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“12条规律”在手,完胜非谓语动词

2014-04-07  紫曦唯幂1

“12条规律”在手,完胜非谓语动词  

非谓语动词是英语高考中占分值最高的语法考查项目。然而,该语法项目形式多样,用法既灵活又复杂,难于理解,导致学生谈“非”色变。为帮助考生轻松应对非谓语动词的“刁难”,笔者结合高考非谓语动词考查热点,归纳了12条通俗易懂的解题规律。 规律一:作定语时,doing表主动、进行,being done表被动、进行,done表被动、完成,to do表有待发生,to be done表有待被发生。

    考例1:The witnesses ______by the police just now gave very different descriptions of the fight.(2013陕西卷)

    A. questioned B. being questioned

    C. to be questioned D. having questioned

    答案:A 。句意:那些刚才被警察询问的目击者就这次打架事件给出了完全不同的描述。空白处为后置定语,与被修饰的名词the witnesses是被动关系,而且表示已经发生的动作,故选A。

    考例2:We’re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision ______ at the meeting will influence the future of our company.(2012重庆卷)

    A. to be made B. being made

    C. made D. having been made

    答案:A。句意:我们半小时后开会,会上所作的决定会影响我们公司的未来。空白处为后置定语,与被修饰的名词decision是被动关系,而且是将要发生的动作,故选A。

 

    规律二:作主语时,doing表抽象、一般的动作,to do指具体、将要发生的动作,表被动要用being done,done不能作主语。

    考例:_____ basic first-aid techniques will help you respond quickly to emergencies.(2013福建卷)

A. Known B. Having known

C. Knowing D. Being known

    答案:C。句意:了解基本的急救技巧能帮你快速应对紧急情况。分析句子结构可知画线处作主语,并表抽象动作,所以选择C项。又如:

    _______to sunlight for too much time does harm to one’s skin.

    A. Exposed B. Being exposed

    C. Having exposed D. After being exposed

    答案:B。

 

    规律三:作补语时,to do表动作全过程,doing表主动进行,done表被动或完成。

    考例1:When we saw the road ______with snow, we decided to spend the holiday at home.(2013北京卷)

    A. block B. to block C. blocking D. blocked

    答案:D。句意:当看到道路被雪封住后,我们决定在家过假期。空格处作宾补,且road和block之间是被动关系,故选D。

    考例2:I looked up and noticed a snake ______ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast.(2012四川卷)

    A. to wind B. wind C. winding D. wound

    答案:C。句意:我抬头,看到一条蛇正蜿蜒前行去抓自己的早餐。句中winding its way与宾语snake之间为主动关系且动作正在进行,故选C。

 

    规律四:变否定时,非谓语动词前加not,构成not to do,one’s not doing,one’s not having done,not to have done等形式。

    考例1: _______ which university to attend, the girl asked her teacher for advice.(2013四川卷)

    A. Not knowing B. Knowing not

    C. Not known D. Known not

    答案:A。主语the girl与know之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,用现在分词作原因状语,且分词的否定形式是在其前加not,所以答案为A。

    考例2:The lawyer listened with full attention, ____ to miss any point.(2010四川卷)

    A. not trying B. trying not

    C. to try not D. not to try

    答案:B。句意:律师全神贯注地听,试图不遗漏任何要点。not否定to miss,意思是“不要漏掉,不要丢掉”。此题考生易误选A,如选A的话,not否定的就是trying,意思就是“不试图漏掉任何信息”,很明显错了。

 

    规律五:作结果状语时, (only) to do表意料之外,doing则表意料之中或自然而然。

    考例1:The sun began to rise in the sky, ____ the mountain in golden light.(2013湖南卷)
    A. bathed B. bathing

    C. to have bathed D. have bathed

答案:B。句意:太阳从天边升起,使整座山沐浴在金色的阳光之中。逗号后是结果状语,表自然而然的结果,故选B。

    考例2:George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him.(2012山东卷)

    A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told

    答案:A。句意:乔治在战争后回到家,不料被告知妻子已经离开。这里George和tell之间是被动关系,因此用to be told表意料之外的结果,故选A。

 

    规律六:to do作状语,只可表目的、原因或意料之外的结果。

    考例1: I stopped the car ____ a short break as I was feeling tired.(2013山东卷)

