难超凡 / 鱼友经验与交流 / 孔雀鱼汇总

0 0



2010-01-13  难超凡

Guppies do quite well in a temperature range of 68 to 80 degrees F. However, 72 degrees seems to be best for good health. Guppies will survive in water as low as 60 degrees F, however due to lowered metabolism they will not breed, they are very inactive, and any fish weakened by disease will die at this temperature. Tank water tends to be only a couple of degrees cooler than the surrounding room temperature, so if the room you keep the tank in is at least 70 degrees at all times you really won't need to buy a tank heater. It is beneficial to keep the temperature about the same at all times, so when you make partial water changes try to add water at about the same temperature as the water already in the tank. Be aware that an extremely rapid temperature change can send fish into shock.
在華氏68 – 80 度的水溫裏孔雀魚能存活的很好,但是華氏72 度的水溫確是它們的最佳生活環境。儘管孔雀魚也能存活於華氏60 度的低水溫裏,但是由於低溫所以會降低它們的新陳代謝機能,如此更造成在這段時期內不易有生育行為;沒有活力而且容易被疾病感染而致使身體虛弱。一般飼養缸裏的水溫是會低於室內大氣溫度約2度,所以只要飼養者能隨時保持最低華氏70 度的室內大氣溫度,那麼就不需再花錢買魚缸水溫加溫器。由於過度激烈的水溫變化容易造成魚隻驚嚇及生病,所以飼養者在換水的過程中必須小心保持加入新水後的魚缸水溫仍能是未換水前的溫度,即使無法達到像未換水前的溫度但也要力求水溫差異不至於過大。

Fish need oxygen to survive. If your guppies are gasping at the water's surface, this is a sign that there is not enough oxygen in the tank for the number of fish you have. How the tank is constructed has a very large impact on the oxygen level in a tank. Oxygen from the air enters the water at the surface of the water, so the larger the surface area of water the faster oxygen can be exchanged. Therefore, it is best for the health of the fish to choose short wide tanks, over tall slender tanks. The standard calculation for guppies is 20 square inches of surface per inch of fish, measuring the fish from nose to the point where the tail meets the body. Water movement is also beneficial to oxygen absorbtion, and a discharge from your filtering system that splashes can add a lot to the oxygen content of the tank. An air pump, either as part of a filtration system or simply by itself, can be of benefit, too. Cooler water is able to hold more oxygen than warmer water, so it is best to keep your fish in the cooler end of their temperature range. Also, adding salt increases oxygen absorbtion, but be sure to use sea salt not iodized table salt. One teaspoon per gallon is about right, and will not harm the plants. Some live plants can also add a small amount of oxygen to a tank, but how much varies by plant and at night plants will actually absorb some oxygen. Since fish are not as active and don't need as much oxygen at night this is usually not a problem. Do not allow dead fish and plants, or excess food to sit on the bottom of a tank for any period of time, as the bacteria that break these things down use up a lot of oxygen. It's a good idea to use a syphon tube to clean the bottom regularly and prevent a build-up of rotting matter.
孔雀魚需要氧氣才能存活,所以當我們看到它們無力的浮游在水面上換氣時,這就是一種警訊並代表飼養缸裏的水中含氧量不足。飼養缸裏的水中含氧量多寡將造成魚隻的重大衝擊,一般水中含氧量是來自並決定於魚缸水面面積的大小,所以如果有較大的水面積就代表氧氣能被較快的更換。因此,為了魚隻健康,在選擇魚缸時必須選擇水面積能較大的魚缸。除此之外,水流也可增加水的含氧量,像空氣幫浦和水妖精等都會因為帶動水流而使水的含氧量增加。一般較低水溫的水中含氧量會比較高水溫的水中含氧量高,所以水溫最好控制在孔雀魚能存活良好的溫度範圍內(華氏68 – 80 度)的較低溫層(華氏72 度)。另外,在飼養缸裏加入適量的海鹽(粗鹽)也能增加水中含氧量,但是必須注意的是此種鹽必須是海鹽(粗鹽),而不是經過處理過後的食用鹽。為了不傷害飼養缸裏的水中植物,通常是一加侖的水加入一茶匙的海鹽(粗鹽)即可。另外,在飼養缸裏千萬不要有死魚;死的水中植物和殘食在缸底,因為細菌會消耗水中氧氣來分解它們並造成水質敗壞。為了避免水質敗壞,飼養者可利用吸管定期清理掉缸底的穢物。

