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高中英语虚拟语气练习
2016-12-30 | 阅:  转:  |  分享 
  
虚拟语气

第一节语气

英语的动词一般可带有三种不同的语气:陈述语气(IndicativeMood),祈使语气(ImperativeMood)和虚拟语气(SubjunctiveMood)。不同的语气用动词的不同形式(有的还借助句法形式)来表示。

第二节虚拟语气的概念

虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而是一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中或让步状语从句中);一是表示说话人的愿望、要求、命令、建议等(在宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句)。

第三节虚拟语气在条件句中

? 虚拟条件句 主句 与现在事实相反的假设 ?If+主语+动词的过去式

(动词be用were)



Theplatformwouldcollapseifallofyoustoodonit.假如你们都站在上面,这个平台就会塌下来的。 ?主语+should,would,

might,could+动词

原形



如果鲁迅还活着,看到新中国的伟大成就他会多么高兴啊! 与过去相反的假设 ?If+主语+had+过去分词



Ifthedoctorhadbeenavailable,thechildwouldhavebeensaved.如果有医生在,这个小孩就会得救了。 ?主语+should,

would,might,could

+havedone



如果飓风发生在白天,死亡的人数会更多。 与将来相反的假设 ?1、If+主语+动词过去式

2、If+主语+wereto+动词原形

3、If+主语+should+动词原形



IcouldseethesurfaceofthemoonwithmyowneyesifIweretogotothemoonsomeday.如果有一天我登上了月球,就能亲眼目睹月球的表面是什么样子了。 ?主语+should,would

might,could+动词

原形



如果明天是星期天,我就去看望我奶奶。 NOTE:使用虚拟条件句要注意的几点:

1.当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为:错综时间条件句“,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整.

Ifyouhadfollowedmyadvice,youwouldbebetternow.

如果你听我的建议,你现在就会痊愈了.

2.在条件句中,可省略if,把were,had,should提到句首,变为倒装句式.

Ifyouhadcomeearlier,youwouldhavemethim.

Hadyoucomeearlier,youwouldhavemethim.



第四节虚拟语气在名词从句中的运用

一、虚拟语气在主语从句中

A.在句型“Itisimportant(necessary,strange,natural)that....”中,表示某事重要、奇怪、自然、必要等;that后面的从句中的谓语动词用:should+动词原形(should可以省略)例如:

It’simportantthatweshouldtakegoodcareofthepatient.重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

这类的形容词还有advisable(可取的),appropriate(适当的),compulsary(必须的),crucial(关键的),desirable(理想的),essential(必要的),imperative(迫切的),important(重要的),possible(可能的),preferable(更好的),probable(可能的),strange(奇怪的),urgent(急迫的),vital(极为重要的)等。

B.在Itisdemanded/suggested/ordered/required/recommended/requested/required/.

that-clause句型中从句用(should)+动词原型,表示愿望,建议,请求等主观意愿等。

Itisdemandedthatweshouldworkoutaplan.

C.在Itisapity/ashame/nowonderproposal/recommendation/suggestion/surprise/advicethat…..句型中从句也常用(should)+动词原型,表示建议,命令,请求,道歉,怀疑,惊奇等。

It’sapitythatyou(should)missagoodchance.

二、用于宾语从句

用于表示命令、建议、要求等一类词后面的宾语从句。

insist,suggest,order,command,advise,propose,require,request,demand,desireetc.

注意:suggest当表示“暗示、表明“讲时,insist表示”坚持认为“之意时,应用陈述语气。

Theteachersuggestedthatweshouldcleantheblackboardafterclass.

老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。

Thesmileonhisfacesuggestedthathewassatisfiedwithourwork.

他脸上的表情表明他对我们的工作很满意.

Heinsistedthatallofusbethereontimebyanymeans.

他坚持要求我们大家想尽办法按时去那里。

Themaninsistedthathehadneverstolenthemoney.

