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英语中元音和辅音(母音和子音)的分类表

2016-09-03  家有学子

 

 

 

 

英    语    音    标(采用口腔后部发声法发音)

发音特征

音*母音

单元音

声带振动

前元音:[i:/ I:] [i] [e] [A]

发音清晰响亮

气流通畅

中元音:[Q] [E] [E: / \:]

后元音:[B:] [C:] [C] [u:] [u]

双元音

振动

[ai] [ei] [Ci] [iE] [ZE/ eE] [uE] [au] [Eu]

音*子音

哑辅音

不振动

[p][t][k]   [f][s][W][F]  [h]  [tF][tr][ts]

发音含糊晦涩

气流受阻

浊辅音

振动

[b][d][g]  [v][z][T][V]  [r]  [dV][dr][dz]

[m][n][N]   [l]/[l]   [w][j ]

辅音连缀

[pr][pl][br][bl][kr][kl][gr][gl][fr][fl][sn][sl][sk][sp][sw][dw][hw][kw][tw] [Wr] [pju:][bju:][tju:][dju:][kju:][gju:][fju:][vju:][lju:][mju:][nju:][hju:][zju

三、英语拼音怎么来拼读:(也就是单词的音标怎么读。/与我们汉语拼音很相似)  
(拼读规则:以元音为中心划分音节,按音节来拼读。)
拼读口诀:元音为中心,划分音节、按音节拼读;多音节加重音、多音节一重多轻发音,轻音节怎么轻怎么发音。重开音节读长音,轻/闭音节读短音。例子:he[hi:], name [neim], table[`teibl], bicycle[`baisikl], teacher[`ti:tFE], red, cap, and, thank, basket, yellow, umbrella,

四、英文字母和常见字母组合的发音规则(或一般规律):

1.       为什么要掌握字母和常见字母组合的一般发音规律?目的只有一个,让我们能够做到------见字读音、音义结合。记住词形、服务拼写。第二步就是要反过来,学会语音认字(类似我们的拼音认字),通过多加练习,逐步达到听音写字、音义结合的水平。第三步是形义结合,练习英语汉语意义对应翻译。
1:假如你知道字母组合ee一般发音是[i:] (规律), 那么,meet这个单词就脱口而出了。
      单词(词形) meet  词义:遇见;初次见面/认识;满足迎合;迎接/出迎。
               [ __-__-__ ] → [     ] 读音/音标 
 2单词(词形)which  词义:哪个,哪些
                [ __-__-__ ] → [      ] 读音/音标 
 3单词(词形)whose  词义:谁的?
                [ __-__-__ ] → [     ] 读音/音标 
 4单词(词形)pl ea se  词义:请,求你了,
                [ __-__-__ ] → [     ] 读音/音标 

2.       英语26个字母和常见字母组合的一般发音规律:(要求熟记于心,脱口而出)
总口诀:    元音字母音多变,熟记规则也不难。辅音字母显易单,见面就把音来念。
             字母组合固定音,千锤百炼习语感。遇见生词找规律,划分音节顺口连,
             元音字母在中间,辅音字母两边站,字母组合算一个,熟能生巧难亦简。

          辅音字母发音小口诀:辅音字母显易单,见面就把音来念。
b[b], c[k], ci(y) ce多发[s];  例词:blue, table, Crisp, class, picture, actor, pencil, bicycle, nice,
d[d], f [f], g[g] [dV], [V]少见;    Sandy, dog, red, fly, coffee, green, egg, orange, garage
h [h], j[dV], k / l [k] [l]可分连;      her, here, his, jeep, Japan, book, look, blue, Klan class
m [m], n [n][N], p [p] q [k] r [r];   meet, am, no, green, thank, English, pen, cap, quickly, Crisp,
s 最多[s][z], 趋唇[F] [V]也常见; sir, this, sit, is, his, whose, please, sure[F], usually[V], pleasure
x 发音剪头端,[ks]多于[gz]面; six, pencil-box, excuse, exercise;  exam, (后接重读元音)
t [t], v [v], w 辅音[w]来念;  teacher, it, very, voice, river, with, swim, wash,  which, white
最后一个字母z,发好[z]音才算完。zoo, zero, size, puzzle,

