干货 | 近四年高考英语语法真题分类汇编(1):定语从句(2017-2020)

 yupp 2020-08-03


1. 2020江苏高考真题)Many lessons are now available online, from __________ students can choose for free.
A. whoseB. whichC. whenD. whom
【解析】考查定语从句。句意:许多课程现在都可以在网上找到,学生们可以从中免费选择。此处是非限定性定语从句,先行词是many lessons,关系词在从句中做介词from的宾语,应使用关系代词which引导。故选B

2. 2020天津高考真题)Dr. Rowan, __________ secretary resigned two weeks ago, has had to do all his own typing.
A. whoseB. of whomC. of whichD. which
【解析】考查定语从句。句意:罗文博士的秘书两周前辞职了,他现在只能自己打字。______ secretary resigned two weeks ago是非限制性定语从句,修饰Dr. Rowan,引导词在从句中作定语,表示“Dr. Rowan’s ”,表示“……” ,应用关系代词whose引导该从句,故选A

5. 2020新课标Ⅲ卷高考真题)In ancient China lived an artist    61    paintings were almost lifelike.



1.2019·江苏卷·单项填空】 21.We have entered into an age _______ dreams have the best chance of coming true. 
A. whichB. whatC. whenD. that
【解析】考查定语从句。句意:我们已经进入到了一个时代,在这个时代梦想实现的机会最大。句中先行词为an age(一个时代),且先行词在从句中做时间状语,所以关系词用when。故选C

2.2019·天津卷·单项填空】11.Their child is at the stage__________ she can say individual words but not full sentences.
A. whyB. whereC. whichD. what
【解析】考查定语从句。句意:他们的孩子正处于能说单个单词而不能说完整句子的阶段。句中she can say individual words but not full sentences是一个定语从句,先行词是the stage,关系词在定语从句中作地点状语,用关系副词where,故选B

3.2019·新课标I·短文改错】One afternoon where I was in primary school, I was walking by the school playground.
【答案】One afternoon   I was in primary school, I was walking by the school playground.
【解析】考查定语从句。先行词one  afternoon表示时间在定语从句中作状语,所以关系词使用when。故将where改为when

4.2019·新课标II·语法填空】Now Irene Astbury works from 9am to 5pm daily at the pet shop in Macclesfield___62___ she opened with her late husband Les.
【解析】考查非限制性定语从句。分析句子结构可知,先行词为the pet shop,在非限制性定语从句中作opened一词的宾语,故用which

5.2019·新课标III·语法填空】They were well trained by their masters ___64___ had great experience with caring for these animals.

6.2019·新课标III·短文改错】 In the cafe, customers will enjoy themselves in the historical environment what is created for them.
In the cafe, customers will enjoy  themselves in the historical environment   is created for them. 
【解析】本句考查定语从句。先行词environment 在从句中做主语,指物,关系代词用that/which。故把what改为that/which

7.2019·浙江卷·语法填空】On the edge of the jacket, there is a piece of cloth ___58___gives off light in the dark.

8.2019·北京卷·语法填空】What students do at college seems to matter much more than___8___ they go.

9.2019·北京卷·语法填空】The students benefitting most from college are those ___9___ are totally engaged(参与)in academic life.
【解析】考查定语从句。句意:从大学中获益最多的学生是那些完全投入学术生活的学生。___3___ are totally engaged(参与)in academic life.是定语从句,修饰先行词those,空格处在句中作主语,代指人,故填whothat



1.2018·北京】5. She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit.
A. which    B. who    C. as    D. that
【解析】考查非限制性定语从句。句意:她和家人骑自行车去上班,这有助于她们保持健康。“____ helps them keep fit”是非限制性定语从句,该从句修饰整个主句,引导词在从句中做主语,故该从句应用关系代词which引导。A选项正确。

2.2018·天津】2. Kae, _________sister I shared a room with when we were at college, has gone to work in Australia.
A. whom    B. thatC. whose    D. her


23. Self-driving is an area _______ China and the rest of the world are on the same starting line.
A. that    B. whereC. which    D. when
【解析】考查定语从句。句意:自动驾驶是一个中国和世界其它国家都在同一起跑线的领域。句中先行词为area,在从句中作地点状语,故用关系副词where,相当于in which。故选B

4.2018·新课标I·语法填空】Two of the authors of the review also made a study published in 2014   66   showed a mere five to 10 
【解析】考查定语从句的关系词。此处a study是先行词,其在定语从句中作主语,故填thatwhich

4.2018·新课标I·短文改错】They also had a small pond which they raised fish. My grandpa said last summer they earned quite a lot by selling the fish.
【答案】 which改成in whichwhere
【解析】考查定语从句的关系词。他们还有一个小池塘,里面养着鱼。此处a small pond是先行词,其在后面的定语从句中作地点状语,故用in whichwhere

5.2018·新课标II·语法填空】The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005—when the government _started_ (start) a soil-testing program ___69___ gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers - and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons.

6.2018·新课标II·语法填空】Many westerners   57   come to China cook much less than in their own countries once they realize how cheap   it  can be to eat out.


1.2017·北京卷】31. The little problems ______ we meet in our daily lives may be inspirations for great inventions.
A. that          B. as       C. where        D. when  
【解析】试题分析:句意:我们在日常生活中遇到的小问题可能就是伟大发明的灵感。______ we meet in our daily lives是定语从句,从句缺少宾语,先行词是problems,用that
定语从句的关系词分为关系代词(who, whom, whose, that, which, as 等)和关系副词(when, where, why等)。
1. 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在从句中充当主语、宾语,定语等成分。关系副词可代替的先行词是表示时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
eg. An architect is a person who / that designs houses and buildings.
The city where / in which I was born is on the new railway line.
2. 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
e.g. I find it difficult to cooperate with those who always stick to their own opinions.
I find it difficult to cooperate with the one who always sticks to his own opinion.
The suit (which / that ) the tailor made for me doesn’t fit me.
3. 非限定性定语从句中,关系词均不可省略。注意关系代词that, 关系副词why, 不可用于非限定性定语从句。
4. 作介词宾语的关系代词
e.g. The man with whom you shook hands just now is head of our department.
Mrs. Nye, with whom you shook hands just now, is head of our department.
The room in which my family live used to be a garage.

2.2017·江苏】28. In 1963 the UN set up the World Food Programme, one of _______ purposes is to relieve worldwide starvation.
A. which            B. it’s         C. whose        D. whom 
试题分析:考查定语从句。先行词是“the World Food Programme”世界粮食项目的目的之一是……

3.2017·天津】9. My eldest son, _______ work takes him all over the world, is in New York at the moment.
A. that   B. whose   C. his    D. who
试题分析:本句是一个非限制性定语从句,先行词是My eldest son, 根据句意和空后名词确定引导词在从句中作定语,选项中只有whose修饰名词作定语。故选B。考点:考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which,  whom, as who在句中做主语,宾语,表语;whose做定语;where, why, when在句中做地点,原因和时间状语。要分析定语从句的成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。

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