那个人坚持说他没有偷钱.

三、用于表语从句和同位语从句

在suggestion/proposal/order/plan/advice/idea/request/desire/recommendation/resolution等名词后的表语和同位语从句中要用“should+动词原形”should可以省略.

MyadviceisthatyoushouldpracticespeakingEnglishasoftenaspossible.

我的建议是你要尽可能经常地练习说英语。

Thesuggestionthatthemayorshouldpresenttheprizeswasacceptedbyeveryone.

每个人都接受由市长颁发奖金这一建议。



第五节虚拟语气在其他从句中

1.Itis(high/about)timethat…从句中的谓语动词用过去式或should+动词原形,should不能省略.

It’shightimewewenttothelaboratory.该是我们去实验室的时候了。

2.Ifonly引导的感叹句(要是...该有多好啊;但愿);

2.1表示与现在或未来事实相反的愿望。用过去时或would/could+动词原形表示;

Ifonlyyoulistenedtous!要是你听我们的话该多好啊!

2.2与过去事实相反的愿望,用过去完成时。例如:

IfonlyIhadlistenedtothedoctor’sadvice!我要是听了医生的话就好了。

3.wouldrather,wouldsooner,wouldassoon,wouldprefer+从句也常用虚拟语气,表示宁愿、但愿之意。这种虚拟语气表示的不是与事实相反的假设,而是一种尚未实现的愿望+主语+动词过去时。例如:

Iwouldratheryoulefttoday.我宁愿你今天走。

Iwouldsoonermydaughterattendedapublicschool.但愿我的女儿能上公立学校。

Iwouldpreferhedidn’tstayheretoolong.

我倒希望他不要在这儿待得太久。

3.2表示过去的情况,在上述词后+主语+动词过去完成时。例如:

IwouldratherIhadn’tseenthatfilmyesterday.

我宁愿昨天没有看那场电影。

4.asif(asthough)看起来evenif(eventhough)即使常用虚拟形式,其构成形式与wish后宾语从句里的虚拟语气的构成形式相同,表示与现在事实相反(从句意上判断),用过去式;与过去事实相反用过去完成式(haddone),would/could+动词原形。例如:

Thefootballfansofactasiftheywerecrazy.那些足球迷们经常就像疯了似的。(act与were发生在同一时间平面上)

HeoftentalksaboutLondonasthoughhehadbeenthere.(hadbeenthere发生在talkes之前)

他常常谈起伦敦,就好像他去过那里似的。

Sheoftentalksandtalksasifshewouldneverstop.(wouldneverstop后于talksandtalks发生)

她常常讲起来没完没了。

5.虚拟语气在inorderthat,sothat,incase,lest,forfearthat引导的目的状语从句中的应用,从句中的谓语动词用"may(might)+动词原形"或"should+动词原形"。在以lest引导的从句中,谓语动词用"should+动词原形"。1.Jackwishesthathe_____businessinsteadofhistorywhenhewasinuniversity.

A.studied B.hadbeenstudying

C.study D.hadstudied

2.Themillionsofcalculationinvolved,hadtheybeendonebyhand,_____allpracticalvaluebythetimetheywerefinished.

A.hadlost B.wouldlose

C.wouldhavelost D.shouldhavelost

3.Itisessentialthattheseapplicationforms_____backasearlyaspossible.

A.mustbesent B.aresen w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

C.willbesent D.besent

4.Itisimportantthatthehotelreceptionist_____thatguestsareregisteredcorrectly.

A.hasmadesure B.mustmakesure

C.madesure D.makesure

5.Itwasessentialthattheapplicationforms_____backbeforethedeadline.

A.mustbesent B.besent

C.would高考资源网besent D.weresent

6.It''snecessary_____thedictionaryimmediately.

A.thathewillreturn B.thathereturn

C.thathereturned D.thathehastoreturn

7.Itisimportantthatenoughmoney_____tofundtheproject.