    A. take B. taking C. to take D. taken

    答案:C。句意:当感到疲劳时,我停下车稍作休息。停下车的目的是休息,所以应用不定式表目的,故选C。

    考例2:The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy _____ anything that happened to be on.(2012全国卷II)

    A. to watch B. watching

    C. watched D. to have watched

    答案:A。句意:老人每天坐在电视机前,看上演的任何节目都很高兴。后半句是形容词短语作状语,happy的原因就是观看电视节目,要用不定式,故选A。

 

    规律七:动词不定式的三种形式与其所在句子的另一个动词的关系——to do后于动词发生,to be doing与动词同时发生,to have done先于动词发生。

    考例:The engine just won’t start. Something seems ____ wrong with it.(2013重庆卷)

    A. to go B. to have gone

    C. going D. having gone

    答案:B。句意:发动机启动不了,好像是哪里出问题了。动词seem后接不定式,排除C和D;根据句意可知,go这一动作发生在won’t start之前,故选B。

 

    规律八:作状语时,主动进行用doing,主动完成用having done,被动用done,被动完成用done或having been done。

    考例1:________ at the cafeteria before, Tina didn’t want to eat there again.(2013山东卷)

    A. Having eaten B. To eat C. Eat D. Eating

    答案:A。句意:因为在那家自助餐厅吃过饭,所以Tina不想再去那里吃了。Tina与eat之间是主谓关系,并且第一个eat发生在第二个eat之前,故用having eaten。

    考例2:_______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks.(2012年北京卷)

    A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use

    答案:C。句意:省点用的话,一听罐头可用六周。句中tin和use是被动关系,故用过去分词形式。

 

    规律九:及物动词作状语时,如其后加宾语,用doing,不加宾语,则用done。

    考例1:_______ an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it sooner or later.(2012江苏卷)

    A. Based B. Basing C. Base D. To base

    答案:B。句意:如果你根据情感而非理智作出一个重要决定,那么你迟早会后悔的。空格后有宾语,因此用doing。A选项based后面往往有on跟着,故排除。

    考例2:Film has a much shorter history, especially when such art forms as music and painting.(2012全国新课标卷)

    A. having compared to B. comparing to

    C. compare to D. compared to

    答案:D。句意:电影的历史要短得多,尤其是与像音乐和绘画这样的艺术形式相比时。这里film和compare之间是被动关系,用过去分词。compared to意为“和……相比”。

 

    规律十:非谓语动词逻辑主语与主句主语不一致时,需用独立主格结构。

    考例1:The party will be held in the garden, weather

.(2012全国新课标卷)

    A. permitting B. to permit

    C. permitted D. permit

    答案:A。句意:如果天气允许,聚会将在花园举行。主句的主语party 和weather不一致,所以weather保留,作permitting的逻辑主语,构成独立主格结构。另外,weather与permit之间是主动关系,故用现在分词。

    考例2:Bats are surprisingly long-lived creatures, some ______ a life span of around 20 years.(2011浙江卷)

    A. having B. had C. have D. to have

    答案:A。句意:蝙蝠有出奇长的寿命,一些蝙蝠有20年的寿命。根据句子结构可知,该处为独立主格结构作状语,some与动词have之间是主动关系,所以选择having作状语。

 

    规律十一:There be+名词(主语)+to do/doing/done句型,动作发生在将来用to do,表主动、进行用doing,表被动用done。

    考例1:Laura was away in Paris for over a week. When she got home, there was a pile of mail ______for her.(2013辽宁卷)

    A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. was waiting

    答案:C。there be句型中be就是谓语部分,可先把D排除,mail和wait之间是主动关系,且动作正在进行,所以选择waiting。

 

规律十二:主动表被动的to do句型——主语+be+ adj.+ to do; 主语+have+ sth.+ to do。

    考例1:This machine is very easy . Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes.(2012辽宁卷)

    A. operating B. to be operating

    C. operated D. to operate

    答案:D。在句型“主语+be+adj.+to do”中,如果这个主语又是不定式动词do的逻辑宾语,则用主动表被动,所以选D。

   考例2:I have a lot of readings before the end of this term.(2010山东卷)

    A. completing B. to complete

    C. completed D. being completed

    答案:B。句意:我有很多本读物要在本学期结束前看完。不定式表示未完成的事情。在“主语+have+sth.+to do”句型中,如do是主语自己发出的动作,不定式用主动形式表被动意义;如do不是主语自己发出的动作,不定式则用被动形式。如:(1)I’m going to go shopping, but you are too busy to go with me. Do you have anything to be bought? (2)I’m going to go shopping, for I have something to buy .

