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动词不定式的十大考点

 图书战士 2011-08-03

动词不定式的十大考点

2011-04-23 07:43:34|  分类: 非谓语动词 |  标签: |字号 订阅

动词不定式是高考英语中的主要考点之一,每年都有一道以上的考题,其中95年就有4道。不定式考点主要包括以下十大类。
一.不定式的时态。这类考题最多,MET93、NMET97、99和上海高考题98中各有一
题,且都是有关不定式完成态的试题。例如(NMET99):
Robert is said____ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in.
A.      to have studied  B. to study  C. to be studying  D. to have been studying
答案是A。不定式的时态一般包括三种:一般式、完成式和进行式。一般式表示的动作通常与谓语的动作(状态)同时(或几乎同时)发生,或在其后发生;如果动作发生在谓语动作之前,就要用完成式;同时发生时,则用进行式;如果所说的动作发生于谓语动作之前,且一直还在继续,还须用完成进行式。不定式的完成式常用在be said, be reported, be considered, appear, hope, pretend, seem等以及某些情态动词后,表示对过去事情的推断或虚拟假设,例如(NMET97):
I would love____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report.
A. to go   B. to have gone  C. going  D. having gone
答案是B,表示与过去事实相反的虚拟愿望。题干中的last night是选择判断的依据。不定式的进行式也是一个值得注意的考点。例如:
When I went in, he pretended ____ a newspaper.
A. to read    B. to be reading    C. reading    D. to have read    (答案.:B)
二.不定式的语态。当不定式的逻辑主语是其动作承受者时,通常要用被动式。不定式
的被动式在句中可作主、宾、表、定、状语及宾补等。例如(NMET’02):
Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ____ whether they will enjoy it.
A. to see    B. to be seen    C. seeing    D. seen
答案是B。因为不定式的逻辑主语it(指出国旅游这件事)与不定式是被动关系,所以要用被动结构。又如(MET’92):
Little Tom would love____ to the theatre this evening
A. to be taken    B. to take    C. being taken    D. taking
答案是A。除了根据语境外,还可从take是及物动词,而后面无宾语这个语法现象加以判断(这一点非常重要)。又如(上海高考题98):
He claimed ____ in the supermarket when he was doing shopping yesterday.
A. being badly treated    B. treating badly
C. to be treated badly     D. to have been badly treated
根据题意,本题该用不定式的完成被动式,表动作发生在claimed之前,故答案是D。
值得注意的是,在下列场合通常用不定式的主动式表被动意义:
1.  当不定式的逻辑主语以动作执行者的身份出现在句中时。例如:
We still have many difficulties to overcome in our socialist construction.
2.在“be + 形容词 + 不定式”结构中。例如:
The future is hard to tell.
3.在be to let / blame / seek等习惯用法中,例如:
It is I who am to blame.
Are these umbrellas to let?
三.不定式的否定式。其基本形式是not to do, 即疑问副词not必须置于整个不定
式结构之前。95、96和99三年都有这样的考题。例如(NMET96):
The patient was warned____ oily food after the operation.
A. to eat    B. eating not    C. not to eat    D. not eating
答案是C。这道题并不难,只要熟悉其否定式和warn sb.(not) to do sth.这个结构就能做。
四.不定式的省略。有时不定式符号to可用来代表整个不定式短语,如果前面有一
个类似的动词词组。例如(MET95):
— I’ll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat?
— Not at all,____ .
A. I’ve no time    B. I’d rather not    C. I’d like it    D. I’d be happy to
答案是D。to后省略了look after。不定式的省略现象,常出现在某些表心理或情感状态的动词如want, wish, hope, expect, love, hate, know, suppose, care, prefer, mean等及动词ask tell, try, need等后,以及某些半助动词和情态动词be to, be about to, be going to, have to, ought to, used to等之后。有时,不定式符号to也可一并省略:
1.  作某些动词如like, try等的宾语时。
You can stay at home or go out, In a word, you can do whatever you like.
2.当不会引起歧义,例如作宾补时常可省。
If you use the computer to learn more knowledge, I’ll allow you.
3.不定式带有修饰语时。
I dare not tell him the truth though I’d like very much.
但在下列情况to需要保留或重复:
(1)    当一个不定式或另一个不定式进行对比时。例如(NMET99):
The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _____ it more difficult.
A. not make     B. not to make    C. not making   D. do not doing (答案:B)
(2)    一般而言,在否定结构中to必须保留。例如(NMET95):
The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _____.
A. not to     B. not to do     C. not do it     D. do not to
(3) 当句中有系列不定式时。例如:
They have come to talk, to sing , to get drunk.
五.Forget, remember, try, regret, mean, stop等动词后既可跟to-不定式又可跟动名
词,须根据其习惯用法和语境进行取舍。例如(MET91):
— The light in the office is still on.