辅音字母一见发音表: 

b

c

d

f

g

h

j

k

l

m

n

[b]

[k]cap

[d]

[f]

[g]egg

[h]

[dV]

[k]

[l]

[m]

[n]

 

[s]city

 

 

[dV]

 

 

 

[-l]

 

[N]g/k

table

rice

bed

coffee

orange

high

jeep

book

blue

meet

nose

blue

bicycle

dog

fly

garbage

hello

Japan

keep

ball

room

pen

 

 

 

 

[V]garage

 

 

 

table

 

thank

p

q

r

s

t

v

w

x

(y)

z

 

[p]

[k]

[r]

[s]desk

[t]

[v]

[w]

[ks]

[j]yes

[z]

 

 

 

[-r]

[z]easy

 

 

 

[gz]

[ai]my

 

 

pencil

quick

rose

[V]usually

sit

voice

wash

box

[i]busy

zoo

 

open

quarter

sorry

pleasure

teacher

invite

swim

exam

very

zero

 

 

 

teacher

[F]sure

little

 

 

 

quickly

freeze

 

 

常见辅音字母组合的发音口诀:  字母组合固定音,千锤百炼习语感。

 wh发音 [h]  [w],  th 常发 [W]  [T]
ch/tch多发 [tF],  有时发音 [F]  [k]
sh [F], ph [f],  gh 不发或发 [f](词尾)
ge\dge 多发 [dV], ck  [k], kn [n]; 
ng 易发 [N] [Ng], qu发音 [kw] [k]
wr 发卷趋 [r], 双写分节不分音。{ 动词或复数词尾s /es, 多发[s][z]/ [iz]; ts [ts] ds[dz]}

例词:

wh发音 [h]  [w],   

   wh ---[  ] which, white, what, where, when, why  [  ] whose, who, whole {*whew [hw-]}

th 常发 [W]  [T]

th --- [  ] this, that, the, they, with  [  ] thank, three, tooth, forth, eleventh

ch/tch多发 [tF],  有时发音 [F]  [k]

   (t)ch ---[  ] chicken, chair, child, sandwich, catch, watch chase(追赶,追击,追求),  
  [  ] ache, headache, chemist   [  ] machine[mE`FEn], chaise [Feiz] (带篷二轮马车)

sh [F], ph [f],  gh 不发或发 [f](词尾)   sh ---[  ] shoe, ship, sheep, fish, wash, ash        

   ph ---[  ] photo, telephone, phrase    gh ---[  ] right, light, daughter  [  ] laugh, cough  

ge\dge 多发 [dV], ck  [k], kn [n];

   (d)ge ---[  ] orange, page, bridge, fridge, porridge(麦片粥,稀饭)

   ck ---[  ] black, kick, lock, back

   kn ---[  ] knife, know, knock, knee(膝盖), kneel(跪下), knit (编织), knob(球形把手, 旋钮),

        knack (诀窍), knight(骑士,武士; **《金山游侠》,金山公司出品的游戏修改软件),

ng 易发 [N] [Ng], qu发音 [kw] [k]ng ---[  ] sing, song, long, wing  [  ] English, hungry

qu ---[  ] quick, quite(相当,十分), quiet (安静的,平静的), quarter, require,

     [  ] cheque(支票), unique(唯一,独有独特的), technique(技巧),

wr 发卷趋 [r],

   wr ---[  ] wrong, write, wrap(包,裹), wrist(手腕), wrest(拧,扭), wrestle(摔跤), wring(绞,扭)

   双写分节不分音miss, apple, egg, sorry, yellow, umbrella {双写元音字母:see, zoo, book}

ts/tes ---[  ] its tail(它的尾巴), two baskets /boats(两个篮子/小船), my coats /shirts (我的上衣/衬衫), three hats(三顶帽子), What’s this? It’s a pen. sits,

ds/des---[  ] two birds, two hands, English words, their beds, their heads, two blackboards, goods(商品/货物),

