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高考定语从句题陷阱就这些,看完不丢分!| 辉哥独家

 至死不渝fr1uod 2018-08-25

同学们~ 今天我们来讲讲

高考的常考点定语从句!

做语法填空、短文改错、单项填空时

我们经常会碰到它~

同时,写作文多用用它

还能多得几分呢~


SO !定语从句是hin重要的~

认认真真地做笔记吧!



一、定语从句定义


定语从句指在句子中起形容词作用的主谓结构,它通常跟在所修饰的名词或者代词之后。这些被修饰的名词或代词被称为“先行词”。引导定语从句的词叫“关系词”。关系词可分为关系代词和关系副词。


常见的关系代词包括:that(指人或物),which(指代物),who和whom(指代人),whose(指代人或物)


关系代词引导的从句不是完整的句子,缺少名词成分。


常见关系副词包括:when,where和why。


关系副词引导的从句是完整的句子,不缺少名词成分。


 以上两点也是做题时判断关系词的重要依据。



二、定语从句分类


限制性定语从句:紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开。这类从句构成了先行词不可缺少的部分,与主句的关系非常紧密,去掉主句意思往往变得不明确。


例:Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.

任何有责任感的人都不会做这样的事。


非限制性定语从句:从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。这类从句是先行词的附加说明,它与主句往往用逗号隔开,而且与主句的关系也比较松散,就算缺少也不会影响全句的理解。


例:The house,which we bought last month,is very nice.

这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。


【注意】非限制性定语从句只能用关系代词which或who、whom、whose等引导,不能用that引导,如:


Nobody knows his phone number, which makes it difficult to get in touch with him.(which不能改成that)


Our guide, who was a French Canadian, was an excellent cook.(who不能改成that)





三、必备知识点


1.含有介词的定语从句


(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who,whom, that,which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。


例如:


Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.

请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。


(2) 含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:


This is the person whom you are looking for.

这就是你要找的那个人。


2. as引导非限制性定语从句


与which一样,as也可以作关系代词,但是它的位置比which灵活的多,可以放在句首或者句末(which不能放在句首);意思也更加丰富,可以指代前面提及的状况或是后面将要提到的情况(which只能指代前面提到的情况)。


例如:


As could be expected, he opposed the idea.正如大家料想到的,他反对这个主意。(这里的as不可以被which替代,原因如上)


 He is a bit out of his mind,as all those who know him can see.那些了解他的人都能看得出来,他现在有点不在状态。(这里的as可以被which代替)


3. 关系词只能用that的情况


(1) 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.


例如:


He was the first person that passed the exam.

他是第一个通过考试的人。

当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用关系代词who。


(2) 被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which.


例如:

Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop?

你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用关系代词who。


(3) 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which。例如:

This is the same bike that I lost.

这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

 当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用关系代词who。例如:


Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting.

王华是我们学校唯一将会出席这个会议的人。


(4) 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that.例如:

I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.

我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。


(5) 以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.


例如:

Who is the girl that is crying?

正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?


(6) 主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.


例如:

There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom.

桌子上那本书是汤姆的。





4. 关系代词只能用which的情况


(1)先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that.


例如:

What’s that which is under the desk?

在桌子底下的那些东西是什么?


(2)关系代词前有介词时,用which,而不用that.


例如:

This is the room in which he lives.

这是他居住的房间。


(3)引导非限制性定语从句,用which, 而不用that.


例如:

Tom came back, which made us happy.

汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。


5. 几大关系词辨析


(1)关系代词


that(指人或物),which(指代物),who和whom(指代人),whose(指代人或物)



(2)关系副词


①when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语,先行词为表示时间的名词time,day,week,year等。


例:We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better.


【注意】先行词为“时间名词”,当定语从句缺少状语时用when引导,when在定语从句中作时间状语;当定语从句中缺少主语或宾语是用which或that引导。


②where指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词:place,school,factory,room等。


例:I live in the room where/in which he used to live.

【注意】先行词是“地点名词”,当定语从句缺少状语时用where引导,where在定语从句中作地点状语;当定语从句缺少主语或宾语时,用which或that引导。


例:This is the park which/that they visited last year. (作宾语)


③why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。当定语从句缺少状语时用why引导,why在定语从句中作原因状语;当定语从句缺少主语或宾语时用which或that引导,先行词一般为reason时,可用for which指代。


例:The reason why/for which/(that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill.

       I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me. (作宾语)

      Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success. (作主语)



四、高考定从陷阱题归纳总结


1. The factory was built in a secret place, around ______ high mountains.

A. which was                    B. it was  

C. which were                  D. them were


   【陷阱】容易误选A或B,将A、B中的 which 和 it 误认为是其后句子的主语。

   【分析】最佳答案是C,around which were high mountains 是一个由“介词+which”引出的非限制性定语从句,而在该从句中,主语是 high mountains,around which 是表语,所以句子谓语应用复数were,而不是用单数 was.


2. A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked, “Is there a hospital around ______ I can get some medicine for my wounded hand?”

