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简述科技论文中英语摘要的表达

2010-12-15  fanxing018

赵卉

(山东农业大学 外语学院,山东 泰安271018 )

摘要:通过实例概述科技论文中英语摘要的写作特点,提供了方便、有效、实用、符合逻辑的表述方式。

关键词:科技论文;英语;摘要;表达

中图分类号:H315文献标识码:A文章编号:1000-2324(2002)02-00-06

THE REPRESENATION OF ENGLISH ABSTRACT IN SCIENTIFIC PAPER

ZHAO Hui

Abstract:The characteristics of English abstract in scientific paper are analysed by using examples. This paper researches into the writing pattern with a more convenient,effective ,practical and logical way.

Key words: scientific paper;English;abstract ; representation

  科技论文是科技研究人员研究成果的直接记录,包括理论性论文和实验性论文两大类,理论阐述,与实验内容描述均较专门深入,文字也均较正规、严谨。科技论文的结构已成格式化。一般包括标题、提要(英文摘要)引言、正文、结论、参考文献以及致谢这几部分。摘要是论文的必要部分,是对论文内容的概括和总结。联合国教科文组织规定:“全世界公开发表的科技论文,不管用何种文字写成,都必须附有一篇短小精悍的英语摘要”。1982年后,我国大多数院校(理工农医类)的学报参加了中国高等院校学报论文文摘(Chinese University Journal Abstracts) -CUJA英文磁带版系统,目的在于建立磁带文献数据库,以便进入国际联机检索网络,使我国丰富的科技信息能在世界范围迅速利用。

1 摘要目的

  摘要应能使读者迅速而准确地判明该论文的主要内容,是否合乎自己的所需,有无通读全文的必要。因此作者应从读者角度出发,在醒目的标题上,精心撰写摘要,力求做到准确、扼要,一览无余,引人入胜,不仅便于检索获取信息,亦可得到重要启发。

2 摘要内容

2.1研究的目的

  要求简单明了,一般用一句话即可。如:
  The paper deals with the comparision between fermentation method and water-washing method for preparing starches(本文对酸浆法和水洗法制取淀粉进行了比较。)

2.2研究的方法

  指本研究采用的方法和途径。如:

  Powered soybean lecithin of great purity is extracted by lecithin solvent fromconcentrated soybean lecithin produced from hydrated oil foot on a laboratory scale .(以豆油水化油脚生产的浓缩大豆磷脂为原料,在实验室小试基础上,用丙酮萃取法制取高纯度的粉末大豆磷脂。)

2.3研究的结果

  介绍所取得的事实、数据、结果等。如:

  The quality of the product has been up to that of the same product made abroad(产品质量达到国外同类产品质量标准。)

2.4结论或意见

  简要介绍对研究结果的分析结论或看法。如:

  All this shows if the temperature of repeseed processing rises over the limit,the nutrition value of protein will be greatly deteriorated.(这说明加工时温度若超过这个限度,蛋白质营养成份即发生严重劣变。)

3 摘要的长度

  摘要一般为正文长度的2%~5%

  概述(指示)性摘要(descriptive abstract)多用于综述、述评、学术专著等,论题不集中而篇幅较长的文章,只介绍论文的性质、研究对象、探讨范围、主要论点(不涉及具体论据)、结果和结论,以帮助读者获得一个概括性的了解,判断是否有必要通读全文,一般在125个单词以内。不同刊物对摘要的字数有不同要求。

  资料性摘要(information abstract)在定量、定性方面提供较多信息,如数据、方法、设备、结果及结论等,参考价值大,特别适用于描述实验和专题论述,重点放在与众不同的独到之处,可达250个单词左右。
4 摘要的精练

4.1不用开场白

  开门见山,烦言休叙,如:

  A comparison of radio waves with water waves is made .我们把无线电波与水波作了比较。

4.2不用标题语

  摘要开头处,不可将标题中用过的词语又重复说一遍。此外,摘要中也不用图表、方程、结构式等非文字性内容。

4.3不用客套话

  我国书籍、论文中常见“限于水平,谬误难免,请不吝指正”一类套话,西方人看到,难免不问“作者既无把握,何必下笔误人?”对论文如何评价,读者自有衡量,无烦作者辞费。应避免使读者产生画蛇添足,扭捍作态的反感。

4.4不用重复词

  按修辞学要求,英语最忌重复。尤其在摘要中重复,不仅不增加内涵,反易引起混乱。如:


  Potatoes are an important source of starchy food in temperate countries and bananas (省are an imporicant source of starch food )in tropics (tropic counties

)
4.5少用定冠词

  现代英语有减少用定冠词the 的趋势,这是语言高度发展的必要结果。如美国农业部1980年年度报告长达177页,而其摘要却简洁如下:

  This publication contains short reports on investigations aimed at reducing salt damage to soils ,crops ,and water;improving irrigation and drainage of agricultural lands;/preventing pollution of, and improving the quality of soil,water,and air; controlling water erosion, wind erosion,and sedimentation;and conserving and managing agricultural water resources.

  文中冠词the 只出现一次。在aimed at 前面省去which are ,这是用过去分词短语取代从句的常用精简手法。

4.6少用形式主语

4.6.1形式主语it 多用于结论和建议。如:

1)It is concluded that a new method has to be devised.
2)It will be seen that further research is needed.
3)It is advisable that a change be made in the plan.
4)It is evident that the result is acceptable.

4.6.2有些作者不主张多用it,认为多用就不免:①占去句首醒目的强调位置,平添一个that主语从句,使重要概念和事实不能及早入目,先睹为快;②主句用平淡无力的存在动词be,而有表现力的行为动词反隐晦在后随从句中;③好像所提看法并非出自论文作者本心,使人怀疑作者有论据不足,因而不敢肯定之嫌。因此不如分别简化为:

(1) (Conclusion:)A new method has to be devised.(结论:)(不得不想出一个新办法。)
(2)Further research is needed.(需要作进一步的研究。)
(3)A change should be made in the plan.(方案应作一些改变。)
(4)Evidently,the result is acceptable.(显然,结果是令人满意[可以接受]的。

4.7以短代长,删去冗语

  为了节约文字,应该尽量用短的词语代替长的,主要有三方面。

4.7.1用复合名词传递信息最为简洁。试看:
(1)Transmission unit of diesel engine which is new and of low cost 用了12个单词。改成复合名词为:
  The new low-cost diesel transmission.只用6个单词,节省用词量50%,却表达出同样的意思:新型低费用柴油机传动装置

(2)A station for observing weather both by day and by night 用了11个单词。改成复合名词为:
  Day-and-night weather -observation station只用6个单词,精简45.5%,也表达了一样的内涵:昼夜气象观测站

  两例都做到了用词省而无损于原意。此外,将关系密切的单词用连字符号结成词组,更能收到结构谨严、含义清晰的效果,因此复合名词在科技写作中广泛运用;用词排列顺序,与汉语略同,可以顺译。

4.7.2以单词代词组

  词组应该用含义相近的单词代替。例如:

  根据:用by代accord ng to, on the basis of ,in terms of
  由于:用for代due to ,as a result of ,for the reason that,due to the fact that
  现在:用now代nowdays,at present,at the present time
  经常:用often代frequently,in many cases
  因为:用for 代because ,on account of ,owing to the fact that
  事实上:用actually 代in fact,as a matter of fact

4.7.3以短语代从句

(1)改成介词短语
  Those machines in operation(代which are now operating)are put into mass production.
(这些运转中的机器都投入大批量生产。)用介词短语in operation代替从句which are now operating,表意相同,却节省用词一半。

(2)改成分词短语This energy is transferred in turn to the object (which is )being lifted.这些能量转过来又传给正在提升的物体。

  用分词being lifted 代替从句which is being lifted 不损原意而少用两词,可取。which is之类的冗语结构不传达任何信息,不妨删去。

