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实用播音教程普通话语音和播音发声 下篇 [4]

2018-12-23  天地虚怀x...

教学目的:                                                                      

     了解和掌握普通话常见的语流音变,更好地学习使用普通话。                                                                                                                           

教学重点:                                                                       

    轻声、儿化、变调和语气词“啊”的音变。。                                                                                                                                                                                 

教学难点:                     

    轻声的发音,儿化的发音,上声的变调,“啊”的音变。                                                                                                                                                                                  

教学内容:                                                                                                                                               

 

在语流中,相邻音节的相邻音素不免互相影响.产生语音变化,这种语音变化叫语流音变。

普通话常见的语流音变主要有:

轻声,儿化,变调、语气词“啊”的音变。                                                                                                                                                                                                           

                                                        

一、轻声                                                        

轻声的特点是发音时音强弱,音长短。                                                                                        

轻声对某些词或短语有区别词义的作用。例如:                                                                 

    兄弟xiōnɡdi  (指弟弟)      兄弟 xiōnɡdì  (指哥哥和弟弟)                                                

是非shìfei  (口舌、纠纷)    是非 shìfēi  (正确和错误)                                                

    东西 dōnɡxi  (物件)        东西 dōnɡ-xī (指方向东和西)                                                     

    大意 dàyi  (疏忽)          大意 dàyì  (主要意思)                                                                                       

                                                                                

    轻声对某些词有区别词义和词性的作用。如:                                                                       

对头 duìtou (仇敌、对手,名词)  利害 lìhɑi  (剧烈、凶猛,形容词)                                              

对头 duìtóu (正确、合适,形容词)利害 lìhài  (利益和损害,名词)                                               

另外,还有一部分双音节词第二个音节习惯上都读轻声,并没有区别词义或词性的作用。如:                                                                                                 

   扁担    巴结    粮食    骆驼    石榴    商量    窗户    阔气                               

   明白    柴火    包袱    萝卜    葡萄    耳朵    爷爷    多么                                      

 

在普通话中,下列一些成分都应读成轻声。                                                                

1.“吧、吗、呢、—啊”等语气词。如:                                                                         

    走吧    去吗    怎么呢    不行啊                                                                           

2.助词“的、得、着、了、过、们”。如:                                                                               

    我的    慢慢的    好得很    说着    跑了    做过   同学们                                                     

3.名词的后缀“子、儿、头”等。如:                                                                     

    桌子  石头  鸟儿                                                                                                   

4.个别量词。如:                                                                                                    

    一个                                                                                               

5.方位词,原调、轻声两可,但轻声语感更好。如:                                                                                         

    家里  墙上  地下  外边                                                                                   

6.趋向动词,原调、轻声两可,但轻声语感更好。如;                                                                                                

    回来    干起来    走出去    收下                                                                                                               

7.重叠动词的末一个音节。如:                                                                               

    看看  写写  读读                                                                                    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 

 

二、变  调                                                  

由于邻近音节声调的影响,有些音节的声调往往要发生变化,这种现象叫变调。                                                                                                                               

1.上声的变调                                                                                                                          

(一) 上声在非上声(阴平、阳平、去声)前面变成半上,即由214变为211。  如:                                                               

在阴平前: 首都   北京   始终   普通   老师   小说   展开   产生                              

在阳平前: 祖国   海洋   语言   旅行   改良   古文   拱门   赶忙                                  

在去声前: 感谢   岗哨   翡翠   晚饭   朗诵   准确   解放   法定                                

(二) 上声在上声前面,前一个上声变成阳平,调值变为35。如:                                                       

   领导    勇敢    水果    选举    岛屿    打扫    场景    采取                                      

   笔挺    把守    美好    野草    恼火    理想    胆敢                                                     

AAB式                                                                                                             

   展览馆     洗脸水     虎骨酒     管理组                                                                              

ABB式                                                                                                  

   好领导     厂党委     柳组长     纸老虎                                                       

AABB式                                                                                                   

永远友好yǒnɡyuǎn yǒuhǎo→yónɡyuǎn yóuhǎo   

岂有此理qǐyǒucǐlǐ→qíyǒucílǐ                  

                                                                                                          

2.“一、不”的变调                                                                                               

(一) “一”的变调                                                                                                      

“一”在单念或在词句末时念原调 (阴平)。如:                                                                

      不管三七二十一    全国第一    一、二、一                                                          

“一”在阴平、阳平、上声前面时,变为去声。如:                                                                      

   在阴平前:  一般   一边   一天   一生   一瞥     一端   一丝                                      

   在阳平前:  一头   一直   一行   一时    一齐   一团   一条                                        

   在上声前:  一统   一体   一起   一总   一早   一举   一己                                                 

“一”在去声前面变为阳平。如:                                                                             