A.becollected B.wascollected

C.mustbecollected D.canbecollected

8.Idon''tthinkitadvisablethatTom_____tothejobsincehehasnoexperience.

A.isassigned B.beassigned

C.willbeassigned D.hasbeenassigned

9.Thewww.ks5u.comsuggestionthatthemayor_____theprizeswasacceptedbyeveryone.

A.wouldpresent B.presentw.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

C.oughttopresent D.presents

10.Weareallforyourproposalthatthediscussion_____.

A.beputoff B.shouldputoff

C.wasputoff D.istoputoff

11.You_____himsoclosely;youshouldhavekeptyourdistance.

A.shouldn''thavebeenfollowing B.mustn''tfollow

C.couldn''thavebeenfollowing D.shouldn''tfollow

12.Themanagerwouldratherhisdaughter_____inthesameoffice.

A.doesnotwork B.hadnotworked

C.nottowork D.didnotwork

13.Wouldn''tyouratheryourchild_____tobedearly?

A.go B.wouldgo

C.went D.goes

14.I''dratheryou_____makeanycommentontheissueforthetimebeing.

A.don''t B.didn''t

C.wouldn''t D.shouldn''t

15.Mike''suncleinsists_____inthishotel.

A.stayingnot B.thathewouldnotstay

C.nottostay D.thathenotstay

16.AsCommander-in-Chiefofthearmedforces,Ihavedirectedthatallmeasures____forourdefense.

A.hadbeentaken B.betaken

C.wouldbetaken D.tobetaken

17.Themanagerofthehotelrequeststhattheirguests_____after11:00p.m.

A.nottoplayloudmusic B.don''tplayloudmusic

C.shouldn''tplayloudmusic D.couldn''tpalyloadmusic

18.Wedesirethatthetourleader____usimmediatelyofanychangeinplans.

A.inform B.informs

C.informed D.hasinformed

19.Hesuggested_____totomorrow''sexhibitiontogether.

A.ustogo B.weshallgo

C.wewent D.wego

20.SometimesIwishI_____inadifferenttimeandadifferentplace.

A.beliving B.wouldlive

C.wereliving D.wouldhavelived

21.IwishI_____longerthismorning,butIhadtogetupandcometoclass.

A.couldhaveslept B.mighthaveslept

C.slept D.havesleptw.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

22.Jeandoesn''twanttoworkrightawaybecauseshethinksthatifshe_____ajobsheprobablywouldn''tbeabletoseeherfriendsveryoften.

A.hastoget B.hadgot

C.weretoget D.couldhavegot

23.Ifthewholeoperation____beforehand,agreatdealoftimeandmoneywouldhavebeenlost.

A.wasnotplanned B.hadnotbeenplanned

C.hasnotbeenplanned D.werenotplanned

24.Hadheworkedharder,he_____theexams.

A.musthavegotthrough B.wouldgetthrough

C.wouldhavegotthrough D.couldgetthrough

25._____beforewedepartthedayaftertomorrow,weshouldhaveawonderfuldinnerparty.

A.Hadtheyarrived B.Weretheyarriving

C.Wouldtheyarrive D.Weretheytoarrive

26._____rightnow,shewouldgetthereonSunday.

A.Wouldsheleave B.Wereshetoleave C.Ifsheleaves D.Ifshehadleft

27._____formyillnessIwouldhavelenthimahelpinghand.

A.Notbeing B.Withoutbeing C.Haditnotbeen D.Nothavingbeen

28._____foryourlaziness,youcouldhavefinishedtheassignmentbynow.

A.Haditnotbeen B.Weren''tit C.Itwerenot D.Hadnotitbeen

29.Ifit_____toomuchtrouble,I''dloveacupoftea.

A.isn''t B.weren''t C.wasn''t D.hadn''tbeen

30.IfIhadn''tstoodundertheladdertocatchyouwhenyoufell,you_____now.

