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向Scott Young提问,独家学习经验传授——精选问答(第七期)

2020-08-07  千千linna

 本期热门问题:

Q1: 请推荐一些关于学习方法的书籍或课程,能够让我们对这一领域的知识进行系统性地学习。

Q2: 对于学习知识之后的习题集,我们应该如何对待?如何能够更高效地做题,来达到检验知识的目的?

Q3: 一个人长时间的学习总是会感到孤单寂寞,你在进行MIT挑战的时候是如何满足自己的感情需求的呢?

Q4: 在遇到一个困难任务时,我往往潜意识中会因为恐惧自己表现不好(即使只有自己知道)而不断拖延,请问怎么样才能改变自己这样的习惯和思想状态?

Q5: 能否分享一下您是如何写书的?包括使用的方法论和工具。

Q6: 您对创造力如何看待?我们应该如何培养自己的创造力?

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Q1: 请推荐一些关于学习方法的书籍或课程,能够让我们对这一领域的知识进行系统性地学习。

For popular books, I recommend Anders Ericsson’s Peak — 立刻联系, Moonwalking with Einstein and A Mind for Numbers.

在畅销书方面,我推荐Anders Ericsson 的《刻意练习》,《与爱因斯坦月球漫步》和《学习之道》。

Q2: 对于学习知识之后的习题集,我们应该如何对待?如何能够更高效地做题,来达到检验知识的目的?

So there’s a couple things:

1. If you’re trying to study for an exam, I usually recommend a few heuristics: 1) Use problems which are closest to the final exam. Mock exams are best, followed by in-class problems. Problems from other resources tend to be worse, because they may emphasize different knowledge/techniques/issues. 2) Always focus on the hardest problems first. This will usually have the greatest benefit. 3) When time is short, ask yourself, “What general principles, if I understood them, would matter most to my grade?” Then use the Feynman Technique to really get a grasp of those.

2. If you’re learning for real life, the process is a little different: 1) How can I bridge these problems between what I’m doing here and the real situation? If you’re doing practice programming, what would be required to really do it, rather than just a mock exercise? 2) What knowledge do I want to obtain? Focus more on those problems.

这里包括两个问题:

1、如果你是为了应试而学习,我通常会推荐几种启发法:1)通过最接近考试的真题复习。模拟考试最好,课堂练习次之。其他来源的题目通常都不够好,因为它们强调的可能是不同的知识点/方法/问题。2)永远优先集中精力解决最难的问题,这么做的效益通常是最大的。3)当时间有限时,问自己,”哪些一般原则,如果我理解了,对我的成绩影响最大?”然后用费曼技巧真正掌握这些原则。

2、如果你是为了现实生活的应用而学习,这个过程会稍有不同:1)如何在我所学习的知识点和实际情况之间建立联系呢?如果你正在练习编程,编写真正的程序,而不仅仅是模拟练习,需要什么知识?2)我想获得什么知识?多关注这些问题。

Q3: 一个人长时间的学习总是会感到孤单寂寞,你在进行MIT挑战的时候是如何满足自己的感情需求的呢?

I had a roommate at the time. I also didn’t study in the evenings or weekends, so I had time off to socialize. I truly don’t understand the 24/7 studying approach. To me, that’s just not efficient. The body and mind need to rest and recuperate, so you ought to include breaks or your efficiency will plummet. If you can put in 10-12 hours (7am-7pm), I don’t really think there’s much more time you can squeeze out without lowering your overall output. Even that’s a bit extreme, and yet it would leave ~4 hours for socializing/exercise/relaxation each evening.

我当时有一个室友。我晚上和周末也不会学习,所以我有空闲时间进行社交。我真的不明白那种连续七天每天二十四小时的学习方法。对我来说,那样没有效率。身体和精神都是需要休息和恢复的,因此你应该安排休息时间,否则效率会大幅下降。如果你可以投入10~12小时学习,我真的不认为你能够挤出再更多时间而不降低整体产出。即便有点极端,但这依旧可以每晚为你留出四个小时来社交/锻炼/放松。

Q4: 在遇到一个困难任务时,我往往潜意识中会因为恐惧自己表现不好(即使只有自己知道)而不断拖延,请问怎么样才能改变自己这样的习惯和思想状态?

This is very normal. You worry about your performance. This worry stresses you out, so you procrastinate.