Carbon dioxide is a chemical waste that fish produce, and like other fish wastes it is harmful. The bacteria that consume dead fish and plants, and excess food, also produce carbon dioxide. Fortunately, most methods for increasing oxygen in a tank will also decrease carbon dioxide. In fact, in the daytime, live plants will consume carbon dioxide. If your fish show signs of oxygen distress, you can be pretty sure they are also suffering from carbon dioxide poisoning.

The biggest killer of many species of fish including guppies is ammonia, another waste product of fish. Dead fish and plants, and excess food rotting on the bottom will also produce ammonia. Signs of ammonia poisoning are rapid breathing, erratic swimming, rubbing themselves on objects in the tank. If the ammonia is very severe, you may see red streaks and spots on the fins and tail, and even black marks on the tips of the fins and tail which are ammonia burns. Some of your fish may die immediately, but even after you take care of the problem, damage to internal organs may kill some fish weeks later. Pregnant females, and small babies are particularly vulnerable. Fish exposed to ammonia are more likely to become infected by various bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases for weeks afterwards. A high ph level can make ammonia poisoning even worse. There are basically three ways to remove ammonia from a tank. The first is by large water changes, but is not recommended unless you have a serious emergency. Large water changes will change the chemical balance in the tank, the ph level, and can also change the water temperature even if you are very careful. Rapid changes in water conditions can put your fish into shock and kill them, and when your fish are already stressed from ammonia you are almost sure to lose some. If you have no choice and must use this method, be sure that there is no chlorine in the water. For those on a city water system you will need to purchase something to remove the chlorine, or chloramines. Chlorine is as hard on fish as ammonia, and when the two chemicals mix you will quickly realize that your fish would have been better off without the water change. Well water can contain harmful gases, but in an ammonia emergency you don't have time to remove those gases and the ammonia is far more harmful. The second method of removing ammonia is to purchase products that absorb ammonia. Be aware that the use of salt in the tank renders most ammonia absorbing products less effective. The up side is that they work fast, and it's better for use in an emergency as you do not risk shock to the fish. Usually, it's a good idea to keep one of these products on hand, just in case of an emergency. Do not depend on ammonia absorbing products to regularly keep your tank free of ammonia. By the time you realize the product has stopped working, it is too late and your ammonia levels can be dangerous. Also, ammonia absorbing products remove minerals from the water that are important to fish health. The third method is the bio-filter. Bio-filters vary greatly in construction, but what they all have in common is that they make use of bacteria to remove the ammonia from the water. There are a few disadvantages to using a bio-filter. The first is that they do take a few weeks to become fully operational, so you may have some