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小视频 | 纪念“心流之父”,五分钟动画看懂「心流」

2021-12-03  长沙7喜
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什么是心流?

心流概念的提出者米哈里·契克森米哈赖特别强调「心流不是鸡汤,而是让你保持专注、高效、幸福感翻倍的科学。」

心流是一种状态,你的精神力完全投注时,视觉、听觉和嗅觉都会变得格外敏锐,思维会清晰有序,内心会充满着高度的兴奋感和充实感。

2021年10月20日,积极心理学奠基人,被称为“心流之父”的创造力大师、匈牙利籍心理学家米哈里·契克森米哈赖(Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi 1934-2021)去世,享年87岁。

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米哈里是“心流”理论的提出者,曾出版包括《创造力》、《心流》和《自我的进化》等畅销书,对积极心理学的发展产生了重大影响。其中《心流》自1990年出版以来,被翻译成30余种文字,影响了全球千万研究者和读者。前美国心理学会主席马丁·塞利格曼誉之为“积极心理学的世界级领导人物。”

▲更多内容,请戳心流:保持专注高效和幸福感翻倍的科学(附Ted演讲)

“心流之父”虽已离世,但“精神遗产”仍在。

幸福是一种内在状态,而非外在状态,通过创造心流——创造那些完全专注于艰巨、但可行任务的高光时刻,可以帮助我们提升幸福感与创造力。

——《心流》米哈里·契克森米哈赖

▲更多内容,请戳心流:保持专注高效和幸福感翻倍的科学(附Ted演讲)

视频字幕解析

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So I've been invited to talk about flow. 1st I want to describe to you what flow is essentially flow is a psychological state of mind where your ego completely disappears and you enter a highly productive workflow.Time seems to pass really quick and you get this amazing feeling that you're accomplishing so much some.

我曾被邀请谈一谈对心流的看法。首先我想向你描述一下心流的本质是什么心流是一种心理状态,在这种状态下,你的自我完全消失,你会进入一个更高效的工作流程。时间看起来过的很快,并且你会有这种惊奇的感觉,你正在完成这么多事情。

People report working 12 to 15h a day and some even say they forget to eat or go to the bathroom. Anyway,there are some giant positive effects of entering flow to being increased happiness and increased productivity.

人们报告说每天要工作12到15个小时,有些人甚至说他们忘了吃饭或上厕所。总之,心流状态的进入有一些巨大的积极效果会增加幸福感和加强生产力。

So I'm here to teach you how to inter flow on your own. Another great benefit of entering flow is a satisfaction reported among those studied they seem to have a clear feeling of their purpose being fulfilled. Basically this is one of the highest versions of intrinsic rewards.

因此,我在这里教你如何自己进行心流。进入心流的另一大好处在于被研究者中,他们似乎清楚地感觉到他们的目标得到了实现。基本上,这就是内在自我的的最高等级的奖励。

While usually producing extrinsic rewards also the author of the book Mihaly csikszentmihalyi at interviewed a bunch of professionals who had this related feeling to try to find out what caused it. And see if it could be replicated from athletes to musicians to engineers. They kept saying things like,I just feel like I get a sense of absolute awareness and work seems so fun and super easy. After some analysis he found out some basic criteria that must be met to reach optimal experience in any task.

而通常会产生的外在奖励也是这本书的作者米哈里在采访了一群有这种相关感觉的专业人士试图找出了原因。并看看是否可以从运动员到音乐学家再到工程师身上复制下来。他们一直在说,我只是觉得我有一种绝对的意识,工作似乎很有趣,且超级容易。经过一些分析之后,他发现了在任何任务中一些基本标准是必须要满足的,才能达到最佳的体验状态。

Secondly I want to say that flow to me at least isn't this on or off binary switch. It's more of a dimmer switch. When you get all the variables just right,it feels amazing. Now let's move on to the variables needed to inter flow.

其次我想说的是,至少对我来说,心流并不是这种开启或是关闭的二进制开关。它更像是一个调光开关。当你把所有变量都弄得恰到好处的时候,这种感觉很奇妙。现在让我们讨论心流所需的变量。

The 1st is that any task you do must have a sense of initial quick feedback. For this reason programming is a great field where many professionals experience flow. A quick change in the source code and suddenly the whole thing is working, not usually but you get the idea quick feedback. The 2nd is that the task must have long term feedback. Something like seeing that fully functioning web page or new video game launched at market is the long term feedback and also is basically a goal for the individual.

第一,你所做的任何事情都必须有一个初步的快速反馈。因此,编程成为一个伟大的领域,许多专业人员的经验交流。在源代码快速变换的同时,整个事情都在很好的运行,虽然并不常见,但是得到了想法的快速反馈。第二就是任务必须有一个长期的反馈,诸如看到的全面运作的网页或在市场上推出的新视频游戏都是长期反馈了,而且基本上都是个人目标。

The author of flow notice that all of the studied individuals had a goal to work for. Something that gave them a purpose further work. See flow is pretty amazing because it helps us in our sense of purpose or rather gives our mind the tools and proper mindset to get closer to fulfilling our purposes. Progress is also in this criteria. You must be able to measure your progress over time to understand that you're actually improving which will fuel your work ethic even more so.

