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专门替中国人写的英语语法(九)

2012-10-16  MouseHappy

第十一章 词组(Phrases)和子句(Clauses)

请看以下的句子,特别注意划线的字群:

1.________Understanding English is easy.

2.________I want you to work hard.

3.________Peter, who has been to England, speaks good English.

4.________I told him that I was going away.

Understanding English和to work hard有一共同特色,他们都没有主词,也没有动词,这种字群,叫做词组(phrase)。

Who has been to England和I was going away中,内部都有主词和动词,这种字群,叫子句(clause

由于我们已经对词组很熟悉,我们在这里不再讨论,而我们在这一章将多多介绍子句的用法。

11§1 问题型式的名词子句

假如我们说〝我不知道他住在哪里〞,或者〝他究竟住在哪里仍是个谜〞,我们就可以用这种问题型式的名词子句,每一个名词子句都要用who, where, whether, which等来开始。以下是典型的例子:

I don't know where he came from.(我不知道他来自何处。)

Whether or not he is an American is still a secret.(他是否是个美国人仍然是个秘密。)

I will find out where he is living.(我要找出他住在哪里。)

I can not remember whether he smokes or not.(我不记得他是否吸烟。)

Please let me know how old he is.(请让我知道他多大年纪。)

Kindly tell me what you really need.(请让我知道你需要什么。)

You have to decide which book you want to buy.(你应该决定买哪一本书。)

Do you know where he is from?(你知道他是从哪里来的?)

Do you know who he is?(你知道他是谁吗?)

Please ask your brother whether he is coming or not.(请问你的兄弟他会不会来。)

When she is coming remains a puzzle.(她何时来仍然是个谜。)

I don't know what he is interested in.(我不知道他的兴趣何在。)

I don't understand what he is talking about.(我不知道他在谈什么。)

Do you know whose bicycle this is?(你知道这辆脚踏车是谁的吗?)

Do you know which country Hawaii belongs to?(你知道夏威夷属于哪一个国家吗?)

You should ask your mother where you were born.
(你应该问你的母亲你在哪里生的。)

虽然每一个名词都有问题的意义,我们却不能在名词子句中用问句的型式,因为毕竟这个名词子句仅仅是一个子句而已,它的结尾并不是〝?〞。

因此以下的句子都是错的:

*I don't know where did he come from.

*I will find out how old is he.

*Kindly tell me what do you need.

*You have to decide which book do you want to buy.

*When is he coming remains a puzzle.

 

【练习四十八】

将以下的中文句子译成英文:

1.我不知道你是谁。

2.请告诉我你是否是美国人。

3.我不记得你是否喝咖啡。

4.请问你的姊姊她去年是否去过日本。

5.你知道他是谁吗?

6.他从哪里来的是一个谜(puzzle)。

7.我要找出他哥哥会不会游泳。

8.我知道他为何如此悲伤。

9.你知道玛丽什么时候来吗?

10.你知道发生了什么事吗?

11.我知道天空为什么是蓝的。

12.请告诉我你去年去哪里工作的。

13.你知道他在谈什么吗?

14.我不懂他的问题是什么。

 

【练习四十九】

改错:

1.Please tell me why is he so sad.

2.I do not know where is she from.

3.Please tell me how many people are there in this house.

4.Let me know how old are you.

5.Is he a Japanese is a mystery.

6.Do you know who is the president of the United States?

7.May I ask you which kind of coffee do you like?

8.I can not remember how old am I?

9.What is he talking about is unclear to me.

10.Do you know why is he coming?

 

【练习五十】

选择适当的代名词,如whether, which, what, who, how, when, why等填入下面句子的空格(有时会有多种正确的填法):

1. I don't know ________book you bought.

2. Do you know ________he is from?

3. Please ask him ________he drinks tea or not.

4. ________he is thinking about is well known to all of us.

5. Let me guess ________old you are.

6. May I ask ________you are so sad?

7. I don't know ________he is.

8. Do you know ________house this is?

9. This is not ________I want.

10. I don't care ________you want to say.

11§2 以that开始的名词子句

现在我们先试着翻译以下的句子:

地球是圆的是众所周知的事。

一种直接了当的翻译是:

*The earth is round is known to everyone.

遗憾的是,以上的句子是不对,我们必须加一个that到名词子句里去,以下的翻译是正确的:

That the earth is round is known to everyone.