4.8不收通用内容

  人所共喻、到处可加的通用性内容可整句甚至整段地删掉。有篇国内论文的英语摘要原为:

  Wind power is a kind of inexhaustible and harmless energy source in the nature.Its application for providing electric power becomes more and more nowadays.However,the wind power is not easy to control,because the change of the wind velocity will change the rotating speed of the wind turbine.Consequently,the outputfrequency and voltage of the alternator driven by it will also be varied.This is unacceptable either to the consumers or to the parallel operation with an existing power system.For solving this problem, this paper presents a variable speed
and constant frequency and magnitude when the wind turbine speed varies within certain limits.This is realized by using an eddy-current coupling between the wind turbine and the alternator and the existing current of the coupling can be automatically regulated by means of electric devices so as to keep the speed of the alternator practically constant.The features of this system are its compactness,reliability,fine regulation and ease of control.The experimental characteristics will be given and some exploratory viewpoints on the application of system to wind power generation will be presented.

  英国INSPEC(Information Services in Physics,Electrotechnology,Computers and Control of the Institution of Electrical Engineers国际物理与工程情报服务部)磁带数据库收录这篇摘要时,加工修改成为:

  Proposes a variable speed,constant frequency and magnitude wind turbine realized by using an eddy-current coupling between the wind turbine and its alternator.The currunt to the coupling can be automatically regulated by means of electric devices so as to keep the speed of the alternator practically constant.The features of the system are its compactness, reliability,fine regulation and ease of control. The experimental characteristics are given and some exploratory viewpoints on the application of this system to wind power generation are presented

  INSPEC修改后,摘要的质量有很大改善,对比二者,对提高我国科技论文摘要的写作水平,是极富教益的:
  (1)原摘要前5句用单词84个,占全篇用词(189个)的45%,说的不过是人所共知的风力发电所具优点与困难,不是本文所专有、而是旁文也可通用的一般性概念,没有提到的必要,因此被INSPEC磁带文摘整段砍掉。其余也经删改,共剩85个单词,只留原摘要的45%。
  (2)INSPEC将原摘要第六句的开场套话For solving this problem,this paper 删去,并把谓语presents 换成Proposes;取消由when 引出的状语从句;全句重新改写,使句意更加明确。
  (3)INSPEC将原摘要第七句中不传达任何信息的主谓语this is 去掉,简化成由realized 引出的过去分词短语,并入上句,使得文字紧凑,不感拖沓。
  (4)原摘要要将主题词wind turbine 放在从句中,眉目不清,喧宾夺主;INSPEC把它移到篇首较为显眼的主句宾语位置;又将5个名词speed、frequency、magnitude 、wind和简报连用,组成复合名词,使得结构谨严,文词简洁。
  (5)原摘要中the wind turbine and the alternator 的提法欠妥,因为两个名词处于并列地位,可以是彼此互不相关的事物。INSPEC将后一个the 改为its,一下就点明了二者之间是从属配套关系,真不愧是点石成金的好手笔。
  (6)在后随的并列句中,原摘要的主语the existing current of the coupling 被INSPEC删去existing,而且将介词of改为to,是极具匠心的。因为existing这个词在文意上并无必要,可以免去。介词用of 时,主语的含义是“联轴器的电流”,这种说法逻辑上是不严谨的。INSPEC改of为to后,词意变成“通到联轴器的电流”,这才合乎逻辑,是画龙点睛之笔。我们有时不甚注意把汉语说得规范些、准确些,以致反映到译文上,很不符合英语特别讲究逻辑的要求,这是值得重视的。
  (7)第二次提到前面说过的事物,用冠词the ,而不用this。
  (8)原摘要最后两个谓语will be given 和will be presented 都用将来时,意思可能是表示“下面将说到”。可这里并不是论文的引言,而是全文的摘要,没有“下面”部分了,因此用将来时说不通。INSPEC改成现在时are是正确的。

5 摘要的动词时态、语态

5.1时态:

  科技论文侧重于科技内容与实验方法,所以科技论文中文摘写作的时态运用很有限,主要使用一般现在时,其次是现在完成时表示实验过程多用一般过去时。如:
  The fundamental principles of modern communication are discussed .(本文讨论了现代通讯的基本原理。)
  Several simple dielectnic rest objects have been utilized.(我们使用了几种简单的介质试验目标。)
  The results obtained demonstrate that the above equation holds for all cases.(所得结果表明,上述公式适用于各种情况。)

5.2语态

  在科技论文中由于主要着重讲述客观现象和科技真理,所以与日常英语和文学著作相比,被动句使用较多。(外国人统计过,被动句在科技英语中约占三分之一,比文艺类的文章多十余倍),而在英语文摘中更是如此。我们汉语中被动句使用得较少,且可使用没有行为主体的无人称句(或者使用主语“人们”“大家”等意义的词,这时用英语表达时就该用被动句了,否则很容易写出没有主语的“中文式英语”来。当然科技英语中也有表示“人们、大家”的词,那就是“one”而不是“people ”它在语法上表示单数第三人称,总体上来说,也并不十分常用。我们通常见到的英文文摘的第一句话“本文提出了(介绍了,证明了)…其文常用被动句。例如:
  (1)A new procedure for checking the stability of 2-D digital filters is proposed.
  (2)A spectral transformation technique is proposed for the design of three-dimensional concepts are used to generate stable 3-D continuous domain networksfrom a corresponding one-dimensional (1-D)prototype network.Implementation schemes are developed in the discrete domain that convert the 3-D analog network into a 3-D wave digital filter(WDF). The proposed 3-D discrete beam and planarfilters ofter significant advantages over directform realizations including thelow-sensitivity properties of the WDF and simplicity of the sturcture.(本文摘含有四个大句子,其中有三个属被动句)

6 科技论文英文摘要常用句型与用词

6.1第一句应直接点题,可以有几种写法。

①
  This paper
    (本文)

        describes …(描述)
        presents …(提出)
        discusses…(讨论)
        analyses…(分析)
        reports on …(报告)
        investigates…(调查)
        examines…(检验)
        deals with …(论述)
        researches into …(探讨)
        gives …(给出)
        points out …(指出)
        reviews…(总结)

  也可以使用名词句型:

  This paper makes a study of …
  THis paper makes investigations on …
  也可不用This paper 作主语,而用The author(作者)作主语,但一般不用I或we作主语。

②
  Information

         regarding…
                is
         concerning …
                  described.
                  presented.
                  discussed.
                  analysed.
                  reported.
                  investigated.
                  examined.
                  dealt with.
                  given.
                  pointed out .

  这实际上是第一种句型的被动态形式。

  ③In this paper a new method (或approach)of … is introduced (或recommended).本文介绍一种… … 的新方法。

  By using … … was studied.使用… … ,对… … 进行了研究。

6.2在第一句之后开始简述过程或论据,可以有几种方式开始

  An example of … is
             analysed 
             described discussed examined studied }in detail.

  详细地分析(描述、讨论、检验、研究)了… … 的例子。

  Data are displayed in graphs and tables.(数据显示在图表中。)

  Findings

Results  are
          presented.提出
          reported.报告
          analysed.分析
          examined.检验
          discussed.讨论  了
                     新的发现

                   结果
  A series of experiments were made /carried out on ……对……进行了一系列实验。
  Special mention is given here to (sth).这里专门提到……。
  Examples of ……demonstrate that ……的例子表明……
  Statistics confirm……统计数字肯定了……

6.3在摘要的末尾可以说

  These
       results 
       data
       findings 
       experiments  also indicate that……

  这些结果(数据、发现、实验)也指出……
  The findings imply that …这些发现暗示……
  Based on these conclusions …is discussed.根据这些结论,讨论了……。
       The findings suggest 
  that further research into ……
  is called for.这些发现提示要求对……进一步研究。
  would be worth while.对……进一步研究是值得的。

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