辅音连缀pr ---[  ] practice, praise, pray, press, price, proud,

pl---[  ] please, play, plane, plan, place, plain, plenty (丰富, 大量), pliers (钳子(如老虎钳,手钳,扁嘴钳等),镊子),

        plod(沉重地走, 辛勤工作), plop (扑通落下), plum(李子), plug(插头,插上),

br---[  ] brag(吹牛), brake (闸,刹车), brain, break, bread, breed (使)繁殖, 教养, 抚养), brown, bride(新娘),

bribe(贿赂, 行贿), brush  

bl---[  ] black, bleed, blind, blouse, blood, blue,

cr-/kr---[  ] crab(螃蟹), cradle(摇篮), cream, crop, cricket([]蟋蟀, [运动]板球) criticize(批评, 责备), cry,

cruel(残忍的), kraut(泡菜), Kremlin (克里姆林宫),

cl-/kl---[  ] class, claim((根据权利)要求得到, 认领, 声称, 主张, 需要) clean, clear, clock, close, click(发出滴答 

      ,单击n.滴答声) , club(俱乐部, 夜总会,), klaxon (高音喇叭/气笛, 电喇叭), Klan (=Ku Klux Klan)K)

gr---[  ] grade, grass, grape, graceful(优雅的,温文尔雅)green, great, grief(悲痛, 伤心事, 不幸, 忧伤), grin(

齿笑, 裂口笑), groan(呻吟(着说), gruffly (说话或态度粗暴地, 粗声地, 生硬地)

gl---[  ] glass, glad, gleam (发微光, 使闪烁), glide(滑行,滑翔), globe(地球仪), glove(手套), glue(胶水/胶合)

fr---[  ] France, French, free, fresh (新鲜的, 无经验的), frequent (频繁的), friend (朋友), fried, fry, frog (青蛙), 

from(自,从)front (前面,前线,阵线), fruit (水果, 果实, 果类, 成果), frustrated (感到灰心/失败的)

fl---[  ] flat, flag, flame(火焰,热情), flap (拍打, 鼓翼而飞, 飘动), flares (喇叭裤), flash (闪光, 闪现, 一瞬间),

sl---[  ] slave (奴隶), slander (诽谤), slaughter (屠宰, 残杀, 屠杀), sleep (睡眠, 睡觉),

sm---[  ] small (小的, 少的), smart (聪明的, 漂亮的, 灵巧地, 时髦地), smarty (=wise guy自作聪明的人),

sn---[  ] snow, snake, snack ()快餐/小吃)),

sk---[  ] skate, skating, skirt, ski (=skee滑雪), skim (掠过, 滑过, 浏览), skin (皮肤, 兽皮, 皮毛), skint (身无分文的, 穷光蛋的), skip (, ,跳读), sky-blue (天蓝色的, 淡蓝色, 蔚蓝色)

sp---[  ] speak (说话, 谈话, )spear ([spiE], ), specific ([spi`sifik]特效药, 详细而精确的, 明确的), spice (香料, 调味品,情趣), spider (蜘蛛), sport(运动,运动会),

st---[  ] stand, stamp (邮票, (), ()), stage (舞台,戏剧,举行), star (, 恒星, 明星, 名角),

dw---[  ] dwarf ([dwC:f]n.矮子, 侏儒v.(使)变矮小),

tw---[  ] twelve, twelfth, twenty, twentieth, twain ([twein]n., , , 一对),

thr---[  ] three, thread(线,细丝, 线索, 思路, 螺纹),

*****************************************************************  

字母L的两种读音口诀:音节开头发清音[l -], 音节末尾模糊音[- l],

[l - ] lazy, like, look, long, lubber ([`lQbE] adj.粗笨的, 笨拙的n.傻大个), black, please, clock, color, toilet, holiday, English, Italian, nationality, lollipop,

[- l ] girl[E:l], ball [C:l], small, school[u:l], well[el], smell, level[(E)l], smile[ail], hill[il], old[Eul], cold, child[ail], children [il], full [ul], beautiful [ul], apple [pl], people, pupil, table [bl], impossible, label (()标签), little [tl], bottle, title, middle [dl], cradle(摇篮),bicycle [kl], eagle [gl], pencil [sl], puzzle [-zl], dazzle[5dAzl](眩目,晃眼,耀眼),

