Saturday.

Great changes have taken place in Changzhou.

take其它短语:take off 起飞,脱掉 take on 承担 take away 带走

take in 吸收 take out 取出,拿出 take notice of 注意,察觉

take care 保重 take care of 照顾

taste lv. 尝起来 taste good

vt. 品尝 taste sth carefully

n. 品味,味道

变形:tasty adj. 美味的 tastier tastiest

technology n. 技术(不可数) high technology

terrible adj. 可怕的

变形:terribly adv. 可怕地 be terribly cold

以le结尾的形容词变副词:去e改y

the same ....as .... 与……一样

the same 名词 as the same weight as =as heavy as

the same height as = as tall as

think的短语和句型:

think twice (about sth.) 三思而后行 think of 想起,想出

think about 考虑

think it adj. to do sth. 认为做某事是怎样的

变形:thought n. 想法(可数)

through prep. 穿过(从内部穿过) walk through the forest

凭借

贯穿整个 through the winter through the ride

短语:look through 浏览 put...through 给……接通电话(注意被动语态)

tidy adj. 整洁的,爱整洁的

v. 收拾,整理 tidy up

变形:untidy 不整洁的 tidier 比较级 tidiest 最高级

time n. 时间(不可数),次(可数),时代(可数)

短语:have a good time=have fun=enjoy oneself doing sth. 玩得开心

at a time 一次,每次 at times 有时候 at all times 总是

at different times 在不同的时代 on time 准时 in time 及时

from time to time 时不时,偶尔

辨析:sometime 某时 some time 一段时间 some times 几次 sometimes 有时候

如:I saw her sometime last week. 我上周某个时间看见她了。(时间点)

I spend some time in Nanjing every week. 我每周在南京待一段时间。(时间段)

I have been there some times.

Sometimes I go to school by bike.

tired adj. 感到劳累的 be tired of

变形:tiring adj. 令人疲累的

train vt. 接受训练,培训

变形:training n. 训练 trainer n. 训练者

translate vt. 翻译

短语:translate ....into.... 把……翻译成……(注意被动)

如:The book has been translated into seven languages.

treat n. 招待

vt. 对待,招待,治疗

变形:treatment n. 治疗

辨析:cure 治愈(强调结果)

true adj. 真的,真实的(符合事实的)

变形:truly adv. 真实地 truth n. 真相

辨析:real adj. 真的(指东西真的假的)

trust vt. 信任 trust sb.

try短语总结:

try out for 参加……的选拔 try one’s best to do 尽力做某事

try on 试穿

turn out 结果是,原来是

句型:It turns out that.....

It turns out to be..... (注意turn out不用被动)

turn的短语总结:turn off 关闭(电器) turn on 打开(电器)

turn up 调高 turn down 调低

turn....into 把……变成……

U

unless conj. 除非

引导条件状语从句,时态规则为主将从现

unknown adj. 未知的

短语:be unknown to 对……未知

until conj. 直到……为止(引导时间状语从句)

时态规则:主将从现或主过从过

辨析:until是直到……结束(主句用延续性动词)

not until是直到……才(主句一般用非延续性动词)

I won’t leave until he comes back.

I didn’t leave until he came back.

I will stay here until he comes back.

I stayed here until he came back.

up短语:

take up 占据(时间,空间) put up 张贴 set up 建立,设立

turn up 调高音量 give up 放弃 get up 起来

eat up 吃光 use up 用光 tidy up 清理干净

clean up 打扫干净 come up with 提出,想出

use vt. 使用

短语:use sth. to do sth. 用某物做某事 be used to do 被用来做某事

use sth. for 某物用于某事 be used for 被用于

n. 用处(可数名词) be in use 投入使用

used to 过去,曾经

句型:used to do 过去常常做某事 used to be 过去曾经是

there used to be 过去曾经有

否定形式:1) used not to 2) didn’t use to

辨析句型:1) be/get used to doing 习惯于做某事

2) be used to do/for doing 被用来做某事

V

valuable adj. 宝贵的,贵重的

变形:value n. 价值

句型:be valuable= be of value

be important= be of importance

be helpful= be of help

voice n. 嗓音 a good voice

excited voice(注意voice, look, feeling都是表示人的情感,所以用ed结尾的形容词修饰)

