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地球上的“工业伤疤” 美与丑的悖论

2010-06-21  往事越千...
       在这些图片中,摄影师亨利·费尔(J Henry Fair)以镜头来记录和控诉工业文明给地球带来的不可修复的环境破坏。该系列作品以艺术家独有的视角,通过对色彩和形态的巧妙捕捉,将人们的矛盾心理推至极端:乍看是绚烂多彩的艺术摄影,可它们竟是工业废料排放和污染给地球造成破坏后的景象。“地球上的工业伤疤”曾在意大利、德国和新加坡等地举行巡回摄影展。在意大利哥尔顿一站,亨利·费尔在谈到自己的作品时,显得义愤填膺。他严厉指责还在使用纸巾的人们,他说:“洗过手之后我宁可在裤子上擦干,也不会去用纸巾!” 作为一名环保积极分子,他周游世界,利用航拍,将工厂向自然环境中排放废料的情况记录下来,以视觉震撼揭露工业制造带来的噩梦,来唤醒人们的环保意识。
 
The Last Stand最后的矗立
   ( In these images, photographer J Henry Fair documents the unsustainable consumption of our planet’s natural resources, like petroleum. He says his work “is a response to my vision of society” and his aim was to make the photos "beautiful and frightening simultaneously.”) In this photo, overburden created by blasting is removed using various machines. Mining operations work around the clock at amazing speeds; this lonely patch of trees disappeared in barely a day. The small bulldozer on the upper level pushes loose material down to the loader, which scoops it up into the next earth mover in line, which will dump it into a nearby valley fill, burying the stream there.
        煤矿开采业争分夺秒地攫取着大地的资源。爆破,挖掘,不惜破坏生态,仅为取其所需。图中瓦砾堆上的小型推土机将松动的沙石推至下方接应的推土机中。而后旁边待命的装载车将沙石卸入附近的河谷中。河谷中的溪流就是这么被填平的。瓦砾堆上矗立着的小树丛,在黄昏暮色下瑟瑟发抖,难逃被连根拔起的命运。
 
 
Paintbox“颜料盒”
   These are holding ponds at a coal-burning power plant. Both the combustion ash and the smokestack residue from coal-burning power plants are extremely toxic. Coal plants are a major source of radiation released into the environment; additionally, these plants release concentrated levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, selenium, sulfates, boron and other contaminants.
        这是燃煤发电厂的废料排放池。燃煤发电所排放的灰烬和烟雾都是有毒物质。另外,高浓度的的砷(即砒霜),杜松醇,铬,铅,硒,硫酸盐,硼等多种污染物也是燃煤发电的排放物。大自然中的有害辐射物,主要来自于燃煤发电厂。
 
 
Facial Tissues“化妆面纸”
  This is a waste treatment aeration pond at a paper mill. This particular factory produces a popular facial tissue. The primary task of the treatment pond is to remove organics (wood fiber) from the water before it is returned to its source (typically a river). These ponds are filled with a mixture of microorganisms that break down the organic material. The aeration process breaks up particles in the effluent and provides oxygen to the microbes.
        这是一个造纸厂的水流处理曝气池。该厂主要生产化妆面纸。在活水流向河流之前,该处理池以其特有的微生物分解出水中所含的有机木质纤维。这个曝气过程将会分解掉水流中的水粒子以向处理池当中的微生物提供氧气。

 
Coal Slurry煤泥流
    Coal must be washed with water and processed with a variety of chemicals before it is used. This creates tremendous volumes of "slurry," which is stored in impoundments created by building earthen dams across the ends of a valleys. On numerous occasions, impoundments have failed, releasing large quantities of the toxic mixture to devastate the valley below.
        生产制造可为燃料的煤时,矿物煤必须和含有多种化学元素的水流混合加工。这就形成了如图所示波澜壮阔的的煤泥流。工厂通常会建造木质堤坝拦截煤泥流。但通常这些木质堤坝形同虚设。煤泥流夹带着煤和多种有毒化学物质,喷薄而下,汇入河流。

 
Expectoration“羽毛”
  This photo shows a plume of foam in bauxite waste. Producing aluminum metal involves refining bauxite (the ore), using caustic chemicals and tremendous amounts of electricity to produce alumina, and the electrolytic reduction of alumina to produce aluminum. This depicts the disposal of the byproducts, in which the solids (mostly impurities in the bauxite) are separated from the liquids. Also, during primary aluminum production, PFCs (CF4 and C2F6) are emitted as byproducts of the smelting process, both significant greenhouse gases.

        这张图片中羽毛状的泡沫是在铝土废料中形成的。铝金属是从铝土中提炼的,提炼时需要先用腐蚀性化学制品和大功率电流制造出氧化铝,而后电解还原氧化铝以得到铝。这个过程会从液态物质里分解出铝土的固体杂质,该图展示的就是对杂质的排放情况。

 
Sisyphus西绪弗斯的往复运动
   This photo shows a bulldozer pushing petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a solid high carbon material that is produced as a byproduct of the oil refining process. It can serve as either an energy source or carbon source. Fuel grade petroleum coke, which serves as an energy source, represents about 71 percent of the total petroleum coke production. This product is burned to produce energy used in making cement, lime, co-generation and other industrial applications. Products that utilize petroleum coke as a carbon source include aluminum (calcined coke) and steel (metallurgical coke).