常见音节尾音总结[i:l / il / el/ Al / Ql / El / E:l / C:l / Cl / u:l / ul / ail / eil / Cil / iEl / uEl / aul / Eul / ]

     [-pl / -bl / -tl / -dl / -kl /  -gl / -fl / -vl / -sl / -zl / ]

         [-pEl / -bEl / -tEl / -dEl / -kEl /  -gEl / -fEl / -vEl / -sEl / -zEl ]  

元音字母a e i(y) o u  的发音口诀: 元音字母音多变,熟记规则也不难。

重开音节多长音,[ei][i:][ai][Eu][ju:/u:]来拼;重闭音节/轻音短,[A][e][i][C][Q][u][E]

ar /ss常发[B:/A], 还有[ei][A] [C/C:][i] [E]e的发音首数[e],空尾/[i:][i][E]

重开音节i[ai],重闭/轻音短[i][E]o发长音[Eu][C:][u:],短音[Q][C][E] one殊。

u字多发 [ju:][Q],忙碌busy(i)[u:][u]y头发[j]重读[ai],轻音/结尾[i]变来。

ay ,ey, o/uy,多发[ei][i],[Ci][ai]r前元音常卷舌,S后弱音须强化。

相近发音不规则,省力顺口是关键。相近/强化加弱化,使得元音多变化。

例词:

a--- [/ ei / B:/ A/ C:/ C/ E/ i / ] 强化音[ei],弱化音[E]ar /ss常发[B:/A], 还有[ei][A] [C/C:][i] [E]

name [ei], table [ei], car [B:], park [B:], class [B:], basket [B:/A], as [A], ass [A], father [B:], afterward(s) [B:/E](然后, 后来), dollar [E],cap [A], catch [A], grammar [A/E], America [E], asleep, alone, afraid, banana [E /B:/E], woman [E], water [C:], watch [C], what [C], war [C:], orange [i],

e--- [/ i:/ e/ i / E/ -*(词尾空音) / ]  强化音[i:],弱化音[E/ i ]  e的发音首数[e],空尾/[i:][i][E]

   he [i:], she [i:], we [i:], me [i:], evening [i:], red [e], pencil [e], empty [e], desk [e], umbrella [e], French [e], basket [i], women [i], pretty [i], the [E / i:], children [E], open [E], hundred [E / i:],

/ -*(词尾空音) /---- whose [z], house [s], nice [s], face [s], white [t], name [m], give [v], side [d], wake [k], prize [z], fine [n], tube [b], orange [dV], employee [i:] (职工, 雇员, 店员), apple [pl], table [bl], little [tl], middle [dl], bicycle [kl], eagle [gl](),

i--- [ /ai / i:/ i / E / ] 强化音[ai/i:],弱化音[E/ i]  重开音节发[i: /ai],重闭/轻音短[i][E]

   right [ai], bicycle [ai], white [ai], police [i:], this [i], which [i], his [i],building [i], beautiful [E], holiday [E],

o--- [ /Eu/ Q/ C/ C:/u:/ u / E / wQ-]  强化音[Eu/ C:/u:],弱化音[E]

u--- [ /ju:/ Q /  u / u: /i / ]  强化音[ju:/u:],弱化音[i]u字多发 [ju:][Q],忙碌busy(i)[u:][u]

   use [ju:], usually [ju:], tube [ju:], music [ju:], pupil [ju:], rubber [Q], umbrella [Q], mum [Q], hungry [Q], bus [Q], just [Q],cup [Q],put [u], full [u], pull [u], ruler [u:],Sue [u:],blue [u:],minute [i], busy [i]

 y--- [ /ai / j / i /]  强化音[ai],弱化音[i]   y头发[j]重读[ai],轻音/结尾[i]变来。

   your [j], you [j], yes [j], yellow [j], young [j], my [ai], why [ai], tyre [ai], style [ai], fry [ai], cry [ai], bicycle [i], baby [i], ready [i], hungry [i], very [i], thirsty [i], empty [i], busy [i], body [i], slowly [i],

常见元音字母组合发音口诀:  