ammonia problems at first. Fortunately, most pet stores carry bottled bacteria that you can use to "seed" your filter, and this speeds up the process a lot. Also, starting your tank with only a few fish at first can prevent this problem. The second problem is that your fish will be exposed to other dangerous chemicals, as a result of the bacterial breakdown process of the ammonia. Fortunately, those other chemicals are not as dangerous as ammonia, and are easily taken care of as you will see later. The third problem is that the bacteria uses oxygen to process the ammonia, however an air pump, or splash discharge, often adds more oxygen than the bacteria uses up, so this may not really be a problem unless your pump breaks down or you don't keep your filter clean. Another concern is that should your fish become ill, many antibiotics will kill your bio-filter. The good news is that ammonia is often the reason fish become sick in the first place, so with a well established filter you may never have to worry about antibiotics. The major advantage of bio-filters, is that once the bacteria is established, you can pretty much count on it to keep your tank free of ammonia for as long as you keep your tank.
另外一種屬於魚隻的製造物也是許多魚種包括孔雀魚的最大無形殺手就是阿摩尼亞,即使是水中裏的死魚;死的水中植物和殘食也都會因為被分解而產生這種有毒化學物質。阿摩尼亞中毒時魚隻的中毒癥兆是:魚隻呼吸急促;泳姿怪異和用身體磨擦缸內物質。假如此時魚缸內的水中阿摩尼亞含量過高,也會導致魚鰭和魚尾出現紅色條紋及斑點,甚至在魚鰭和魚尾處會出現被阿摩尼亞燒焦的黑點,即使此時飼養者馬上換水並減輕水中阿摩尼亞含量,一些魚會因為阿摩尼亞中毒而馬上死亡,但是有些魚隻卻能倖存下來,但是由於倖存下來魚隻的體內器官也已經受到傷害,所以即使現在暫時能存活下來但它們也可能於數週後死亡,特別是帶胎的母魚和仔魚更易受阿摩尼亞毒害。魚隻暴露於阿摩尼亞環境下易導致它們以後數週內更容易受到不同的細菌;真菌和寄生蟲感染機率。而過高的PH質則會加重阿摩尼亞中毒程度。無論如何,有下列3種方法可除去水中的阿摩尼亞:1). 大量的換水。但是一般不建議用此法來降低水中的阿摩尼亞除非飼養者真正遇到嚴重且緊急的阿摩尼亞中毒,因為大量的換水會改變魚缸內化學物質平衡狀態(如PH質)及水溫,而此種劇烈變化將會導致魚隻驚嚇而死亡。假如飼養者非得使用大量的換水方法時,也必須確定新水中也沒有含氯的化學物質存在。氯和阿摩尼亞一樣對魚有害,而如果此時你所要換的新水中同時含有氯和阿摩尼亞成份,那飼養者應該選擇以寧願不換水為首要目標。2). 購買可吸收中和阿摩尼亞成份的物質 (如水質穩定劑),但在水中加鹽反而將降低此種物質吸收中和阿摩尼亞的效率。通常此方法是最好的方法,因為此法並不會對魚隻造成過度衝擊。但是即使此物質有如此的功效但也千萬別太過依賴並過度使用,因為它也會稀釋水中對魚隻有益且重要的礦物質成份。3). 使用生物過濾器(水妖精),這是非常好的水族配備,而它主要的原理就是使用培養硝化菌來分解水中的阿摩尼亞。但是使用此法也有下列幾項缺點:A). 剛開始使用時必須花費數週時間才可培養出硝化菌,但是你也可買現成的硝化菌當菌種,如此也可加速及縮短培養硝化菌的速度。除此之外,你也可先養一些魚在剛設缸的缸子裏,如此也可避免花費太多的培養硝化菌時間。B). 在硝化菌分解水中阿摩尼亞的過程中可能導致魚隻暴露在因化學變化所產生的其他危險化學物質中,但幸運的是,這些化學物質並不像阿摩尼亞那樣危險且它們也比較容易被處理掉。C). 在硝化菌分解水中阿摩尼亞的過程中會消耗水中氧氣,但幸運的是空氣幫浦或水妖精所產生的氧氣量遠比消耗氧氣的量多,除非你的空氣幫浦壞掉或許水妖精骯髒堵塞。總之,使用生物過濾器(水妖精)的最主要優點是,一旦飼養缸內建立起硝化菌系統,只要飼主定期清理魚缸,飼主就可完全依賴此生化系統並不需擔心魚缸水質中是否含有致死的阿摩尼亞成份。
The bacteria in the bio-filter use oxygen to break ammonia down into nitrites. As nitrites reduce the oxygen carrying ability of the blood in fish, the fish will begin to breath rapidly in the corners of the tank usually near the bottom. The fish will swim slower than usual and may even sit on the bottom. Excessive, long term exposure can kill, though this doesn't happen too often. A second group of bacteria in your bio-filter use oxygen to break down nitrites into nitrates, but these bacteria take longer to establish than the ones that break down ammonia. Generally, the only time you will see nitrite poisoning by itself is during the first few weeks a bio-filter is being established. Dead fish or plants, or excess food can also contribute to this problem, so remove them right away. Salt in the tank is a big help for fish experiencing this problem, as it can help them take up oxygen. "Seeding" the filter, and starting with only a small number of fish, can prevent this problem altogether.