辨析:sound 声音 voice 专指人的嗓音 noise 噪音

volunteer n. 志愿者

v. 志愿做 volunteer to do 志愿做某事

W

wait vi. 等待

wait for sb./sth. 等待某人/某物 wait for sb. to do sth. 等待某人做某事

短语:can’t wait to do 迫不及待做某事

变形:waiter 服务员 waitress 女服务员

warmth n. 温暖,暖和

warm的名词形式

warn vt. 警告

短语:warn sb. not to do sth. 警告某人不要做某事(注意被动语态)

变形:warning n. 警告

waste n. 废料,废品(不可数)

n. 浪费 句型:It is a waste to do sth. 做某事是浪费时间

vt. 浪费 waste time waste money

way n. 路,方法

短语:in this way 用这种方法 on the way 在路上 in one’s way 挡了某人的道

by the way 顺便问一下 in some ways 在某种程度上

wealthy adj. 富有的

变形:wealthier wealthiest wealth n. 财富

be wealthy= be of wealth

weight n. 重量

变形:weigh v. 重,称重

What’s the weight of sth?= How much do sth. weigh? = How heavy be sth?

well-paid adj. 收入高的

只能放在名词前 a well-paid job

如果放在系动词后,不能用连字符号。如:He is well paid.

whenever conj. 无论何时

whatever conj. 无论什么 wherever conj. 无论何地

whoever conj. 无论谁

whether conj. 是否

引导一般疑问句或选择疑问句式的宾语从句:

I doubt whether he will come tomorrow.

与if表是否时的区别:if不可以引导选择疑问句,有or只能用whether.

if不能放在介词后

whether...or.... 不管……还是……

I won’t come whether on Saturday or on Sunday.

while n. 一会儿 for a while

conj. 然而(表对比)

I like black, while he likes white.

conj. 当(加延续性动词)

While I was doing homework, the telephone rang.

While I was doing homework, my father was watching TV.

辨析:when(while后一定要加延续性动词,而when可加短暂性动词)

while doing

while I am away 当我离开的时候

wide adj. 宽的 a wide road

adv. 大大地 open your eyes wide

变形:widely adv. 广泛地 be widely used

win vt. 赢得

win a game/match win an award

变形:win-won-won

wise adj. 明智的

变形:wisdom n. 智慧 wisely 明智地 unwise adj. 不明智的

wonder n. 奇迹(可数名词) vt. 想知道 加疑问句式的宾语从句

变形:wonderful adj. wonderfully adv.

worry n. 令人担忧的事,焦虑(可数名词)

vt. 使……担心 句型:Sth. worry sb. 如:His illness worries me.

vi. 担忧,担心 worry about 如:I worry about his illness.

变形:worried adj. 感到焦急的

短语:be worried about 对……感到着急的

worse/worst 更差/最差

bad/badly/ill的比较级和最高级

worth adj. 值得,值……钱

句型:be worth doing 值得一做

be worth a visit 值得一游

work n. 工作(不可数名词)

n. 作品(可数名词) works of art 艺术品

vt. 奏效 It works.

短语:work out 算出,解决

would rather (可缩写为’d rather) 宁愿,更喜欢

句型:would rather do sth. than do sth. (后面不能加sth.,只能加动词原形)

wound vt. 使……受伤

句型:be wounded with sth. by sb. 被某人用某物所伤

Y

yet adv. 还,仍(现在完成时标志词,放句末,用于疑问句和否定句)

adv. 然而 可以和though以及although连用

yourself 你自己

help yourself to food/drinks 随便吃,别客气 enjoy yourself 玩得开心

learn by yourself=teach yourself 自学 keep ... to yourself 把……藏在心里

其他反身代词:myself yourself himself herself itself

ourselves yourselves themselves

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