字母组合固定音,常受影响发音变;千锤百炼习语感。
组合爱发长/双元((重读音节));常受影响发音变;为了顺口图方便,近似发音相变换。

另有强化加弱化,多个字母省略念。外来/古语不规则(发音),熟读百遍字腔圆。

a--- ay  [ei] day, say, play, way, weekday, birthday,  // [i]  Sunday, Monday, …

   ar  [B:] car, star, farm, are, park, garlic,  // [E] dollar, collar, grammar, particular [pE`tikju:lE],

   al  [C:] all, ball, small, hall, walk, chalk, // [B:] half,  

[C:l / Al / El ]非组合式的情况:although[C:l], alga [`AlgE](藻类, 海藻), algal [`AlgEl](adj.海藻的), algebra [Al`dVibrE] (代数学), signal [lsigEl](信号/发信号, 用信号通知),

   au  [C:] daughter, fault, audience, cause, August[`C:gEst] (八月), august [C:`gQst](令人敬畏的, 威严的),

       [C] because,  [au] kraut(泡菜), [B:] laugh,

   air  [ZE]  air, chair, hair, pair, fair,

   ai  [ei]  aid, aim, rain, afraid, wait, maid, straight, faith (信念, 宗教信仰, 忠实,),

   aw  [C:]  draw, law, saw, awful, raw,

e--- ea  [i:] teacher, tea, eat, meat, read, clean, heal, [e] bread, breakfast, head,  [ei] great, break, steak,

   ee  [i:] meet, teeth, see, three, green, week, freezing, queen,

   ei  [ei] eight, weigh, weight,  [i:]  receive, ceiling, deceit (n.欺骗, 谎言), deceive(v. 欺骗, 谎言), receipt (收条, 收据, 收到), perceive (v.察觉感知, 感到), conceit (原义;自负, 幻想),

   er  [E:]  her, herd(兽群, 牧群/放牧), emergency (紧急情况, 紧急突发事件, 非常时刻,), [E] teacher, sister,  brother, farmer, worker, letter, over,

   ear  [iE] ear, hear, near, year, fear, earwig (偷听者), [ZE] pear, wear, swear(宣誓, 发誓),

[E:] early, earth, earn,

   ere  [iE] here, sphere (球体), hemisphere (半球),   [ZE] there, ere (prep/conj. 前于...; ...以前),

   eir  [ZE] their,

   eer  [iE] beer, deer, cheer(欢呼/喝彩), sneer(冷笑,讥笑), jeer(讥讽嘲弄), engineer, ,

   ey  [ei]  they, grey, hey,

   ew  [ju:]  new, few, hew(), view(景色, 风景, 观点, 见解), ewe (母羊),

i--- ir  [E:] girl, sir, thirsty, shirt, skirt, first, thirty, whirl((使)旋转), stir (轰动, 激起,搅动),

   ie  [i:] piece, niece(侄女, 甥女), field, thief, believe, belief, achieve(完成, 达到), chief(首领, 领袖, 酋长, 长官//主要的, 首要的, 首席的, 主任的), grief(悲痛, 伤心事, 不幸, 忧伤), relief((痛苦等的)减轻),

   ire  [aiE] tire(轮胎;使劳累), tired(累的,疲劳的), wire(金属丝, 电线),

   igh  [ai] right, light, fight, might(也许, 或许; 可能), night, knight,

o--- or  [C:] or, for, fork, morning, short, torch, more,  [E:] work, worker,  [E]  actor, doctor, forget,

   oa  [Eu]  boat, coat, goat, goal,

   oo  [u:]school, food, too, room, tooth, spoon, moon, boot, root, wool, mood(心情, 情绪, 语气, 状态),

[u] book, look, cook, good, football, foot  [Q] blood, flood,

   ou  [au] house, blouse, trousers, mouse, mouth, south, ouch, out, our, hour, flour, sour, mountain,

