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中国调查研究咨询产业发展现状特点及各省市信息资料

2019-02-03  内心的成长

国外的市场调查研究行业发展迅速,在发达国家,市场调查研究行业已经进入成熟阶段,成为国家服务业的重要组成部分。

1987年中国社会调查所成立以来,我国的市场调查行业已经走过了近30个年头,由于缺乏大型市场调查和研究的成功经验和案例,目前除去两三家较大的调查研究公司外,大多数调查研究公司的影响力和知名度都较低,中国调查研究行业整体仍处于较低水平阶段。

      按照执业主体的不同,中国的市场调查研究机构可分为民营机构、政府机关主办机构、合资机构、学术研究及新闻单位创办机构等四种类型。根据CMRA网站数据,在上述四类调查研究机构中,民营机构数量约占全国执业机构总数的80%,政府机关主办机构占14%,学术研究和新闻单位创办机构占5%,合资机构占1%。

总体上,调查研究机构可以分为两类,国际性的调查研究公司和国内的调查研究公司。国际性的调查研究公司给中国的市场调查研究行业带来了很大的推动作用。国际性调查研究公司的优势在于规范的管理体系和长年数据库的累积。虽然国内的调查研究公司起步较晚,但是更加了解国内市场,费用较低,具有一定的发展前景。

从调查研究企业的规模看,市场上的调查研究公司大多是中小型公司。调查研究企业的业务职能分为研究与执行两类,国内市场上的三千家中小型调查研究企业大多数为执行公司,缺乏对数据的分析与研究能力。根据CMRA(市场调查研究协会)中有关调查研究企业规模的调查显示,国内调查研究市场上内资调查研究企业的规模普遍较小,主要有两方面原因:1)虽然国内调查研究市场的潜在需求巨大,然而实际调查研究需求却表现为不足;2)内资调查研究公司在技术、服务、观念、产品设计等诸多方面与外资调查研究公司相比有很大差距。

根据中为智研咨询数据,从调查研究企业的地域分布看,它们大多集中在京、沪、穗、深,四地的调查研究企业占到我国调查研究企业总数的60%。其中,以北京为最多,其余三地依次递减。另外,前三地的调查研究企业尤为集中,三地调查研究企业的营业额占到整个行业的80%。调查研究业分布不均衡,与各地的经济发展水平紧密相关。一般来说,调查研究业在经济较发达地区发展状况较好,其产品和服务的品质相对较高;反之,在经济落后地区调查研究业的发展也同样落后,其产品与服务的质量也相对较低。

从营业额看,根据ESOMAR2011年行业报告,国内调查研究业的年度营业额在全球调查研究市场中的份额仍微不足道,但十几年来却呈增长趋势,其绝对数量水平也一直在快速攀升,近年来已经达到10%以上的增长率,超过了我国GDP的增长速度。另外,我们可以从不同角度剖析国内调查研究业营业额的构成。首先,从调查研究企业资本构成的性质看,数量上占相当优势的内资调查研究机构,其年度营业额在行业总营业额中所占的份额并不显著;相反,有外资成分的调查研究企业在数量上虽占少数,却创造了行业总营业额50%以上的份额。其次,从调查研究企业的业务功能看,全国上千家调查研究企业中,排名前20位的研究性质公司占了全行业营业额的绝大多数,而其他中小型研究公司和执行公司加总的营业额也不及前者。从购买调查研究数据及产品的客户类型看,对调查研究行业营业额贡献最多的行业依次为消费品制造业、汽车、广告、电信行业。中国各省市调查研究咨询机构公司发展情况:

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目前,中国市场调查业的产业链逐渐走向成熟完整。据市场研究协会估计,全国调查研究公司总数超过3000家的企业中,形成一定规模的有400-500家,规模较大的机构近60家。研究公司与调查执行公司是行业产业链中的上下游,研究公司的主要业务来自于客户,而调查执行公司的业务主要来自于上游的研究公司。在一个完整的调查研究项目中,研究公司主要工作是与客户沟通、项目设计、执行项目发包、数据分析、报告撰写与演示,而调查执行公司的工作就是完成研究公司下发的执行项目,通过实地访问,获得研究公司所需的市场数据。

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