As you've probably already guessed nitrates that are the breakdown product of nitrites are not good for fish either. Fortunately, this is not a very toxic chemical, and only very large quantities will make fish ill. The only symptoms that I am aware of are that the fish are more susceptible to bacterial, and fungal infections. Almost all bodies of water have some nitrates in it, as algae and water plants cannot grow without nitrates for nourishment. To take care of this problem make small, frequent water changes, or use live plants. Not only do plants do an excellent job of consuming nitrates, but guppies like to nibble on some varieties of plants thus supplementing their diet. Plants add greatly to the appearance of a tank, and may help to a small degree with stunting algae growth. Unlike other species of fish, guppies do not tend to eat enough of the plants to affect the appearance of the tank.

In general, anything in the air that's not good for you is not good for your fish. In fact it's worse for the fish because the water in the tank acts as a filter for the air in the room. Do not allow anyone to smoke in the same room as your fish. I have seen fish raised in smoke filled rooms. The survivors are always stunted and ugly, and show signs of various diseases. If you must paint a room, move the fish! Also, never use insecticides in the same room. Bug bombs are definitely out.

There are pollutants in the air that can't be avoided, and unfortunately they tend to accumulate in the fish tank which is unhealthy for the fish. Also, tank water tends to discolor over time, develop a fishy odor, and little particles may float around in the water. This will not harm the fish, but it is unappealing. Partial water changes can help a little, but does not solve these problems. That is why many people choose to use a mechanical filter. A mechanical filter uses a fibrous material to remove large particles from the water, and charcoal or carbon to remove pollutants, discoloration, and odors that the bio-filter can't. In some mechanical filters you can also use an ammonia absorbing product, though I wouldn't recommend it unless you have an ammonia emergency. There are some very nice filters on the market that are a combination bio- and mechanical filter. Understand that a mechanical filter is not essential. Your fish will live long lives without it. It simply makes tank maintenance a lot easier for you. If you plan to go without carbon or charcoal in a mechanical filter, be sure to make partial water changes once a week to remove pollutants.
空氣中有一些不可避免的污染物,不幸的是,它們會被累積在魚缸內造成水質變化(如養殖水變色;養殖水變味和有懸浮顆粒物質在水中),儘管這些物質不會對魚隻造成傷害但是卻令人不高興。雖然說適度的換水可以改善少許不良現象但是還是無法根本解決問題,這也就是為什麼人們會選擇用機械式的過濾系統(如圓筒 OR 外掛式過濾器)來過濾他殺的飼養缸。機械式的過濾系統是用纖維狀的物質來除去水中的懸浮顆粒,而用木碳或碳來除去水中的異味和異色。除非你的飼養缸有嚴重的阿摩尼亞危機,不然我是不建議在機械式的過濾系統中再加入能吸收並稀釋阿摩尼亞的物質。總之,如果你不想在機械式的過濾系統中再加入木碳或碳來除去水中的異味和異色,你只有養成固定每週數次換水的習慣以期除去水中污染物。

Sea salt should also be added to your tank water. I use one teaspoon per gallon when I initially set up a tank, then about once a month make a partial water change, adding the same ratio of salt to the new water. Salt increases the ability of water to carry oxygen, helps fish produce good protective slime coats, and adds minerals to the water that fish absorb through their skins. These minerals aid in bone and tissue growth. Salt also provides a hostile environment for fungi and parasites, and so helps prevent disease beyond the natural protection of a good slime coat. Generally, it's less expensive to purchase sea salt at health food stores, rather than pet shops. Although, the sea salt purchased at a pet shop will have more minerals, it isn't necessary to go to that expense. Be sure never to use table salt, iodized salt, or salt with anti-caking ingredients. Also, do not ever use more salt than recommended, as a larger quantity will chemically "burn" your fish to death. Sometimes, large quantities of salt are used for a short period of time to cure specific diseases, but never used on a regular basis.