我们再来翻译一个中文句子:

我要求他一定要用功念书。

直接了当的翻译可能像下面的:

*I demand he must work hard.

这是错的,我们应该加一个that在这个名词子句的前面。以下的翻译才是正确的:

I demand that he must work hard.

虽然我们常看到这种that被省略的情形,我们仍希望大家知道,为保险起见,最好不要省掉that。以下是一些例子:

That the sun rises from the west is wrong.(太阳从西方升起是错的)

That a lot of Jews were killed during the Second World War is now a historical fact.
(大批犹太人在第二次大战中被杀是历史上的事实)

I didn't know that he is such a diligent student.(我不知道他是如此勤快的学生)

I demand that you go away.(我要求你离开)

I suggest that you go swimming every morning.(我建议你每天早上游泳)

That we should all respect our parents should be taught to our kids.
(我们该教孩子们尊敬父母)

I don't think that he is a good athlete.(我不认为他是一个好运动员)

Do you think that she is a good actress?(你认为她是一个好的演员吗?)

That he can speak good English helps him.(他能说很好的文,这点对他很有帮助)

I propose that we get married.(我建议我们结婚)

Let us always remember that there are a lot of poor people in the world.
(我们永远记住世界上有很多穷人)

Never forget that we should always love one another.(不要忘记我们应该互相友爱)

I am surprised to find out that he is a Catholic.(我很惊讶地发现他是个天主教徒)

That we lost the game made all of us frustrated.(我们输了,这件事令我们大感沮丧)

I can hardly believe that his English is so good.(我不能相信他的英文如此之好)

 

【练习五十一】

请将that加到以下句子去:

1.*I told you you must leave.

2.*I am glad you are here now.

3.*He is an American is unknown to us.

4.*Can you imagine he is Chinese?

5.*Do you think he is a Chinese?

6.*Hitler was defeated in the Second World War is an important event in the history of mankind.

7.*I do not think he is a bad student.

8.*I am surprised to know she is from Japan.

9.*It is hard to imagine he does not have a high school diploma.

10.*Do you believe he is innocent?

11.*I demand my students they work hard.

12.*The sun rises in the east is a fact.

 

【练习五十二】

将以下句子翻译成英文:(用that)

1. 我不相信他是我的哥哥。

2. 我劝(advice)他到美国去。

3. 你相信地球是圆的吗?

4. 我告诉他他一定要读这本书。

5. 我忘记了你是个小孩。

6. 你能相信我会讲英文(speak English)吗?

7. 他没有来令我生气(make me angry)。

8. 我认为他是个好人。

9. 不要忘记世界上有很多穷人。

10. 我知道他教英文。

11. 我从不知道他如此聪明。

12. 我知道他不能来。

13. 我希望他能来。

14. 你相不相信他在台湾长大的?

15. 我无法决定他该不该念大学。

16. 你告诉我他去年到美国了。

17. 这位老师不知道我的爸爸也是老师。

18. 我要问他明天会不会来我家。

19. 你知道这火车到台北吗?

20. 请告诉我你会不会说英文。

11§3 形容词子句(Adjective Clauses)

在上二节,子句都是用作名词的。在这一节,我们要介绍一种新的子句,那就是形容词子句。请看以的中文句子:

位在那房子里的人是我的哥哥。

我们不能直接了当地将以上的句子译成:

*The person live in that house is my brother

第一种办法是将live in the house改成living in the house,也就是说,我们可以将那个中文句子译成下列的形式:

The person living in the house is my brother.

以上的句子中,living in the house是一个词组,我们可以将这个词组改成子句。因此,以下的翻译是正确的:

The person who lives in the house is my brother.

在以上的句子中,who lives in the house是一个子句,因为它有主词,也有动词。他的作用是形容The person,所以是一个形容词子句。

由于形容词子句永远都是在形容一个名词,因此我们在这个子句中必需有一个代名词(pronoun),像who, when, where, whom等。

以下是一些形容词子句的例子,读者应该弄清楚每一个形容词子句所形容的名词。

The people who live in the country are often very healthy.
(住在乡下的人常常很健康)

Do you like people who always talk about themselves.
(你喜欢那些永远讲他自己的人吗?)