        西绪弗斯是希腊神话中的一个人物,他因为卓尔不凡的智慧惹恼了众神。作为惩罚,他被判要将一块永远都会在最后一刻滚进山谷的大石头推上山顶。他注定不会成功,将永远重复着这单一反复的动作。该图所示的是一辆在推铲石油焦炭的推土机。石油焦碳是炼油产生的衍生品,可被用作能量资源和碳源。作为能量资源,71%的石油焦碳被用作燃料来生产水泥,石灰,热电联产以及其他工业用途,而作为碳源,它则可被用于生产铝制品和钢铁制品。

 
Black and Gold黑与金
    These fertilizer waste channels, created from the processing of raw phosphate with sulphuric acid, are radioactive and acidic, and are clearly mixing with surface water, thus groundwater. Chemical fertilizer is the catalyst that powers the modern industrial agricultural revolution, but estimates predict that the supply of phosphate will be exhausted in 50 years or so. Also, petroleum-based fertilizers deplete the nutrients from the soil, and the bodies of the people eating the harvest of that soil. Finally, the fertilizers erode from the point of application and work down through the water systems, creating dead zones in streams, lakes and oceans.

        这张图所展示的是用硫酸等化学成分制造磷酸盐原料时所排放出的具有放射性的酸性有害物质。这些化工物质沿着废弃肥料渠为大地抹上两道黑与金。它们会渗入地表水,而后污染到地下水。化肥是现代农业工业化革命的推动力之一。但据研究数据推测,不到50年,地球上的磷酸盐将被耗尽。此外,民以食为天,种植粮食的土壤也因使用化肥而越发贫瘠。最终,化肥将会侵入水源,污染江河湖海。

 
Grey Matter有毒“巧克力”
   This outlet pipe is at the bottom of a giant phosphate waste impoundment in Florida, and forms a stream that eventually empties into the water table.

        这是佛罗里达州一座巨型磷酸盐废料渠的排通管道,它排出的工业废料汇集成流,最终与地下水汇合。

 
Tentacles触须

   This is the "test discharge" of phosphate-processing byproducts. Phosphate is washed after extraction, and the waste products are consolidated and pumped out to containment impoundments, where the liquids and solids are separated.

         在提炼过磷酸盐后,工业废料就会排放到这里进行加工,在废料渠中对它们进行固液分离。

 
Claws of Brawny强壮的爪子
   
   Here, a loader is putting trees onto a conveyor, in line to be pulped. The pulp will be use in various consumer products like paper towels, toilet paper, etc.
 
       在这里,一台装载机正把数不清的树木送进传输设备,然后按步骤制成纸浆。纸浆又被制成各种消费品,比如:面巾纸、卫生纸等等。     
 

The Fall of Kaiser衰败
    Here you can see the remnants of a once bustling aluminum plant in Baton Rouge.

     该图所示的是巴吞鲁日(美国路易斯安那州首府)一处曾经繁忙的制铝厂留下的一片狼籍。


The Pit水力压裂钻探场
   This is an image of a waste pit for drilling mud; byproducts from these mining operations include rock debris, drill bit lubricants, and possibly residual radioactive material. The type of waste being produced indicates that exploration is still in progress. The overspray on the bottom right is a violation and a danger to any water bodies below.
        这张图片所展示的是工人们在一处废坑中钻探泥浆,这些堪钻运作留下的副产品有大量的碎石,钻头润滑剂以及放射性物质。这种形式的“废坑再开发”显示了勘探开采的无休无止,没有穷尽。图片右下角的机械喷涂是违法操作,这将会威胁到该地段的地下水体。
 

Another waste pit废料坑
   This image shows another waste pit at a hydro-fracing drill site. Again, we see a waste pit for drilling mud. The overspray in this image can be seen at the top, and is, again, a violation and a danger to any water bodies downhill.
        这个废料坑位于一处水力压裂钻探场,它再次揭示了对废料坑的再次开采。同样,这种喷涂是违法的,并会污染地下水。
 

Hydro-fracing site另一处废料坑
   This hydro-fracing site has a holding pond from which compounds are allowed to evaporate into the air, and what looks like an old chemical spill.
         水利压裂钻探场的一处废料池,工业混合物在那儿慢慢蒸发,融入空气。这是一种古老的处理工业废料的方法。
 

Gas drilling天然气钻探
   Here, the gas drilling rights dwarf the farm that hosts them. Some farmers who have signed leases are exploring legal means of escape. Hydro-fracing can deplete the water table in the area, contaminate the wells on the host property as well as those nearby, aside from being a horrible eyesore.
        天然气钻探嵌入农田中,开采资源。签了租约的农民正在寻求法律途径逃离此地。这些天然气钻探不仅及其碍眼,而且还会抽干该地区的地下水,污染水井,并波及附近区域。
 

Millennium Pipeline Path千年管道
    In this image, we see the Millennium Pipeline Path, Delaware River, and the town of Hancock, N.Y. The pipeline's course, identified by the denuded strip, is clearly visible from the air. In spite of its name, the pipeline has already been disinterred to increase its capacity.

        该图展示的是位于特拉华河的千年管道之路。这些管道的主体部分已层层脱落,并可用肉眼捕捉到它的破败。正如它的名字,这批管道已老旧到必须从地下掘出以扩大它们的流送量。

 (参考文献: http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/25141592/)

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