A. that                              B. which      

C. where                          D. what


   【陷阱】容易误选 B,认为 around 是介词,选 which 用以代替前面的名词 hospital,在此用作介词 around 的宾语。

   【分析】最佳答案为C。以上语法分析并不算错,但问题是,照此分析,此句的意思即为:有没有这样一个医院,我在它的附近可以买药治我的手伤?这样的语境显然有点不合情理,因为人们通常是在医院里面治伤,而不是在医院附近治伤。此题选 C 的理由是:句中的 around 不是介词,而是副词,意为“在附近”;其后的 where 引导定语从句用以修饰其前的地点名词 hospital,句意为:附近有没有一家医院,我可以去治我的手伤?


3.  _____ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.

A. It                              B. As   

C. That                         D. What


【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为此处应填一个形式主语。

【分析】最佳答案是 B。as 引导的是一个非限制性定语从句。


比较下面一题:


_______ is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month.

A. It                          B. As     

C. That                     D. What


此题答案选 A,it 为形式主语,真正的主语是后面的 that 从句。


4. David is such a good boy _______ all the teachers like.

A. that                      B. who   

C. as                        D. whom


【陷阱】此题容易误选A,许多同学一看到题干中的such,再联系到选项中的 that,便认为这是考查such … that …句式。况且,这样理解意思也还通顺。

【分析】最佳答案为C,不是A,因为在such … that … (如此……以至……)结构中,that 引导的是结果状语从句,并且 that 在从句中不充当句子成分,若在上句填入 such … that …,句末的动词 like 缺宾语。选C的理由如下:as 用作关系代词,用以引导定语从句,修饰其前的名词 boy,同时 as 在定语从句中用作动词 like 的宾语,句意为“所有老师都喜欢的一位好男孩”。


有的同学可能还会问,假若选A,能否将其后的 that 视为引导定语从句的关系代词呢?不能,因为当先行词受到 such 的修饰时,其后的定语从句应用关系代词 as 来引导,而不用that.


比较下面一题,答案为A,因为 like 后有自己的宾语 him:


David is such a good boy _______ all the teachers like him.

A. that                  B. who      

C. as                    D. whom


5.  The buses, most of _______ were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.

A. that                 B. it    

C. them               D. which


【陷阱】容易误选 C,用 them 代指 the buses.

【分析】最佳答案是D。most of which were already full 为非限制性定语从句,修饰 the buses.


6. He had thousands of students, many of ______ gained great success in their own field.

A. whom                B. them          

C. which                D. who


【陷阱】容易误选 B,用 them 代指 students.

【分析】最佳答案是A,many of whom gained great success in their own field 为非限制性定语从句。假若在many of… 的前面加上连词and,则选答案B.


比较以下各题:(答案均选A)


(1) He asked a lot of questions, none of ______ was easy to answer.

A. which              B. them       

C. what               D. that


(2) He asked a lot of questions, and none of ______ was easy to answer.

 A. them               B. which 

 C. what               D. that






7.  He had a lot of friends, only a few of ______ invited to his wedding.

A. whom               B. them      

C. which                D. who


【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为这是非限制性定语从句。

【分析】最佳答案是B,这不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 invited 并不是一个完整的谓语,而是一个过去分词。当然,假若在 invited 前加上助动词 were,则是一个非限制性定语从句,答案便应选A.


比较:

(1)They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _______ carried out in their work.

A. which              B. them      

C. what               D. that


答案选B,none of them carried out in their work 是独立主格结构,其中的 carried out 为过去分词。


(2)They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _______ were carried out in their work.

A. which              B. them     

C. what               D. that


答案选A,none of them were carried out in their work 是非限制性定语从句,注意与上例比较句中多了一个助动词were.


(3)They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, but none of _______ were carried out in their work.

A. which               B. them      

C. what                D. that

答案选B,由于两句之间增加了一个并列连词but,使得该句成了一个并列句。


8.On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _______ parents seated together joking.

A. their               B. whose      

C. which               D. that


【陷阱】容易误选B,认为这是非限制性定语从句。

【分析】最佳答案是A.与上面一题相似,their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓语,而是一个过去分词,因为 seat 作动词用时,是及物动词。


9.  If the man is only interested in your looks, _____ just shows how shallow he is.

A. as                   B. which      

C. what                 D. that


【陷阱】容易误选A或B,误这是非限制性定语从句。

【分析】正确答案为D,注意逗号前是一个条件状语从句,逗号后是该状语从句的主句,that 在此代表前文所述的情况,用作主句的主语。


类似地,下面几道题也选 that,而不选 which:


(1) If you promise to go with us, _____ will be OK.

A. as                   B. which      

C. and it               D. that


(2) If you want a double room, _____ will cost another £15.

A. as                   B. which     

C. what                 D. that


10. She says that she’ll never forget the time ________ she’s spent working as a secretary in our company.

A. which                B. when      

C. how                  D. where


【陷阱】容易误选B,机械地认为时间名词后必须用关系副词when,地点名词后用关系副词 where.

【分析】正确答案为A.在时间名词和地点名词后是否用关系副词要看它在定语从句中充当什么句子成分。一般说来,若用作主语或宾语,用关系代词;若用作状语,则用关系副词。上面一题中的动词 spent 缺宾语,故应用关系代词 which或that.


比较下面一题,由于空格后的句子不缺少主语或宾语,所以选关系副词when:


She says that she’ll never forget the time ________ she works as a secretary in our company.

A. which                B. when      

C. how                  D. where

 


定位从句搞定!

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