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【夺分宝典】专题05:长难句(上)——真题感悟&真题再练

2021-10-12  Zsy201512...
夺分英语
115篇原创内容
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考情分析


词汇量对于读懂文章固然重要,但句子太长或者句子结构复杂也会成为学生高考取得高分的绊脚石。无论是阅读理解、完形填空还是语法填空都需要辨清句子的主干和修饰成分。攻克长难句需要考生熟练掌握简单句的五种基本句型,理解词性和句子成分之间的关系,并掌握长难句分析的一些常用方法。

01

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真题感悟

真题感悟


1.(2021年全国甲卷D篇)And the more we look, the more we will see that social factors like gender, race, and class do not determine the appearance of genius.

解析:the more 状语从句, the more 主句,意为:越多……就越……。主句中谓语动词see后接宾语从句。

汉语翻译:我们看得越多,就越能看到社会因素像性别、种族和阶级并不能决定天才的出现。

2.(2021年全国乙卷B篇)Of those Australians who still have a landline, a third concede that it’s not really necessary and they’re keeping it as a security blanket —19 percent say they never use it while a further 13 percent keep it in case of emergencies.

解析:定语从句who still have a landline修饰those Australians,谓语动词concede后接并列连词连接的两个宾语从句,破折号后面say后接宾语从句中while引导状语从句。

汉语翻译:在澳大利亚仍使用固定电话的人中,三分之一的人承认固定电话并不是必须的,他们将其作为一种安全保障——19%的人表示他们从未使用过固定电话,另有13%的人保留固定电话以防紧急情况。

3.(2020年全国I卷C篇)According to most calculations, race walkers moving at a pace of six miles per hour would burn about 800 calories per hour, which is approximately twice as many as they would burn walking, although fewer than running, which would probably burn about 1,000 or more calories per hour.

解析:本句中moving at a pace of six miles per hour是动词-ing形式作后置定语,修饰race walkers,第一个which引导的非限制性定语从句修饰800 calories per hour,第二个which引导的非限制性定语从句修饰running。

汉语翻译:根据大多数的计算结果,以每小时6英里的速度行走的竞走者,每小时会消耗800卡路里,消耗的热量大约是步行者的两倍,但是比跑步者要少,跑步者每小时大概可以消耗1000卡路里,甚至更多。

4.(2020年全国II卷A篇)Those viewing the quality of Abbot Hall’s temporary exhibitions may be forgiven for thinking they are in a city gallery. 

解析:句中的viewing the quality of Abbot Hall’s temporary exhibition现在分词短语作后置定语,修饰those。

汉语翻译:那些观赏阿伯特庄园美术馆临时优质展品的人可能会以为自己置身于城市画廊中,这是情有可原的。

5.(2020年全国III卷B篇)In some cases, it’s not so much the treatment of the animals on set in the studio that has activists worried; it’s the off-set training and living conditions that are raising concerns. 

解析:句子的主干是Designer Jennifer Anderson admits(that)…,it took her … 是宾语从句,其中it作形式主语,to come around to the opinion … 是真正的主语。宾语从句中又包含一个由that引导的同位语从句,对opinion作进一步解释说明。

汉语翻译:设计师詹妮弗·安德森承认,她花了一段时间才接受了这个观点,即用海狸鼠毛皮制作自己的作品在道德上是可以接受的。

02

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真题再练

真题再练


分析下列长难句并翻译成汉语

1.(2021年全国乙卷B篇) Since the effects were small, this may suggest that our creative thinking does not differ that much in response to total silence and 85 decibels of background noise.

2.(2020年全国I卷B篇) The first, which I take to reading every spring, is Ernest Hemingway’s A Moveable Feast. 

3.(2020年全国I卷C篇) According to her research, runners hit the ground with as much as four times their body weight per step, while race walkers, who do not leave the ground, create only about 1.4 times their body weight with each step. 

4.(2020年全国I卷D篇)These include plants that have sensors printed onto their leaves to show when they’re short of water and a plant that can detect harmful chemicals in groundwater. 

