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七月的乡村-诗的尝试

2020-01-03  布鲁斯邓b...

数年前,我曾向一位朋友提起写诗的尝试。我说我要写完全不同的诗。这朋友问,哪方面不同呢?我回答说,用通俗的语言。这朋友来了句“唐诗那都是大白话呀”。这话把我给怼回去了。

那时我只是有那么一种愿望,但一时还说不出来到底是怎么回事。当我们说起某件事,总会被记在脑海中的那些观念给一一驳回。我们很想赢得争论,却没想过自己到底想要什么。我没有辩论赢,但我的意思不在于辩论本身以及最后的输赢。我虽然形式上辩输了,但并不服气。

自新文化运动提倡白话文写作以来,冒出来许多的诗人和诗的佳作。人们说李白的诗,在当时也是大白话,这话不假。但我们现在想写的诗,不再是唐诗那种大白话了。古诗有很多的讲究,五言、七言,平平仄仄,仄仄平平,论一首诗的好坏,必然要讲到这些知识。就更不用说“如梦令”、“摸鱼儿”这样的词牌了,这都是古典学问达到了一定程度的文人,才能写得出来的了。

这些诗词都很好,也值得模仿。但我想要的,是脱离了格律和押韵,不刻意讲究平平仄仄、仄仄平平的诗。一个人,只要学会了讲话,就能吟诗,亦即,要降低诗的门坎,把才华洒在观察和情感的表达上,而不是语义学本身(亦即,词语的锤炼,企图在词语上大做文章)。

诗首先选择语言。不会写字的人,也能作诗。诗通过声带从喉咙里发出来,然后落到纸上以文字形式固定。朴素的诗人都这么干,似乎不存在找不到词语来表达自己意思的情况。但也不排斥落笔后,反复修改诗作,使得诗的形式呈现美感,文字精炼。简言之,诗不应该是学术研究,而应该是心念的流露。

如果情感受阻,诗就会显得磕磕巴巴,写不长或缺乏诗意。这跟用词语也有很大关系。古诗词用词语,含义丰富,恣意汪洋的情感,被约束在一首短短的诗词中。有时候,为了写出一首对仗工整的诗,诗人不得不在词语的选择上,大做文章,反复调整,这就可能偏离准确表达的初衷。这种情况下,是人的情感被词语拖着走,不是情感落在词语上。

对,我说到了自由体诗,还有朦胧诗。但朦胧诗也还有丰富的意象,我想进一步摆脱这些意象的约束,减轻词语的重量。当我翻译了几首古体诗和几首现代诗后,体会到了英语的精确与中文的模糊性(当然,英语诗也有模糊和含义丰富的表达方式,令人摸不着头脑)。一首诗所用的词语含义越丰富,理解和翻译起来就越难。

没错,我想进一步简化,简化到日常用语——即口语。在书面语言和口语之间,我倾向于选择口语来表达(当然,掉书袋,半文不白的表达方式也有过)。我发现,每当我用接近于口语的方式写作时,思路就非常地流畅。我不需要在书面语和口语之间来回穿梭,我怎么讲话,就怎么写。相反,每当我想要表达得文雅些,得体些,我的思路就像一个被锁链锁住了的犯人,在暗无天日的监牢里,四处冲撞,却怎么也找不到出路。这枷锁是自找的。

我对表达方式的诉求,源于对自由表达的需要。减轻词语的重量,扫清表达的障碍,从第一个字开始,洋洋洒洒,倾泻万里。

我一直在有意无意地做这种事。在2009年成书的《五月》、《皇后与工匠》这两部长诗中,我已经做了尝试。但这些诗,表达的是悲观情绪。现在我想,是时候用这种创作方式,写些跟悲观和感伤绝缘的诗了。