[Q] young, touch, rough(粗糙的, 粗略的, 大致的, 粗野的), [u:] you, through, rouge [ru:V](擦口红/胭脂), [u]would, could, should,    [C:] cough,

   ow  [au] brown, down, how, now, towel, tower,  [Eu] yellow, bowl, show, blow, snow, throw

   oy/oi  [Ci]  boy, toy, enjoy, employ,  // noise, noisy, toilet, oil, boil,

   our  [au] our, flour(面粉)   [C:] your, four, course,

ore  [C:] before, more, forehead, foresee,

oor  [C:/ JE]/ door, floor, moor(荒野;停泊, 系住),

u--- ur  [E:]  turn, Thursday, hurt, fur, urge, further, urban (城市的, 市内的), suburb, suburbia (郊区居民),

    ure  picture, future[tFE],  // sure[FuE],   //pleasure, measure[VE],

    ua  [JE]  usual, usually, February, graduate [`grAdJEt](大学)毕业生, 研究生),

       非组合发音: graduate [`grAdjJeit] (v. (使)(大学)毕业),   [jJE]January,
    uy [ai] buy, guy,

 五、音节、音节的结构和类型、音节划分、音节重音和拼读:

1.         音节就是英文单词字母(或发音)的排列单位,一个单位算一节。连读起来轻重缓急,流利有节奏,便于听说阅读。

2.         音节的结构、类型:口诀: 完全结构头中尾(音头/音中/音尾),元音字母占中央(包含组合),缺头少尾有开闭(音节)e/成音/r音节。
开音节/闭音节:以元音或不发音的e结尾的叫开音节,以辅音结尾的是闭音节。
开音节() [以开音节结尾] a, area, tea, by, day, no, boy, buy, grey, ba*by, ru*ler, rub*ber, fa*ther, the, she, we, he, bee, ta*ble, ap*ple, name, bi*cy*cle, banana, orange, some,
闭音节()bas*ket, bag, cap, class, miss, cross, rain, ti*red, bed, red, yes, egg, sit, it, begin(开始), hot, not, boat, boil(沸腾,煮沸,激动), cup, sun, cut, put, but, mutton(羊肉), meet, woman,
r音节:元音字母(a e i o u) + r构成的独立的音节,也可以前后加辅音字母共同构成音节。
       例如:far(远的), arm, er (~), her, tea*cher, ru*ler, sir, girl, stir(轰动, 激起), or, for(为了,对于,因为,适合), short, fur(毛皮), turn, // ar·ti·cle(文章), or·der (命令, 定购, 定制;次序, 顺序,秩序), ur·gent (急迫的, 紧急的), ur·ban (城市的, 市内的),
成音节: 辅音字母(有时跟不发音/弱化音的元音字母) + l, m, n, (常常带有不发音的e)可算作一个音节。
       例如:la·bel (()标签), pu·pil, pen·cil [sl], ta·ble, bi·cy·cle, lit·tle [tl], ap·ple [pl],
       peo·ple,

3.         划分音节口诀: 音节中心看母音,辅音要向两边站。中心之间辅音连,一靠后,二分手;多个中间偏左右,字母组合算一个()。多音节尾 -l -m –n(e),前有辅音成音节。
例子:学会一眼识破音节数目,运用语音规则,做到见字读音。
闭音节pen [pen], cap [kAp], bas*ket [`bB:skit], green [gri:n], book [buk], and [And], eat [i:t],
开音节he [hi:], she [Fi:], tea [ti:],my [mai], tea·cher [`ti:tFE], rea·dy [`redi], Ju·ly [`dVu(:)lai],   
        ru·ler [`ru:lE], her [hE:],
成音节 ta·ble [`teibl], ap·ple [pl], bot·tle [tl], mid·dle [dl], bi·cy·cle [`baisikl], pen·cil [sl],
        se·ven [`sevn], e·le·ven [i `lev(E)n],
不发音的e come [kQm], please [pli:z], whose [hu:z], nice [nais], name [neim], give [giv],(开音节的外形,多读长音。)

4.         单词重音(重音符号ˊ):双音节和多音节词中常常重读一个音节,其它读轻音。遇到生词,有音标当然省事,但在无音标的情况下,至于哪个音节要重读,由于英语词源、构词、例外情况等诸多因素限制,不可能将每个生词读的完全无误。只能掌握的一般规律
重音口诀: 为了顺口有节奏,张口由大变到小(省气力),大口/长音多重读,还要保持身平衡(整个单词发音),特别写法长又多(特别是写法很长的多音节词),倒数第三多琢磨。(一般是)前轻---中重----后又轻。哪儿平顺哪()读重。

 

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