Occasional water changes are necessary. Under normal circumstances, if you use carbon in your filter, once a month is more than enough. Sometimes, partial water changes are used in the treatment of illness to rid the water of disease or chemicals. Sometimes, partial water changes are made when a tank is run without an adequate mechanical filter. In this case it's usually for the sake of appearance, though sometimes it can also benefit the fish. If you can avoid it, never change more than half of the tank's water at once. If you get your water from a well, you will need to let the water sit out for a week. Well water tends to contain certain gases that can be harmful to your fish, and when it sits out those gases are released into the air. If you are on city water, you will need to purchase something to remove either chlorine, or chloramines from your water depending on the city you live in. If chlorine is the problem, you can also let the water sit out for three days, rather than purchase a chlorine neutralizing product. Chloramines will require special treatment. After you're sure the water is clear of gases, and chlorine or chloramines, you will want to add salt (usually 1 teaspoon per gallon). Make sure the water you are about to add is as close to the temperature of the fish tank as possible. Now you can remove water from the fish tank, and replace it with your fresh, treated water.

Water will also evaporate from the tank over time. You will notice that the water level isn't as high as it should be. When replacing evaporated water, treat the new water just as you would when making a partial water change, except do not add salt. Salt doesn't evaporate.


Guppies are omnivorous, and in nature consume quite a variety foods. If you've ever seen a humpbacked guppy, the deformity was probably caused by malnutrition rather than genes. Malnutrition also causes small liters, premature birth, and miscarriage. If you only feed one variety of food, your fish may stop reproducing altogether. Commercial fish food manufacturers do make food specifically for guppies, but even these foods seem to be incomplete. Buy a commercial food for guppies then supplement their diet with at least one of the following: brine shrimp, tubifex worms, blood worms, mosquito larva, or any other small insect or worm-like creature. Pet shops keep most of these freeze dried or frozen, and occasionally live. It doesn't hurt to also buy a standard food for tropical fish, then rotate foods, giving your fish a different type of food each feeding. Plankton, and algae based foods are also good to add to the diet. The more varieties of food you give your fish, the more likely they will get the nutrition they need. Warning - Don't feed cyclops to your guppies, as this small creature carries a parasite that is harmful to guppies and is difficult to get rid of.
孔雀魚是雜食性的魚種,葷的跟素的都吃的,在自然界消耗相當量的多變的食物.如果你曾看過駝背的孔雀魚,這樣的畸形是由營養不良而非基因產生,營養不良也會導致產量小,早產甚至流產.如果僅僅供給一種種食品, 魚魚可能完全的停止繁殖。儘速商業魚食製造商製雖已特別針對孔雀魚需要調配魚餌, 但是這些食品營養成份看來並不齊全,所以飼者至少須還要購買下列之一的餌料來搭配主食使孔雀魚能獲得額外的營養來源:而這些餌料包括豐年蝦 , 絲蚯蚓, 紅蟲, 蚊子幼蟲, 或者任何其他小昆蟲。寵物商店多數賣乾燥的或是冷凍的偶而會賣活的. 這是無傷的就是買一般的食物給熱帶魚,輪流餵食,在每一次餵食時給予不同的食物.浮游生物, 藻類食物對營養的增加也是蠻好的。提供給魚越多樣的食物,魚魚越有可能得到它所須要的營養.警告:不要提供水蚤給你的魚魚,水蚤會把有害的寄生虫帶進你的孔雀魚,並且非常困難除虫.
Just as important as diet, is frequency. It is better to feed more small meals than one big one. I find that with less than three meals a day, the babies don't grow as fast or as big as they should, and the adults get so hungry between meals that they start eating babies. I have heard that some professional breeders feed their fish as much as six times per day, however most people don't have that kind of time nor is it really necessary.