The house which we bought last year is located beside a lake.
(我们去年买的房子座落在湖边)

I met your uncle who has a red car.(我遇见了你的有红色汽车的叔叔)

Do you know the author who wrote this novel?(你知道写这本书的作者吗?)

I have been to the house where Charles Dickens lived.
(我曾去过狄更司住过的房子)

I don't remember the year when the Second World War broke out.
(我不记得二次世界大战哪一年爆发的)

Let me know the date when you got married.(让我知道你是哪一天结婚的)

I bought the car which Michael Johnson drove.(我下了麦克强森开的车子)

The storm which hit India last week is very strong.
(上周袭击印度的暴风雨是很强烈的)

I thank all of you who helped me.(我要谢谢所有帮助过我的人)

The girl whom you met last night works in a library.
(你昨晚碰到的女孩子在一个图书馆里工作)

The students whom you taught like you very much.(那些你教过的学生很喜欢你)

I like the professor who taught me English.(我喜欢那位教我英文的老师)

In this country, there are a lot of students who go to school by bus.
(这个国家有很多学生搭乘公车上学)

Have you heard about the murder case that occurred last night?
(你有没有听到有关昨天晚上发生的谋杀案?)

Those who love others will be loved by others.(爱人者人恒爱之)

He is a person whom everyone is talking about these days.(他是大家最近在讨论的人)

The party which I went to is interesting.(我去参加的宴会很有趣)

The professor whom I spoke to is very friendly.(这位我和他谈话的教授很和善)

Russia, which this island belongs to, is a big country.
(这个岛屿属于俄国,俄国是一个大的国家)

请注意以上最后的四个句子,它们有一个共同的特性,那就是子句的最后一个字是一个介系词(preposition),我们先看第一个句子:

He is a person whom everyone is talking about these days.

这一句话可以分成两个句子来讲

He is a person.

Everyone is talking about him these days.

因此我们将这两句话合并而成为

He is a person whom everyone is talking about these days.

在正式的英文中,我们必须说:

He is a person about whom everyone is talking these days.

再看下一句:

The party Which I went to is interesting.

这句话也可以分成两句来讲:

The party is interesting.

I went to the party.

因此我们将两个句子合并为一个句子:

The party which I went to is interesting.

正式的讲法应该是

The party to which I went is interesting.

同理,在正式英文中,其它二个名词子句中的介系词,也应该放到前面去:

The professor to whom I spoke is very friendly.

Russia, to which this island belongs, is a big country.

我们还有一点必须在此指出,请看以下错误的句子:

*I like the book which you gave it to me.

以上句子中的it是多余的,因为gave的受词是which,不需要加it。

以下的句子都是错的:

*He is the person whom everyone loves him.

*He is not the person whom you saw him.

 

【练习五十三】

将以下句子译成英文:(用形容词子句)

1. 我见到那位开快车的孩子。

2. 我们在讨论那些有问题的学生。

3. 每天游泳的人一定很强壮。

4. 开车送我去火车站的人是我的学生。

5. 你所看到的女孩子是我的妹妹。

6. 我喜欢你所写的诗。

7. 你们谈到的那位教授是我的哥哥。

8. 你们所听到的音乐是蓝调韵律(R & B)。

9. 我喜欢那些有图画的书。

10. 我不知道林肯在哪一个城市出生的。

11. 我很喜欢你送我的CD。

12. 我昨晚看的电影很无聊(boring)。

 

【练习五十四】

改错:

1.*I saw the man who you talked about.

2.*He is not the man who we met.

3.*Those cry very often are usually not liked.

4.*I like to talk to people which are friendly.

5.*I enjoy reading the book which you gave it to me.

6.*Do you know the person which every one knows?

7.*Peter is a good singer practices singing everyday.

8.*Do you know Peter who we talked about?

9.*Did you see the person who I spoke to?

10.*I have seen the person whom we talked about him.

 

【练习五十五】

将代名词如when, where, which等填入空格:

1. He is the man ________is very good in English.

2. I don't know the person ________you talked to.

3. This is not the house ________the president lives.

4. I do not like any one ________cries frequently.

5. Did you read the book ________you bought last month?

6. Do you know the year ________the Second World War ended?

7. Do you know that student ________I taught?

8. I have no idea about the person ________you are talking about.

9. Do you know ________he is talking about?

10. Do you know ________dress it is?

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