一道  一半  一并  一定  一度  一律  一再  一贯  一切  一致                                                     

(二) “不”的变调                                                                                                                          

“不”单念或在句末念原调 (去声),如“不,我不。”                                                                

“不”在阴平、阳平、上声前面也念去声。如:                                                                

   在阴平前:  不安   不单   不支   不堪   不公   不屈   不消                                

   在阳平前:  不成   不曾   不迭   不凡   不符     不才   不然                                         

   在上声前:  不齿   不等   不法   不轨   不久   不朽   不许                                                                   

“不”在去声前面变为阳平。如:                                                                    

不外  不幸  不论  不愧  不但  不肖  不逊  不屑  不适                                        

                                                                 

“一、不”的变调规律列表如下:                                                        

                        

一                                            

不                                    

单说或在词句末尾             

阴平                                          

去声                                

在阴平、阳平、上声前           

去声                               

去声                                   

在去声前                     

阳平                       

阳平                            

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

 

 

 

作业:朗读短文                                                                                              

                                                                                                                

在繁华的巴黎大街的路旁,站着一个衣衫褴褛、头发斑白、双目失明的老人。他不像其他乞丐那样伸手向过路行人乞讨,而是在身旁立一块木牌,上面写着:“我什么也看不见!”街上过往的行人很多,看了木牌上的字都无动于衷,有的还淡淡一笑,便姗姗而去了。                                                 

 这天中午,法国著名诗人让·彼浩勒也经过这里。他看看木牌上的字,问盲老人:“老人家,今天上午有人给你钱吗?”                                                                                    

 盲老人叹息着回答:“我,我什么也没有得到。”说着,脸上的神情非常悲伤。                                            

让·彼浩勒听了,拿起笔悄悄地在那行字的前面添上了“春天到了,可是”几个字,就匆匆地离开了。                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

                                                                                     

                                                                                                     

                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

三、语气词“啊”的音变   

                                                                                                                                                                  

“啊”用在句子末尾的时候,由于受到前面音节末尾音素的影响,读音发生种种变化。其变化规律如下:                                                              

(一) 前面音素是 ɑ、o (ɑo、iɑo 除外) 、ê 、i 、ü 时读yɑ ,汉字写作“呀”。例如:                                                                                                   

1.是他呀?                2.好多呀!              3.是你哥哥呀!                                            

4.应该注意节约呀!        5.要认真学习呀!        6.好大的鱼呀!                                         

(二) 前面的音素是u (包括 ɑo 、iɑo ,因为。实际上是稍紧的u ),读成 wɑ ,汉字写作“哇”。例如:                                                                                               

1.写得多好哇!         2.他的手多巧哇!        3.这是一本好书哇!                                           

4.小李真是个多面手哇!    5.我们激动的心潮哇!    6.有没有哇?                                                                              

(三) 前面的音素是n ,读成 nɑ ,汉字写作“哪”。例如:                                                       

1.多好看哪!    2.你走路可要小心哪。  3.他真是个不知疲倦的人哪!                              

(四) 前面的音素是nɡ ,读成nɡɑ ,汉字仍写作“啊”。例如:                                                  

1.大家一齐唱啊!   2.下午劳动啊!   3.这可不成啊!   4.歌声多好听啊!                                                      

(五) 前面的音素是 -i (舌尖后元音)、er ,读rɑ ,汉字仍写作“啊”。例如:                                                                                

1.这究竟是怎么回事啊!    2.用什么纸啊!     3.今年六十二啊!                                   

(六) 前面的音素是 -i (舌尖前元音),读成 zɑ ,汉字仍写作“啊”。例如:                                                      

1.两个什么字啊?   2.哪个公司啊?   3.你就去过一次啊!                                                                                                                                                         

“啊”的音变情况可以归纳为下表:                                                  

“啊”前面音节的韵母               

“啊”前面音节末尾的音素        

“啊”的音变        

汉字写法             

ɑ  iɑ  uɑ   ie üe          

ɑ ê                  

yɑ                

呀                

ɑi  uɑi  ei  uei ü               

ü                         

yɑ                 

呀                         

 ou  iou  ɑo  iɑo                

                               

wɑ               

哇                                   

ɑn  iɑn  uɑn  üɑn                  

en  in  uen  ün               

                 

nɑ             

哪                                    

ɑnɡ  iɑnɡ  uɑnɡ  enɡ               

inɡ  uenɡ  onɡ  ionɡ                  

nɡ                         

nɡɑ              

啊                                                     

-i                         

-i (舌尖后音)                            

rɑ                

啊                                  

-i                                    

-i (舌尖前音)               

zɑ               

啊                                                        

                                                                                                                                                                              