There is also a product sold as an appetite stimulant and an aid for fish that are in shock. The brand I use is called "Cravex", though there are probably other brands out there. You can find it in the pharmacy section of your pet shop. What it really is vitamins, minerals, and protein that you add to the water. There are no growth hormones or other hormones in it. There are also fish vitamins available, which are very similar to the appetite stimulant, and can be used in conjunction with it. Fish will absorb a lot of nutrients through their skin, and I think of this as a vitamin supplement even though the fish don't actually eat it. Since discovering this product my fish not only appear healthier, but my liter size has doubled. This is wonderful for those of us who don't have the time or resources to acquire the variety of foods our guppies need for complete nutrition. Of course you should still feed several types of food, but I like to think of this as nutritional insurance.
坊間也有賣一種刺激及增進胃口的產品,我用過的商標叫做" Cravex " ,應該還有別種牌子的.你可以在寵物商店的藥學部找到它.他的成份含有維生素, 礦物質 和蛋白質. 使用方法是加到水中.但其成份中不含生長激素或者其他的荷爾蒙
There are also fish vitamins available, which are very similar to the appetite stimulant, and can be used in conjunction with it.  (除了Cravex外,市面上也還有一些類似能刺激及增進魚隻胃口的魚隻專用維他命產品,而這類的維他命也可搭配Cravex產品一起使用)
魚隻透過皮膚吸收許多營養物,雖然不是透過口服,魚魚還是可以吸收到這些維他命.自從發現這個產品以來我的魚不僅看來更健康, 而且尺寸增加一倍了。對於沒有太多時間或資源去提供多樣的食物以補充孔雀魚所須的完整營養的人來說這類產品是非常的好用.當然,飼者還是應該搭配其他餌料餵食魚隻.but I like to think of this as nutritional insurance. (而這類副食我認為並把它們當成是營養的補給品)


Midge Hill Out-Crossing Tips
Here are some tips to help you develop a new strain from out-crossing. They were gleaned from an article, How To Outcross Guppy Strains, written by Midge Hill.
She imparts these general rules for crosses that are worth noting:
1.Cross two established strains with tight and stable genetics. That means the established strains should have bred true for several generations.

2.Choose vigorous and fertile strains for out-crossing. Since inbreeding is part of the strategy for setting a new strain and inbreeding often leads to reduced fertility and vigor, the fertility and vigor of the outcross strain is important. Point two might be in conflict with point one since pure breeding guppies with stable genetics are often somewhat infertile, so you must weigh the options. When in doubt choose the strain that that has the most stable genetics.

3.Limit the factors you are crossing. A red strain with an inferior dorsal bred to a red strain with a superior dorsal has a much better chance after the spin of the gene roulette wheel than a cross to another color strain.
將異種雜交的不確定因素降至最低。也就是說與其相信雜交會得到好魚,倒不如用同系統但是是互補關係的魚來改良你的魚線。但是同種的魚線必須要多,如此才可補齊原有品系魚種的原有基因(因為由於LINE BREEDING OR INBREEDING 後通常都會遺失掉一些對偶基因因而導致所謂基因弱化的發生)。而根據國外研究表示,擁有20條同種的魚線確實可以避免95%的基因流失。

4.Keep the original strains going. After several generations you will need to backcross to one of the previous strains.

5.Try the cross both ways, that is, male of your strain to female of the outcross strain and vice versa. Both the male and female carry the genes determining the phenotype of your strain.

The central message of Midge Hill's article on out-crossing is to enter into the process deliberately with set goals. She warns that brute force crosses often lead to mixed up guppies that tend to revert to wild size, patterns and color. The most important reason for out-crossing, according to Hill, is to acquire a missing trait for your strain. However, as we will see in subsequent articles, there are other legitimate reasons for crossing guppies, not least of all, is just for the fun of it.


    本站是提供个人知识管理的网络存储空间,所有内容均由用户发布,不代表本站观点。如发现有害或侵权内容,请点击这里 或 拨打24小时举报电话:4000070609 与我们联系。




    请遵守用户 评论公约

    喜欢该文的人也喜欢 更多