5.(2020年全国I卷D篇) In the future, the team hopes to develop a version of the technology that can be sprayed onto plant leaves in a one-off treatment that would last the plant’s lifetime. 

6.(2020年全国II卷B篇)The researchers analyzed video recordings of 53 child-parent pairs during everyday activities at home and found children who play with puzzles between 26 and 46 months of age have better spatial skills when assessed at 54 months of age.

7.(2020年全国II卷D篇) It was a big deal for us to load up and go to the local library, where my kids could pick out books to read or books they wanted me to read to them. 

While the younger generations prefer to communicate visually, for those used to working with traditional tools like email, it may feel like a learning curve. 

8.(2020年全国III卷B篇)With the young unable to afford to leave home and the old at risk of isolation, more families are choosing to live together. 

9.(2020年全国III卷D篇)Cattle-raising people in East Africa and northern Europe have gained a mutation that helps them digest milk as adults. 

10.(2020年全国III卷D篇)She wondered if centuries of diving could have led to the evolution of physical characteristics that made the task easier for them. 


参考答案


真题再练:分析下列长难句并翻译成汉语

1.解析:Since引导原因状语从句,suggest后接that引导的宾语从句。

汉语翻译:由于影响很小,这可能表明,我们的创造性思维在完全安静和85分贝的背景噪音下的反应没有太大区别。

2.解析:which引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词the first。

汉语翻译:每年春天,我习惯读的第一本书是欧内斯特·米勒尔·海明威的《流动的盛宴》。

3.解析:本句中while连接两个并列句子,表示对比,who引导非限制性定语从句,修饰race walkers。

汉语翻译:根据她的研究,跑步者每一步着地时自身承受的重量是其体重的四倍,而竞走者由于每一步都不离开地面,仅承受约自己体重1.4倍的重量。

4.解析:本句主干为These include plants … and a plant …。第一个that引导定语从句修饰先行词plants,其中包含一个when引导的宾语从句;第二个that引导定语从句修饰先行词a plant。have sensors printed为使役动词结构have sth done,表示“使 / 让某事被 (别人) 做”。                      

汉语翻译:这些包括叶面上印有感应器来显示缺水情况的植物,以及能探测地下水中含有害化学物质的植物。

5.解析:本句主干为the team hopes to develop a version of the technology。其中第一个that引导定语从句修饰先行词technology,在从句中作主语;第二个that引导定语从句修饰先行词treatment。

汉语翻译:未来,该团队希望能开发出一种可以一次性喷洒到植物树叶上就能延长植物寿命的技术。

6.解析:when assessed at 54 months of age是省略句,原句为when children who play with puzzles between 26 and 46 months of age are assessed at 54 months of age。

汉语翻译:研究人员分析了53对孩子与父母在家日常活动的录像,并对54个月大的孩子进行了评定。结果发现,在26个月到46个月大时玩过拼图游戏的孩子的空间技能更好。

7.解析:It是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的动词不定式短语to load up and go to the local library;where my kids ... read to them是where引导的非限制性定语从句,进一步说明library。        

汉语翻译:对我们来说,装好东西然后去当地的图书馆是件大事。在图书馆里,我的孩子可以选出自己想看的书,或者选出他们想让我读给他们听的书。

8.解析:with the young unable to afford to leave home and the old at risk of isolation 为复合结构:with 宾语 adj,在句中作状语,表示原因。

汉语翻译:由于年轻人无力承担离开家的费用以及老年人面临着孤独的风险,越来越多的家庭选择住在一起。

9.解析:that引导定语从句修饰先行词mutation。

汉语翻译:东非和北欧的畜牧民族已经发生了某种基因突变,这有助于他们成年后对牛奶的消化吸收。

10.解析:if引导宾语从句作wondered的宾语,that引导定语从句修饰先行词physical characteristics。

汉语翻译:她想知道,几个世纪以来一直从事潜水活动,是否导致了他们的身体特征发生变化,从而使潜水变得更加容易。

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