 

四、儿  化                                                                                                                                                       

1.儿化的性质                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

儿化发音的基本规则,取决于韵母的末尾音素是否便于卷舌。                                                        

(一) 便于卷舌,是指韵母的末尾音素是舌位较低或较后的元音( ɑ 、o 、e 、ê 、u )。儿化时原韵母不变,直接卷舌。如,花儿huār 、兔儿tùr 。                                                      

(二) 不便于卷舌,是指韵母的末尾音素是前、高元音( 、ü ),舌尖元音( -i ),或鼻韵尾( 、nɡ ),末尾音素的舌位与卷舌动作发生冲突。儿化韵的发音要领分别是:                                       

1.丢掉韵尾 、n 、nɡ ,主要元音卷舌,如:ɑi→ɑr小孩儿,en→er份儿饭;后鼻韵母丢掉韵尾 nɡ 后,主要元音同时鼻化,如:iɑnɡ→iãr娘儿俩。字母上的“~”表示元音鼻化。                                                          

2.主要元音是i、ü 的(如 i 、in 、u 、ün 以及inɡ ),加er。如i→ier玩意儿,in→ier皮筋儿,ü→üer闺女儿,ün→üer短裙儿,inɡ→ir电影儿。                               

3.舌尖元音 i (前、后)换成er,如ci→cer没词儿,shi→sher有事儿。                            

2.儿化的作用                                                                                                              

儿化在有些词里有确定词性的作用。如:                                           

画(动词)__画儿(名词)            盖(动词)__盖儿(名词)                                            

活(形容词)__活儿(名词)      尖(形容词)__尖儿(名词)                                        

零碎(形容词)__零碎儿(名词)                                     

儿化对有些词有区别词义的作用。如:                                                    

   头(指脑袋)__头儿(指领头的人)    信(指信件)__信儿(指信息)                                      

儿化对有些同音词有区分词义的作用。如:                                           

   拉链儿(即拉锁)——拉练(行军、野营、锻炼)                                 

                                 儿化后,有的表示细小、轻微的意思。如:                                          

   小刀儿    药丸儿    一点儿    树枝儿    木棍儿    纸条儿                           

还有的表示说话人的喜爱、亲切的感情。如:                                       

   小孩儿    老头儿    小脸蛋儿    鲜花儿    油画儿    山歌儿                                   

   您慢慢儿走。    说说贴心的话儿。    有工夫来玩儿!                                          

有些习惯上儿化,如“旁边儿”,“圆圈儿”,“走道儿”,“带个信儿”等。“今儿”(今日),“明儿”(明日)等是“日”字变来的;“这儿”(这里),“那儿”(那里)等是“里”字变来的。                                                       

   

 五、词的轻重格式发音训练                                                                                                    

 1、 什么是词的轻重格式
    组成一段语流的各音节声音响亮程度并不完全相等,有的音节在语流中听起来声音比其他音节响亮,就是重音音节;有的音节听起来比较微弱,就是轻音音节。 介于二者之间的我们称为中。

  普通话双音节词听起来往往是后一音节比较重;三音节词一般是中间音节较轻,前后两音节较重。除三音节词的中间音节明显变轻以外,各音节之间的轻重差别并不明显,改变重音位置对词义和语法结构也没有影响。例如,“工事”和“攻势”、“散步”和“散布”、“公鸡”和“攻击”是三组同音词,词义和语法结构都不相同,重音一般在后一音节,但也可以移到后一音节,这时语义和语法结构都没有变化,只不过有时表示语义重点是在前一音节而已。   

2、双音节词的轻重格式及发音训练

             A:中重格式,占70%,  
             如:日食 冬至 天亮 花生 民主 心慌 性急  
               B:重轻式,占17%, 
               如:事情 月亮  打算

         C:重中式,占5%,可做重轻式,总数不多,  
                 如:经验 视觉 界限 记者

3、三音节词语的轻重格式

       A:中中重

   播音员 收音机 天安门

        B:中重轻

      枪杆子 老头子 胡萝卜 牛脾气

        C:中轻重

   小不点 说得来 大不了 对不起

4、 四音节词语的轻重格式及发音训练

   A:中重中重

丰衣足食 耳濡目染 龙飞凤舞 花好月圆

   B:中轻中重

  社会主义 高高兴兴 大大方方 奥林匹克

  C:重中中重

惨不忍睹 诸如此类 义不容辞

  提示:掌握词的轻重格式,才能把话说得清楚自然,符号普通话的要求。词的轻重格式是约定俗成的,不是规定的。

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