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英语音标表发音规律记忆口诀3

2012-10-26  MouseHappy

五、音节、音节的结构和类型、音节划分、音节重音和拼读:

1.         音节就是英文单词字母(或发音)的排列单位,一个单位算一节。连读起来轻重缓急,流利有节奏,便于听说阅读。

2.         音节的结构、类型:口诀: 完全结构头中尾(音头/音中/音尾),元音字母占中央(包含组合),缺头少尾有开闭(音节),e尾/成音/r音节。
开音节/闭音节:以元音或不发音的e结尾的叫开音节,以辅音结尾的是闭音节。
开音节(词) :[以开音节结尾] a, area, tea, by, day, no, boy, buy, grey, ba*by, ru*ler, rub*ber, fa*ther, the, she, we, he, bee, ta*ble, ap*ple, name, bi*cy*cle, banana, orange, some,
闭音节(词):bas*ket, bag, cap, class, miss, cross, rain, ti*red, bed, red, yes, egg, sit, it, begin(开始), hot, not, boat, boil(沸腾,煮沸,激动), cup, sun, cut, put, but, mutton(羊肉), meet, woman,
r音节:元音字母(a e i o u) + r构成的独立的音节,也可以前后加辅音字母共同构成音节。
       例如:far(远的), arm, er (嗯~), her, tea*cher, ru*ler, sir, girl, stir(轰动, 激起), or, for(为了,对于,因为,适合), short, fur(毛皮), turn, // ar?ti?cle(文章), or?der (命令, 定购, 定制;次序, 顺序,秩序), ur?gent (急迫的, 紧急的), ur?ban (城市的, 市内的),
成音节: 辅音字母(有时跟不发音/弱化音的元音字母) + l, m, n, (常常带有不发音的e)可算作一个音节。
       例如:la?bel ((贴)标签), pu?pil, pen?cil [sl], ta?ble, bi?cy?cle, lit?tle [tl], ap?ple [pl],
       peo?ple,

3.         划分音节口诀: 音节中心看母音,辅音要向两边站。中心之间辅音连,一靠后,二分手;多个中间偏左右,字母组合算一个(音)。多音节尾 -l -m –n(e),前有辅音成音节。
例子:学会一眼识破音节数目,运用语音规则,做到见字读音。
闭音节:pen [pen], cap [kAp], bas*ket [`bB:skit], green [gri:n], book [buk], and [And], eat [i:t],
开音节:he [hi:], she [Fi:], tea [ti:],my [mai], tea?cher [`ti:tFE], rea?dy [`redi], Ju?ly [`dVu(:)lai],  
        ru?ler [`ru:lE], her [hE:],
成音节: ta?ble [`teibl], ap?ple [pl], bot?tle [tl], mid?dle [dl], bi?cy?cle [`baisikl], pen?cil [sl],
        se?ven [`sevn], e?le?ven [i `lev(E)n],
不发音的e 尾:come [kQm], please [pli:z], whose [hu:z], nice [nais], name [neim], give [giv],(开音节的外形,多读长音。)

4.         单词重音(重音符号ˊ):双音节和多音节词中常常重读一个音节,其它读轻音。遇到生词,有音标当然省事,但在无音标的情况下,至于哪个音节要重读,由于英语词源、构词、例外情况等诸多因素限制,不可能将每个生词读的完全无误。只能掌握的一般规律:
重音口诀: 为了顺口有节奏,张口由大变到小(省气力),大口/长音多重读,还要保持身平衡(整个单词发音),特别写法长又多(特别是写法很长的多音节词),倒数第三多琢磨。(一般是)前轻---中重----后又轻。哪儿平顺哪(儿)读重。
一般具体做法是:① 单音节都重读;这类单词很多。例如:meet, and, class, which, house, bread
② 双音节词 ▲ (发长音或大口音重读, 这类单词很多,例如:`teacher [`ti:tFE], `ruler [`ru:lE], `basket [`bB:skit], `apple [`Apl], `table [`teibl],tired [`taiEd], `lazy [`leizi], `open [`EupEn],  // `sorry [`sCri], Ju`ly, pre`fer, po`lice, to`day,
▲ (两音平(音长和张口大小接近的)开头重读; 这类单词很多,例如:`rubber, `Sandy, `sandwich, `pencil, `brother, woman, `sister, `ready, `hungry, `very, `busy, `picture, `listen, `Betty, `empty, `pretty, clever [`klevE], letter [ `letE],
▲ (带前后缀多词根重读。例如:a`gain, a`loud, a`sleep, be`gin, be`fore, be`side, be`hind, /`quickly, `friendship, `boyish, `building,
④ 多音节词倒数第三个元音字母(音节)重读。带前后缀多词根重读。
例如:`Italy,(I`talian), A`merican, `beautiful, natio`nality, `exercise, `chocolate, `newspaper, // suddenly, inter`national, `championship, `countable, `interesting, mechano`therapy (力学疗法),
③ 合成词保持开头单词的重音:例如:policeman, `pencil-box, `football, `ice-cream, `classroom, `schoolboy, `postman, `milkman, `tea-pot, `Jack-in-the-box, `hide-and-`seek, `snakes-and-`ladders,

u  小测试:给下列单词划分音节, 并拼读出来。(单音节词下划线,多音节词用竖线分割。)
1). yes, here, sorry, yellow, football, brother, woman, sister, hungry, very, thirsty, busy, tired, picture, quickly, evening, empty, children, school, funny, actress, policewoman, open, clever, heavy, banana, 2). exercise, beautiful, thick, light, small, French, German, English, Italian, American, letter, mother, street, colour, locker, dirty, towel, our, lady, twins. sandwich, duster, hurry, headmaster, playground, 3). upstairs, perhaps, asleep, today, holiday, animal, lollipop, instead, biscuit, chocolate, minute, fine, shell, gate, near, under, newspaper, silly, beside, behind, between, together, attention, laugh, matter, 4). face, ear, aeroplane, goal, trousers, knife, chimney, water, make, turn, piece, easy, course, watch, basin, hopscotch, game, throw, stone, window, telescope, across, into, happen, present, birthday,

u  注意:这语音方面的技能需要在下面不断练习,我们可以把教材里的单词多多练习。一有时间就拿起教材进行训练。天长日久,会取得你满意的效果。

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