 

    规律一:作定语时,doing表主动、进行,being done表被动、进行,done表被动、完成,to do表有待发生,to be done表有待被发生。

    考例1:The witnesses ______by the police just now gave very different descriptions of the fight.(2013陕西卷)

    A. questioned B. being questioned

    C. to be questioned D. having questioned

    答案:A 。句意:那些刚才被警察询问的目击者就这次打架事件给出了完全不同的描述。空白处为后置定语,与被修饰的名词the witnesses是被动关系,而且表示已经发生的动作,故选A。

    考例2:We’re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision ______ at the meeting will influence the future of our company.(2012重庆卷)

    A. to be made B. being made

    C. made D. having been made

    答案:A。句意:我们半小时后开会,会上所作的决定会影响我们公司的未来。空白处为后置定语,与被修饰的名词decision是被动关系,而且是将要发生的动作,故选A。

 

    规律二:作主语时,doing表抽象、一般的动作,to do指具体、将要发生的动作,表被动要用being done,done不能作主语。

    考例:_____ basic first-aid techniques will help you respond quickly to emergencies.(2013福建卷)

A. Known B. Having known

C. Knowing D. Being known

    答案:C。句意:了解基本的急救技巧能帮你快速应对紧急情况。分析句子结构可知画线处作主语,并表抽象动作,所以选择C项。又如:

    _______to sunlight for too much time does harm to one’s skin.

    A. Exposed B. Being exposed

    C. Having exposed D. After being exposed

    答案:B。

 

    规律三:作补语时,to do表动作全过程,doing表主动进行,done表被动或完成。

    考例1:When we saw the road ______with snow, we decided to spend the holiday at home.(2013北京卷)

    A. block B. to block C. blocking D. blocked

    答案:D。句意:当看到道路被雪封住后,我们决定在家过假期。空格处作宾补,且road和block之间是被动关系,故选D。

    考例2:I looked up and noticed a snake ______ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast.(2012四川卷)

    A. to wind B. wind C. winding D. wound

    答案:C。句意:我抬头,看到一条蛇正蜿蜒前行去抓自己的早餐。句中winding its way与宾语snake之间为主动关系且动作正在进行,故选C。

 

    规律四:变否定时,非谓语动词前加not,构成not to do,one’s not doing,one’s not having done,not to have done等形式。

    考例1: _______ which university to attend, the girl asked her teacher for advice.(2013四川卷)

    A. Not knowing B. Knowing not

    C. Not known D. Known not

    答案:A。主语the girl与know之间是逻辑上的主谓关系,用现在分词作原因状语,且分词的否定形式是在其前加not,所以答案为A。

    考例2:The lawyer listened with full attention, ____ to miss any point.(2010四川卷)

    A. not trying B. trying not

    C. to try not D. not to try

    答案:B。句意:律师全神贯注地听,试图不遗漏任何要点。not否定to miss,意思是“不要漏掉,不要丢掉”。此题考生易误选A,如选A的话,not否定的就是trying,意思就是“不试图漏掉任何信息”,很明显错了。

 

    规律五:作结果状语时, (only) to do表意料之外,doing则表意料之中或自然而然。

    考例1:The sun began to rise in the sky, ____ the mountain in golden light.(2013湖南卷)
    A. bathed B. bathing

    C. to have bathed D. have bathed

答案:B。句意:太阳从天边升起,使整座山沐浴在金色的阳光之中。逗号后是结果状语,表自然而然的结果,故选B。

    考例2:George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him.(2012山东卷)

    A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told

    答案:A。句意:乔治在战争后回到家,不料被告知妻子已经离开。这里George和tell之间是被动关系,因此用to be told表意料之外的结果,故选A。

 

    规律六:to do作状语,只可表目的、原因或意料之外的结果。

    考例1: I stopped the car ____ a short break as I was feeling tired.(2013山东卷)

    A. take B. taking C. to take D. taken

    答案:C。句意:当感到疲劳时,我停下车稍作休息。停下车的目的是休息,所以应用不定式表目的,故选C。

    考例2:The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy _____ anything that happened to be on.(2012全国卷II)