— Oh, I forgot____.
A. turning it off    B. turn it off    C. to turn it off    D. having turned it off
答案是C。forget to do意为“忘了做(某事)”,forget doing“忘了做过(某事)”; remember有类似的区别。类似的还有:try to do“尽力做”,try doing“试着做”;regret to say /tell“很遗憾地说”,regret doing“后悔做了……”;mean to do“意欲/ 想要做”,mean doing“意味着做”;stop to do“停下来做”,stop doing“停止做”。又如(上海高考题95):
The little time we have together we try____ wisely.
A. spending it    B. to spend it    C. to spend    D. spending that
答案是C,意思是“尽量过得(有意义)”。题中的The little time we have together是时间状语从句,spend作不及物动词。97年的上海高考题中也有一道类似的题。
    六.习惯上我们说make / see / hear sb. do sth.,但当这些结构转换成被动态时,作宾补的动词do前要带上to。例如(MET95):
Paul doesn’t have to be made____ .He always works hard.
A. learn    B. to learn    C. learned    D. learning
答案是B。但see, hear, notice等 的宾语后还可跟现在分词作补语,变成被动态时仍保留分词的形式。例如(94MET):
The missing boys were last seen ____ near the river.
A. playing    B. to be playing    C. play    D. to play     (答案:A)
七.不定式短语。在某些情况下不定式前可以带一个连接代(副)词,这种不定式结构接近一个名词从句,常用在某些动词如tell, know, show, decide, teach, learn, discuss, wonder, remember, explain, find out等或某些介词短语后作宾语。例如(NMET2000):
I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ____ in my new job.
A. expected    B. to expect    C. to be expecting    D. expects
答案是B,what to expect在句中作know的宾语,而what作不定式to expect的逻辑宾语。
又如(NMET’02):
    It is sadi in Australia there is more land than the government knows ____.
    A. it what to do with    B. what to do it with
C. what to do with it    D. to do what with it
答案是C。what to do with it作knows的宾语。须注意的是,与do with搭配时,这里what
作do的宾语,it作with的宾语。此外,这种不定式短语也可作主语、表语或状语。例如:
How to deal with the pollution has caused the whole society’s attention.(作主语)
The question is how to put the plan into practice.作表语)
She was at a loss (as to) what to do.(作状语)
八.有的动词习惯上要用带to的不定式作宾语,如ask, want, decide, promise, hope, expect, agree, refuse, manage, persuade, wish, intend, learn, pretend, fail等。例如(MET95):
We agreed____ here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet.
A. having met    B. meeting    C. to meet    D. to have met
答案是C。但有些动词后须跟动名词作宾语。平时应注意区别,加强记忆。
九.不定式的主要用法之一是在句中作状语,表目的、原因、结果和条件。这类考题常以分词作为干扰项(注意分词不能表目的、结果和条件)。例如(上海高考题99):
—     Mum, why do you always make me eat an egg every day?
—     ____ enough protein and nutrition as you are growing up.
A. Get    B. Getting    C. To get    D. To be getting
答案是C。不定式短语在句中作目的状语,这是不定式作状语的主要用法和考点。还须注意in order to与so as to的用法区别,两者都表“目的”,但so as to不能用于句首。表原因、结果和条件的用法也不可忽视。其用法特点见以下各例:
He lifted a rock only to drop it on his own feet.(表结果,有时可不用only)
I’m sorry to hear the unexpected result.(表原因)
One will get into trouble to attempt such a business(= if he attempts such… ).(表条件)。
十.不定式还可以在句中作定语:与分词作定语的区别在于,过去分词有完成含义,现在分词表进行意义,而不定式表将来的行为或状态。例如(上海高考题98):
To fetch water before breakfast seemed to me a rule_____.
A. to never break           B. never to be broken
C. never to have broken     D. never to be breaking
答案是B,在句中作定语;由于a rule是不定式的逻辑宾语,所以不定式用了被动结构。又如(上海高考题99):
There are five pairs____, but I’m at a loss which to buy.
A. to be chosen    B. to choose from    C. to choose    D. for choosing
答案是B,这是“不定式 + 介词”作定语。单从语法看,A、B、C都可以;但题意是“从五双中选一双”,故须在choose后加上介词from。类似的如a chair to sit in, a pen to write with, a topic to talk about等。这是考生值得注意的一个语言现象。
不定式还可在句中作主语和表语等。由于它们的用法较简单,通常不是考查的重点。但要注意不定式作主语和目的状语时的区别。例如:
To get up early does good to one’s health.早起对身体有好处。(作主语)
To get up early, one must go to bed early.为了早起,必须早睡。(作目的状语) 

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