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一课一题一语法:新概念英语第2册第78课

2021-09-18  新概念英...

【往期回顾】

一课一题一语法:新概念英语第2册第77课

【答案】

1. The girl _has stayed / has been staying_ (stay) in the room alone for thirty minutes.

2. The man _gave_ (give) her a glass of water ten minutes ago.

3. She _has had_ (have) two cups of coffee up to now.

【本期内容】

下面我们继续本周《新概念英语2》第78课的重点句型或语法的分享。先来读一读课文:

一、课文原文

Lesson 78 The last one?

After reading an article entitled 'Cigarette Smoking and Your Health' I lit a cigarette to calm my nerves. I smoked with concentration and pleasure as I was sure that this would be my last cigarette. For a whole week I did not smoke at all and during this time, my wife suffered terribly. I had all the usual symptoms of someone giving up smoking: a bad temper and an enormous appetite. My friends kept on offering me cigarettes and cigars. They made no effort to hide their amusement whenever I produced a packet of sweets from my pocket. After seven days of this I went to a party. Everybody around me was smoking and I felt extremely uncomfortable. When my old friend Brian urged me to accept a cigarette, it was more than I could bear. I took one guiltily, lit it and smoked with satisfaction. My wife was delighted that things had returned to normal once more. Anyway, as Brian pointed out, it is the easiest thing in the world to give up smoking. He himself has done it lots of times!

二、重点句型或语法   

本课主要是复习第6课、第30课和第54课所学的冠词与不定代词的内容。

(一)冠词

1、分类

冠词分为不定冠词(a/an)、定冠词(the)和零冠词(即不用冠词)三类。

2、不定冠词

其常见的用法有:

1)表“一个”,如:

He had a cup of tea just now.

2)表“每一”,如:

She is driving at a speed of seventy miles an hour.

3)表“一类人或物”,如:

A dog runs faster than a pig.

4)表“又一;再一”,此时要与序数词连用,如:

I will try it a third time. (我会再试一次。)

【注意】

1、不定冠词可以与专有名称连用,表示“某个;一个”,如:

There is a Tom in our class. (我们班有个叫汤姆的人。)

2、有时不定冠词会用来表达某个单词中有某个或某些以元音开头的单词前,如:

There is an 's' in the word 'bus'. (在单词bus里有一个s。)

3、不定冠词常用于某些短语中,或用来修饰抽象名词使其具体化,如:

Let's attack one problem at a time.   (咱们一次全力处理一个问题。)

It's a pity that you can't stay longer.   (你不能再多停留些时间,真是遗憾。)

3、定冠词

其常见的用法有:

1)表再次提到的人或物,如:

There is a boy under the tree. The boy is my cousin.

2)表特指,如:

The boy under the tree is my cousin.

3)表方位,如:

It is often windy in spring in the South.

A basket is on the left of the chair.

4)表第几或最...,此时与序数词或形容词副词的最高级连用,如:

This is the third time I have come to Shanghai.

She is the best player in her class.

5)表一类或物,此时一般与单数可数名词连用,或与形容词连用,如:

The dog runs faster than the pig.

The young should respect the old.

6)表一家人,此时与姓氏的复数连用,如:

The Smiths are going to visit us next week.

7)表江河湖海的名称,或者国名的全称,如:

They have visited the Great Wall several times.

Washington is the capital of the United States of America.

8)与play连用,用在乐器前,表示演奏乐器,如:

She is playing the violin next door.

【注意】

1、有无定冠词的区别。如:

in hospital 生病住院

in the hospital 在医院(工作;看望病人等)

in front of 在(外部的)前面

in the front of 在(内部的)前面

in charge of 掌控某物

in the charge of 被某人掌控

2、与某些动词和身体部位连用,如:

He patted me on the shoulder. (他拍了拍我的肩膀。)

3、用在某些固定短语中,如:

On the whole it's a good book; and it would be nitpicking to dwell on those small defects.   (总之,这是一本好书,对小处不必吹毛求疵。)

4、零冠词

其常见的用法有:

1)表一类人或物,此时用于不可数名词或可数名词复数,如:

Water is important to living beings on earth.

Dogs run faster than pigs.

2)人名或国名简称,如:

Tom has two sisters.

China is developing very fast.

3)表交通出行方式,如:

Jason went to France by air yesterday.

I came here on foot.

4)学科前,如:

English is my favourite subject.

5)节日、假日、星期、月份、季节等名词前,如:

January is the first month of the year.

He had four lessons on Friday last week.

Summer is the best season in our town.

Christmas is coming soon.

6)一日三餐和体育项目(与play连用)前,如:

Breakfast is very important to our health.

Some children are playing football by the river.

【注意】

1、某些固定短语中,如:

You should learn it step by step.

2、有无冠词的区别,如:

at table 进餐

at the table 在桌旁

by sea 乘船

by the sea 在海边

(二)不定代词

1、some与any

都表“一些”,some常用于肯定句或某些表委婉语气的问句中,而any主要用于否定句和大多问句中,如:

I have some bad news for you.

They did not eat anything this morning.

Would you please pass me some water?

Do you have any large writing paper?

2、both、neither与either

both表“两者都”,常与and连用,并列主语时,谓语要用复数;neither表“两者都不”,常与nor连用,并列主语时,谓语的单复数采用就近原则;either表示“要么;或者”,常与or连用,并列主语时,谓语的单复数也采用就近原则。如:

Both you and she are of no exception.
Neither you nor I am responsible for the accident.
Either he or you are to finish the work right away.

3、all与none

all表示“(三者或以上)都”,当all修饰可数名词时,谓语用复数;修饰不可数名词时,谓语用单数;而none表示“(三者或以上)都不”,作主语时,谓语都用单数。如:

All the money is for you.

All the students are going there this afternoon.

None of them is from France.


三、一课一题

根据本课的复习内容,让我们来练一练吧,请根据句子的前后文,选择适合的词语填空。 

1. The policeman caught the thief by _____ arm. (his / the / an)

2. _____ of the four children is going there today. (all / either / none)

3. The man is in _____ possession of a large fortune. He is very rich. (a / the / 不填)

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