心流的作者注意到,所有被研究的人都有一个目标,即为某件事工作。这给了他们一个进一步工作的目的。看到心流是相当惊人的,因为它有助于我们的目的感,或者是说给我们头脑提供工具和适当的思想,以接近实现我们的目的。进展也在这个标准之中。你必须能够衡量你在一段时间内的进展以了解你确实在进步,这将更加激发你的工作热情。

The first and 2nd requirements are short and long term feedback and the third criteria for entering flow is that the challenge a task offers must be slightly out of reach for the individual. In other words,it has to be easy enough to not be seen as a super difficult challenge. But it also has to be difficult enough,so that it's not completely boring. This is where programmers get hooked for me.

第一个和第二个要求是短期和长期的反馈和进入心流的第三个标准就是一项任务所提供的挑战,必须是个人所不能达到的。换句话说,他必须足够容易,不被视为一个超级困难的挑战。但他必须足够苦难,这样他就不会完全无聊。这就是我对程序员迷恋的地方。

I remember spending hours literally days working on this game website the idea was that all of the game websites in my high school were blocked. So I was going to code a version that didn't get blocked. It included lots of java script php. And eventually I got it to work,but the whole time I was in the flow state of mind it was amazing.

我记得我花费了数小时甚至是几天在这个游戏网站上,我的想法是,我高中的所有游戏网站都被封锁了。所以我打算编写一个不被封锁的版本。它其中包括大量的java和php语言。最终,我还是让他运行了起来,但整个过程,我都处于思维流动的状态,这很令人惊讶。

I knew I could eventually figure it out.And I wasn't going to give up until it worked, because every hour or so I'd make a new breakthrough.Learn something new and put it to use and it had all three of these previous requirements.

我知道我最终能解决这个问题。在它成功之前我不会放弃,因为每隔一个小时我就会有一个新的突破。学到一些新的东西,并把它用起来,而这种状态也具备之前所说的三个要求。

I could see improvement each day.I had short and long term feedback on the website, and it was challenging enough that it wasn't boring ,but it wasn't enough to scare me from trying. But here's when flow wore off though, eventually I got it to work. Some of my friends used it, and then there was no more improvement. It worked where could I go from there. The goal had been achieved so the flow wore off.

我可以看到每天都有进步。我在网站上有短期和长期的反馈,他有足够的挑战性,不会让人感到无聊,这还不足以吓到我,让我不敢尝试。当心流消失的时候,最终,我也把这份工作完成了。我的一些朋友也运用过心流,但是最终却没有任何改善。它其实是有效的,我就是从这里开始的。当目标已经实现的时候,心流自然就会消失。

Now I'm achieving flow making videos about psychology and different book reviews on my channel,and making a pretty good living from it. Actually I highly advise you to reverse engineer your work, and be more self aware about your experiences, and aim them to be more productive with this amazing mind tool.

现在我在制作关于心理学和不同书评的视频在我的频道上,并且从中获得了相当不错的收入。事实上,我强烈建议你对你的工作进行逆向工程,对你的经验有更多的自我意识并将其作为目标,用这个神奇的思维工具提高生产力。

Another thing that will increase your changes of flow is to reduce distraction. Respectively once you achieve a high state of flow,all distractions will seem to disappear,including the urge to release your bladder or fill your stomach which strangely demolishes maslow's hierarchy of needs,which says that each need must be met for a higher need to be a motivating factor. But that's a talk for another video.

另一件会增加你思维流动变化的是减少分心。一旦你的思绪达到高水平状态时,所有的分心似乎都会消失,包括释放膀胱的冲动或是填充你的胃的冲动,真很奇怪地违背了马斯洛的需求层次理论,即每个需求必须得到满足,才能使更高的需求成为激励因素。但这是另一个视频谈话的内容。

A personality trait of curiosity will also increase your overall chance of entering flow, as well as high levels of grit and persistence and low levels of selfishness.

好奇心的个性特征也会增加你进入心流状态的机会,同时也会提高自身的勇气和坚持程度,以及降低自私的水平。

Don't let these bottleneck you though. As these are just theories and there's still a ton. We don't know about the human brain. The implications of this psychological awesomeness rang from cubicle work to create a design to military use,including gaming and marksmanship. And apparently according to Wikipedia spirituality.

但是不要让这些问题成为你的瓶颈。这些只是理论而已,类似的还有很多。我们不了解人类的大脑。心理上的巨大影响包括从隔间工作到创造设计再到军事用途,包括游戏和设计。显然,根据维基百科,精神上的影响是巨大的。

Now that you have an idea of how to get to flow. You should know that not every activity or task can be flow producing. For example, you cannot achieve continual approve on something like flipping a coin. What you can do though is get creative about it,make it more challenging. Flip a coin upside down, go and flip a coin underwater,flip the world's largest coin. These are obviously strange examples,but they symbolize what you should do when something.

