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中考必考语法点之定语从句

 纸鸢01 2015-04-17



概念:在复合句中作定语,修饰主句中某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。

定语从句相关术语:

1. 限制性定语从句

用来修饰和限定先行词,与先行词间的关系非常密切,如果去掉,则意思含混不清。

2. 非限制性定语从句

非限制性定语从句起补充附带说明的作用,缺少它不会影响全句的理解,译为汉语时常常不译做定语,而根据句意翻译为相应的其它形式的从句。它与主句的关系不像限制性定语从句的关系那样紧密。在非限制性定语从句的前面往往有逗号隔开。

3. 先行词

被定语从句修饰的名词,代词称为先行词。先行词总是出现在定语从句之前。

4. 关系词

引导定语从句的关联词称为关系词,关系词有关系代词和关系副词。

关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等;

关系副词有where, when, why等。

5. 关系词常有3个作用:1引导定语从句 2代替先行词 3在定语从句中担当一个成分。

限制性定语从句

1 关系代词引导的定语从句


1. who指人在从句中做主语

The boys who are playing football are from Class One.

2. whom指人,在定语从句中充当宾语,常可省略。(注:who和whom已无太大区别,可以通用。)

Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus.

The man who/whom you met just now is my friend.

注意:关系代词whom在口语和非正式语体中常用who代替,可省略。

如果在从句中做宾语,就用whom或who.比如: He is the man whom/who I talk to.

如果是在从句中作主语就只能用who.比如: He is the man who has an English book.

3. which指物,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略

This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday.

4. that指人时,相当于who或者whom;指物时,相当于which。在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略。

The number of the people that/who come to visit the city each year rises one million.

Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning?

5. whose通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语

He has a friend whose father is a doctor.

I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in.

whose指物时,常用以下结构来代替

The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired.

The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.

关系副词引导的定语从句

关系副词也可以引导的定语从句,并在从句中分别表示时间,地点或原因等

关系副词的作用相当于“介词+which结构”(其用法分类列表如下)


1. when指时间,在定语从句中做时间状语

I still remember the day when I first came to the school.

2. where指地点,在定语从句中做地点状语

The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.

3. why指原因,在定语从句中做原因状语

Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane.

注意:关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换

The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear,


限制性定语从句只能用that的几种情况

1.当先行词是anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some等代词时,或者是由every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much,each等修饰时

Have you taken down everything (that) Mr. Li has said?

There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the world.

All that can be done has been done.

There is little that I can do for you.

注意1:部分时候that可以省略,如部分例句将that用括号括住。

注意2:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用who

Any man that/ who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.

2. 当先行词被序数词修饰

The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.

3. 当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时

This is the best film that I have seen.

4. 当形容词被the very, the only,the same, the last 修饰时

This is the very good dictionary that I want to buy,

After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned.

当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用who

Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting?

5. 当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时

Who is the man that is standing there?

Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

6. 当先行词既有人,也有动物或者物体时

Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned?

【中考真题再现】

(2014,24)I will never forget the day _____we spent in the old town with small houses.

A.who B.whom C.that D.what

【答案】C

【解析】考点:定语从句。关系代词的用法,从句中spend缺少宾语,that 代替先行词the day充当从句中的宾语。 我永远不会忘记我在有着很多小房子的旧城里度过的那一天。

(2013,25) Being blind is something _________ most people can’t imagine.

A. whoB. whatC. thatD. whom

【答案】C

【解析】考点:定语从句。关系词that在从句中作宾语。失明是大多数人无法想象的事情。

(2011,23) Who is the man ______ is reading a book over there?

A. thatB. whichC. whoseD. what

【答案】A

【解析】定语从句的用法。句意:那边正在读书的人是谁?先行词man指人,从句中缺少主语,用that。whose做从句的定语。which做引导词时,先行词必须指物。

(拱墅区2014一模,26) ---- Have you found the information ____ you can use for the report?

---- Not yet. I’ll search some online.

A.who B.what C.which D.where

答案】C

【解析】考点:定语从句关系代词。先行词为物,用which或that,这里选C。句意:你找到了可以用于报告的信息了么?




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