A.wouldn''tbesmiling B.won''tsmile C.couldn''thavesmiled D.didn''tsmile

31.Wedidn''tknowhistelephonenumber;otherwisewe_____him.

A.wouldhavetelephoned B.wouldtelephone

C.musthavetelephoned D.hadtelephoned

32.Hemusthavehadanaccident,orhe_____then.

A.wouldhavebeenhere B.shouldbehere

C.hadtobehere D.wouldbehere

33.Somewomen____agoodsalaryinajobinsteadofstayinghome,buttheydecidednottoworkforthesakeofthefamily.

A.mustmake w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.mB.shouldhavemade

C.wouldmakew.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.mD.couldhavemade

34.We_____tostartourownbusiness,butweneverhadenoughmoney.

A.havehoped B.hadhoped

C.wouldhope D.shouldhope

35.Themadmanwasputinthesoft-paddedcelllesthe_____himself.

A.injure B.injured

C.hadinjured D.wouldinjure

36."Youareveryselfish.It''shightimeyou_______thatyouarenotthemostimportantpersonintheworld",Edgarsaidtohisbossangrily.

A.realized B.realize

C.haverealized D.shouldrealize

37.It''salready5o''clocknow.Don''tyouthinkit''sabouttime_____?

A.wearegoinghome B.wewenthome

C.wegohome D.wecangohome

38.Ifonlythecommittee_____theregulationsandputthemintoeffectassoonaspossible.

A.approve B.canapprove

C.willapprove D.wouldapprove

39.LookattheterriblesituationIamin!IfonlyI_____youradvice.

A.follow B.wouldfollow

C.hadfollowed D.havefollowed

40.I''msureheisuptothejob____hewouldgivehismindtoit.

A.ifonly B.incase

C.until D.unless

虚拟语气历年高考题

1.Sorry,Iamtoobusynow.IfI____time,Iwouldcertainlygoforanoutingwithyou.(2012湖南)

A.havehadB.hadhadC.haveD.had

2.Ifmycar____morereliable,IwouldhavedriventoLasainsteadofflyinglastsummer.(2012陕西)

A.wasB.hadbeenC.shouldbeD.wouldbe

3.We____thedifficultytogether,butwhydidn’tyoutellme?(2012北京)

A.shouldfaceB.mightfaceC.couldhavefacedD.musthavefaced

4.Welostourwayinthatsmallvillage,otherwisewe____moreplacesofinterestyesterday.(2012福建)

A.visitedB.hadvisitedC.wouldvisitD.wouldhavevisited

5.Gracedoesn’twanttomovetoNewYorkbecauseshethinksifshe____there,shewouldn’tbeabletoseeherparentsveryoften.(2012安徽)

A.livesB.wouldliveC.havingaskedD.weretolive

6.ButforthehelpofmyEnglishteacher,I____thefirstprizeintheEnglishWritingCompetition.(2009福建)

A.wouldnotwinB.wouldnothavewonC.wouldwinD.wouldhavewon

7.Thankyouforallyourhardworklastweek.Idon’tthinkwe____itwithoutyou.(2008山东)

A.canmanageB.couldhavemanagedC.couldmanageD.canhavemanaged

8._____fired,yourhealthcareandotherbenefitswillnotbeimmediatelycutoff.(2006湖北)

A.WouldyoubeB.ShouldyoubeC.CouldyoubeD.Mightyoube

9.---DoyoumindifIopenthewindow?

---____Ifeelabitcold.(2004广东)

A.Ofcoursenot.B.I’dratheryoudidn’t.C.Goahead.D.Whynot?