现在你已经知道了如何进入心流的方法了。你应该知道,并非每项活动或任务都能产生心流。举个例子,你不可能实现持续维持这一状态就像扔硬币一样。但你可以做到的是发挥创意,让它更具挑战性。把硬币倒过来,在水下扔硬币,就能扔出世界上最大的硬币。这些显然是很奇怪的例子,但它们象征着当有事情发生时你应该做些什么。

Your love starts to get a bit boring and you're itching for that new love again. There's some more topics in the book like where your attention goes and other interesting things. But I think those would require a separate video. Anyways I want to thank Brandon for letting me have this opportunity of a collaboration

你的爱情变得有点无聊时,你渴望再次获得新的爱情。书中还有一些话题比如你的注意力去向和其他有趣的事情。但我认为这些需要单独的视频来讲。总之,我很感谢有这个合作展示的机会。

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▲更多内容,请戳心流:保持专注高效和幸福感翻倍的科学(附Ted演讲)

你想要体验心流的感觉吗?

要体验心流状态,就必须远离现代快节奏生活中使人分神的元素,第一步便是尽量远离手机。

另外,研究发现,在一个相互信任和关怀的小组中,体验到心流的人比例大大提升。比如,近年来大受企业家欢迎的私董会。

心理学家通过对大量问卷和访谈进行分析后得出结论,要达到心流,需要具备以下条件:

1

在“高技能和高挑战”的交织下发生

提到快乐,人们更容易联想到“享乐”,没有压力、不需挑战、非常轻松,比如看电视、刷抖音。这些活动确实能带来快乐,但它很容易被启动,是短暂的、浅层次的。

相比之下,达到“心流”的最优体验非常不易,它是在“高挑战和高技能”的交织下发生的。高技能,要求你得经历一次次的磨练,这个过程甚至刚开始是艰辛甚至痛苦的;高挑战,要求你一刻也不能放松,必须绷紧神经、敏锐应对,把体能和智力都发挥到极致。

2

浑然忘我,投入全部的注意力

把注意力全部投注其中,是产生心流的关键因素,也是应对“高挑战”的必要条件。

在今天的环境下,要获得高度专注非常不易。因为各种各样的信息,会每时每刻、无孔不入地侵入你的碎片时间。这种状态持续久了,你的注意力会变得分散而无力,“精神熵”不断增多。

有实验证明,全神贯注反而能减轻脑力负担,让你精神奕奕。这也是为什么,当你关掉手机,逼迫自己用一下午,全神贯注看完一本好书后,会感觉神清气爽。

3

有愿意为之付出、清晰明确的目标

拥有你为之兴奋又清晰明确的目标后,才有足够的动力去提升技能、迎接挑战。“我一生,每一分每一秒都在工作,但你也可以说,我从未工作过一天。”很多诺贝尔奖获得者,在提及工作时,是这样描述的。因为他们对自己的事业,有着发乎“内在”的强烈兴趣和动机。

4

有即时回馈

“有即时反馈”内涵包括:首先,你要主动做出行动;其次,你能感受到自己每一个行动要素,所引发的外界环境变化。你再根据这种变化,及时调整行动。整个过程的核心诉求是:掌控感。

当然,心流能力强的人,可以敏锐感知到即使不那么明显的回馈。有个成语“庖丁解牛”,听到刀在牛的肌体中游走,传递出的不同节奏,可谓是“以神遇而不以目视”的境界;热爱写作的人,能感觉到每敲下一个字,大脑中杂乱的信息开始变得井然有序、富有生命力。

▲更多内容,请戳心流:保持专注高效和幸福感翻倍的科学(附Ted演讲)

“心流之父”——米哈里·契克森米哈赖

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2021年10月20日,积极心理学的奠基人,匈牙利籍心理学家米哈里·契克森米哈赖(Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi 1934-2021)去世,享年87岁。 米哈里于1934年出生在当时的南斯拉夫,今天的克罗地亚。1965年,获得芝加哥大学博士学位。1990年,出版作品《心流:最优体验心理学》,随后被翻译成30余种文字。2000年,和塞利格曼联手发表《积极心理学导论》,是积极心理学创始人之一。 米哈里是“心流”理论的提出者,对积极心理学的发展产生了重大影响。


在趁早五种时间中,最为重要的“心流时间”,便是源于米哈里教授所提出并命名的心理学概念“心流”(Flow),也被翻译为“神驰”或“沉浸”状态,正如潇洒姐所说,我们是心流理论的实践者,也成为了传播者。

真正幸福的人,是那种工作时能体验到心流,闲暇时也能过得丰富多彩,不会虚度的人。只有不计较好坏,全身心投入生活的每一个细节时,才会觉得幸福,直接去找反而不会奏效。

——《心流》米哈里·契克森米哈赖

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