This can be a difficult trap to get out of, but I think one way of breaking the cycle is just to intentionally do badly. When you go into it with the mindset of “I’m going to mess this up, but let’s do it anyways” the expectation loosens enough that you can actually focus and get to work. The key is trying to identify when performance expectations are causing you to procrastinate and consciously adopt this approach.

For instance, if you’re preparing for a big test, and you’re putting off doing practice problems because you won’t pass them, I’d make the conscious intention, “I’m going to do this exam and completely fail it.”

[Side note: I did a speech in China, after ~1.5 months of learning Chinese. Obviously my Mandarin was terrible, but I got through it by adopting the idea that I was going to go up on stage and fail. The end result wasn’t actually so bad, and it pushed me to study harder.]

这很正常。你担心自己的表现,这份担心会使你紧张,导致你的拖延。

这可能是一个难以逃脱的陷阱,但是我认为打破循环的方法之一是故意把事情做糟。当你怀着“我要搞砸了,但无论如何,把它做完吧”的心态开始做事时,心态足够放松,你就可以真正地集中精力进入工作了。关键在于试着发现对表现的预期导致你拖延的时刻,并有意识地使用这个方法。

举个例子,如果你在准备一场大型考试,但因为担心考试不通过而迟迟不开始做练习题,如果是我,我就会有意识地想,“我要参加这个考试,但会彻底考砸。”

[附注:在学了大概一个半月的中文后,我在中国做过一次演讲。显然,我的普通话很糟糕,但我完成了演讲,靠的就是接受了“我将走上讲台并搞砸”的想法。结果其实并没有那么糟,而且这促使我更加努力地学习。]

Q5: 能否分享一下您是如何写书的?包括使用的方法论和工具。

Well for the books of mine you might have read (which are published in China), I wrote them all years ago, at a stage in my life as a writer where I feel I was still developing. In those days, I would just sit and write down all my ideas and add images. Not a ton of editing or outside research.

Now I’m just in the process of finishing a new book. This one, in contrast, had a ton of research—I read a lot of books, journal articles and did a lot of outlining and editing for every chapter. The book will come out in America in August, in China sometime after (depends on how long it takes them to translate).

对于你可能读过的那些我写的书(在中国出版的),我都是很多年前写的了,处于还在成长中的作家的人生阶段,那段时间,我只是坐下来写下我所有的想法并加上图片,没有做太多编辑删改或在此之外的研究。

现在,我正在完成一本新书。与之前不同,这本书做了大量的研究——我读了很多书、期刊文章,每一章都列了大量提纲并反复修改。这本书八月将在美国出版,来日也将在中国出版(取决于翻译花费的时间)

Q6: 您对创造力如何看待?我们应该如何培养自己的创造力?

My theory is that creativity depends on a few factors:

1. Knowledge. You need to be learning constantly about all sorts of things. Holistic learning is about making connections between disparate ideas. While I think it is useful for studying, it’s implications for creativity are even greater.

2. Skill. You need to be able to execute your ideas in some kind of product. That could be writing, painting, dance, film, engineering, coding, business strategies, etc.. In order to translate idea to action, you need to cultivate those skills. I could have a great image in my head for a painting, but if I haven’t built skill with a brush, it’s useless.

3. Emotional/attentional. High levels of arousal (stress) tend to create narrower focus. This can be good in performance driven domains, where you want to suppress distracting elements and maintain concentration. However, to have creative ideas, you need distracting, random thoughts to integrate with the problems you’re working on. This means you need a relaxed mind. Plenty of sleep. Socializing/discussing things. Thinking about things other than work/study. These things all make it easier to have creative output.

我认为创造力取决于许多因素。

1:知识。你需要持续不断地学习各种东西。整体性学习就是在分散的想法之间建立联系。虽然我认为它对于学习非常有用,但它对于创造力的影响甚至更大。

2、技能。你得能够在某种产品中执行你的想法。这里的产品可以是写作、绘画、舞蹈、电影、工程、编程、商业策略等……为了能够把想法变为行动,你需要培养这些技能。我可能在脑海里构建了一幅画作很棒的图像,但是如果我没有培养绘画的技能,这些就是无用的。

3、情感/注意力。高水平的兴奋(压力)常使注意力更为集中。在表现驱动的领域,这是一件好事。在这些领域,你希望抑制令你分心的因素并保持专注。然而,要有创造性的想法,你需要使发散、随机的想法与正在解决的问题联系起来。这意味着需要放松的头脑、充足的睡眠、社交/讨论事情、考虑工作/学习以外的事情。这些都使创造性的产出更容易。

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