10.ItishardformetoimaginewhatIwouldbedoingtodayifI____inlove,attheageofseven,withtheMelindaCoxLibraryinmyhometown.(2002上海)

A.wouldn’thavefallenB.hadnotfallenC.shouldfallD.weretofall

11.Whatwouldhavehappened____,asfarastheriverbank?(2001上海)

A.BobhadwalkedfartherB.ifBobshouldwalkfarther

C.hadBobwalkedfartherD.ifBobwalkedfarther

12.Hehesitatedforamomentbeforekickingtheball,otherwisehe____agoal.(2001上海春)

A.hadscoredB.scoredC.wouldscoreD.wouldhavescored

13.Ifonlyhe____quietlyasthedoctorinstructed,hewouldn’tsuffersomuchnow.(2000上海)

A.liesB.layC.hadlainD.shouldlie

14.Withouttheairtoholdsomeofthesun’sheat,theearthatnight___,toocoldforustolive.(1997上海)

A.wouldbefreezingcoldB.willbefreezingcoldly

C.wouldbefrozencoldD.canfreezecoldly

15.Youdidn’tletmedrive.Ifwe___inturn,you____sotired.(1996上海)

A.drove;didn’tgetB.drove;wouldn’tget

C.weredriving;wouldn’tgetD.haddriven;wouldn’thavegot

16._____forthefreetickets,Iwouldnothavegonetothefilmssooften.(1995上海)

A.IfitisnotB.WereitnotC.HaditnotbeenD.Iftheywerenot

17.Jane’spalefacesuggestedthatshe____ill,andherparentssuggestedthatshe____amedicalexamination.(1994上海)

A.be;shouldhaveB.was;haveC.shouldbe;hadD.was;has

18.Ididnotseeyoursisteratthemeeting.Ifshe____,shewouldhavemetmybrother.(1994全国)

A.hascomeB.didcomeC.cameD.hadcome

19.____itraintomorrow,wewouldhavetoputoffthevisittotheYangpuBridge.(1994上海)

A.WereB.ShouldC.WouldD.Will

20.Thetwostrangerstalkedasifthey___friendsforyears.(1993上海)

A.shouldbeB.wouldbeC.havebeD.hadbeen

21.Iftheweatherhadbeenbetter,wecouldhavehadapicnic.Butit____allday.(2008全国)

A.rainedB.rainsC.hasrainedD.israining

22.They___twofreeticketstoCanada,otherwisethey’dneverhavebeenabletoaffordtogo.(2007山东)

A.hadgotB.gotC.havegotD.get

23.---Don’tyouthinkitnecessarythathe___toMiamibuttoNewYork?

---Iagree,buttheproblemis___hehasrefusedto.(2005江苏)

A.willnotbesent;thatB.notbesent;that

C.shouldnotbesent;whatD.shouldnotsend;what

24.HadIknownaboutthiscomputerprogram,ahugeamountoftimeandenergy??????.(2010浙江)

A.wouldhavebeensaved??????????????????????????B.hadbeensaved

C.willbesaved???????????????????????????????????????????D.wassaved

A.shouldtellB.tellsC.toldD.hadtold

26.----Theweatherhasbeenveryhotanddry.

----Yes.Ifithadrainedevenadrop,thingswouldbemuchbetternow!Andmyvegetables________.(2010北京)

A.wouldn’tdieB.didn’tdieC.hadn’tdiedD.wouldn’thavedied

27.Georgeisgoingtotalkaboutthegeographyofhiscountry,butI’dratherhe____moreonitsculture.(2010江苏)

A.focusB.focusedC.wouldfocusD.hadfocused

28.Ifwe_____theotherroad,wemighthavearrivedhereintimeforthemeeting.(2010陕西)

A.takeB.hadtakenC.tookD.havetaken

29.---Pityyoumissedthelectureonnuclearpollution.---I_____it,butIwasbusypreparingforajobinterview.(2011福建34’)

A.attendedB.hadattendedC.wouldattendD.wouldhaveattended

30.—Wherearethechildren?Thedinner’sgoingtobecompletelyruined.—Iwishthey____alwayslate.(2011北京,28)Aweren’tB.hadn’tbeenC.wouldn''tbeD.wouldn''thavebeen

























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