    A. to watch B. watching

    C. watched D. to have watched

    答案:A。句意:老人每天坐在电视机前,看上演的任何节目都很高兴。后半句是形容词短语作状语,happy的原因就是观看电视节目,要用不定式,故选A。

 

    规律七:动词不定式的三种形式与其所在句子的另一个动词的关系——to do后于动词发生,to be doing与动词同时发生,to have done先于动词发生。

    考例:The engine just won’t start. Something seems ____ wrong with it.(2013重庆卷)

    A. to go B. to have gone

    C. going D. having gone

    答案:B。句意:发动机启动不了,好像是哪里出问题了。动词seem后接不定式,排除C和D;根据句意可知,go这一动作发生在won’t start之前,故选B。

 

    规律八:作状语时,主动进行用doing,主动完成用having done,被动用done,被动完成用done或having been done。

    考例1:________ at the cafeteria before, Tina didn’t want to eat there again.(2013山东卷)

    A. Having eaten B. To eat C. Eat D. Eating

    答案:A。句意:因为在那家自助餐厅吃过饭,所以Tina不想再去那里吃了。Tina与eat之间是主谓关系,并且第一个eat发生在第二个eat之前,故用having eaten。

    考例2:_______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks.(2012年北京卷)

    A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use

    答案:C。句意:省点用的话,一听罐头可用六周。句中tin和use是被动关系,故用过去分词形式。

 

    规律九:及物动词作状语时,如其后加宾语,用doing,不加宾语,则用done。

    考例1:_______ an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it sooner or later.(2012江苏卷)

    A. Based B. Basing C. Base D. To base

    答案:B。句意:如果你根据情感而非理智作出一个重要决定,那么你迟早会后悔的。空格后有宾语,因此用doing。A选项based后面往往有on跟着,故排除。

    考例2:Film has a much shorter history, especially when such art forms as music and painting.(2012全国新课标卷)

    A. having compared to B. comparing to

    C. compare to D. compared to

    答案:D。句意:电影的历史要短得多,尤其是与像音乐和绘画这样的艺术形式相比时。这里film和compare之间是被动关系,用过去分词。compared to意为“和……相比”。

 

    规律十:非谓语动词逻辑主语与主句主语不一致时,需用独立主格结构。

    考例1:The party will be held in the garden, weather

.(2012全国新课标卷)

    A. permitting B. to permit

    C. permitted D. permit

    答案:A。句意:如果天气允许,聚会将在花园举行。主句的主语party 和weather不一致,所以weather保留,作permitting的逻辑主语,构成独立主格结构。另外,weather与permit之间是主动关系,故用现在分词。

    考例2:Bats are surprisingly long-lived creatures, some ______ a life span of around 20 years.(2011浙江卷)

    A. having B. had C. have D. to have

    答案:A。句意:蝙蝠有出奇长的寿命,一些蝙蝠有20年的寿命。根据句子结构可知,该处为独立主格结构作状语,some与动词have之间是主动关系,所以选择having作状语。

 

    规律十一:There be+名词(主语)+to do/doing/done句型,动作发生在将来用to do,表主动、进行用doing,表被动用done。

    考例1:Laura was away in Paris for over a week. When she got home, there was a pile of mail ______for her.(2013辽宁卷)

    A. waited B. to wait C. waiting D. was waiting

    答案:C。there be句型中be就是谓语部分,可先把D排除,mail和wait之间是主动关系,且动作正在进行,所以选择waiting。

 

规律十二:主动表被动的to do句型——主语+be+ adj.+ to do; 主语+have+ sth.+ to do。

    考例1:This machine is very easy . Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes.(2012辽宁卷)

    A. operating B. to be operating

    C. operated D. to operate

    答案:D。在句型“主语+be+adj.+to do”中,如果这个主语又是不定式动词do的逻辑宾语,则用主动表被动,所以选D。

   考例2:I have a lot of readings before the end of this term.(2010山东卷)

    A. completing B. to complete

    C. completed D. being completed

    答案:B。句意:我有很多本读物要在本学期结束前看完。不定式表示未完成的事情。在“主语+have+sth.+to do”句型中,如do是主语自己发出的动作,不定式用主动形式表被动意义;如do不是主语自己发出的动作,不定式则用被动形式。如:(1)I’m going to go shopping, but you are too busy to go with me. Do you have anything to be bought? (2)I’m going to go shopping, for I have something to buy .

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