《七月的乡村》这一类诗,就是其中的尝试之一。再转译成英语,相当于用英语再写了一遍,只不过,用了中文的底稿。

我以为,当你用简洁、明快的语言写作时,你的想法和情感,也将轻快自在。而写作,不仅仅是表达想法或描述,还要减轻重量。

《七月的乡村》

2019-7-2

太阳把屋顶烤熟了,

湖面上冒着热气,

白蝴蝶拍打着翅膀,

在玉米丛中乱飞,

灌满浆的玉米粒儿,

被叶子包裹得

严严实实密不透风。

辣椒树的叶子,

有点蔫了,

辣椒细长的身体

端部尖尖,自然下垂,

旁边的茄子树

也不甘示弱,

紫色的茄子们,

大大小小长长短短,

或瘦长或有点儿胖。

豇豆们像一条条小蛇,

倒挂在细细的藤上,

它们的邻居有

长条的丝瓜和中间鼓鼓

两端尖尖的苦瓜。

低矮的西红柿树上,

挂着一个个大的发红

小的青涩的灯笼。

芝麻开花了,

黄豆苗青绿色,

红薯藤刚长出叶子。

安静的池塘里,

荷叶张开了大手,

被摘去顶端的莲蓬,

光秃秃的茎枯萎了,

零星的荷花们,

一朵朵含苞待放。

秧苗拔高了,

水稻田里一片青悠悠。

河水静静地流淌,

芦苇和狗尾巴草丛生。

再往前探寻一步,

几只麻雀忽然越出。

南瓜藤沿地爬行,

把它们好奇的触角,

伸向了远方。

毛绒绒的叶子,

像是张开的巴掌,

扁圆的南瓜藏在叶子下,

慢慢地由青变黄。

狭窄巷子里的老人,

走起路来颤巍巍,

将倒未倒脚下生风。

小路上冲出一群少年,

有的骑车,

有的喊着追着跑,

鸡飞了,狗跳了,

一只猫越过了篱笆墙。

西天里夕阳下,

红通通一片火烧云。

深草丛中的蟋蟀,

卖力唱起了歌,

此情此景,活脱脱

一派田园牧歌景象。

四个月没住的房子,

窗台上落满了

一层厚厚的灰尘,

不只是窗台呀,还有

地板、洗手盆和浴缸,

先把它们擦洗干净,

再美美地洗个澡。

蚊子们出来了,

满世界嚣张。

两张床都挂上蚊帐,

将窗子钉上白纱窗。

锅碗瓢盆一阵交响,

西瓜啤酒配龙虾,

吃饱后,我们出来,

坐大树底下乘凉。

夕阳下的天空,

特别地蓝特别清爽。

我们在七月里,

这里是中部的乡村,

将近晚上八点,

天还不服气地发亮。

    Villages of mid-China in July

    July 2, 2019

The roofs have been broiled by the sun,

And the lake is steaming,

A white butterfly is shaking its wings,

Flying everywhere in the corn plexus,

These corns filled with starch grains,

Are covered by their leaves,

So theyre tight and the wind cant go in.

The leaves of chili trees

Are a bit of wilted,

The chilis long and thin bodies,

Their heads are spinous and naturally drooped.

Beside them, these eggplant trees

Are also not to be outdone,

Those purple eggplants,

Some are big or small, and others long or short.

Or long thin, or a bit of fat.

Green cow-peas are like little snakes.

Hanging under the thin cow-peas vines,

And their neighbors are as following:

Long and round loofahs and bitter gourds,

Bulging in the middle and spinous both ends.  

In these laigh tomato trees

Hanging lots of lanterns,

Big are red and small are still green.

Sesame trees are blossoming,

And the soy beans are green,

Sweet potato vines recently grow leaves.

In the quiet pool,

Lotus leaves are stretching their big hands.

On the top the seedpod of the lotuss

Been picked up, its bare stem withered,

These scattered lotus,

Theyre all in early puberty.

Rice seeding are pulling up,

And the fields are green.

The river flows quietly,

Reeds and dog tail grass grew thick.

Take a seeking step further,

Couples of sparrows suddenly flied away.

Pumpkin vines crawl along the ground,

Stretching their curious antennae,

Toward the vast distance.

These fluffy leaves,

Like splaying palms of mankind,

These flat round pumpkins hide under the leaves

Gradually from green turns to yellow.

An old man shows up in the narrow alley,

He is tottering when walking forward,

Seems to fall down while wind sweeps under-feet.

On the path a group of teenagers rush out.

Some are riding,  

And some are shouting when chasing,

The chicken fly, and the dogs jump,

A cat run over the barriers.

In the west where the sun is setting,

All clouds are bright red on fire.  

Crickets in the deep grass,

At the time sing a song hoppingly,

The scenery combine of all,

Its absolutely an idyllic scene.

The house of four months without man living

Theres a thick dust

On the window sill.

But not only on sill, and on the floor

The basin and the bathtub, too  

Firstly clean them all,

And then take a comfortable bath

The mosquitoes are all born

They are rampant all around the world.

Mosquito nets are attached to beds both,

All windows are covered with white screen.

After a busy symphony in the kitchen,

Watermelon, cold beer and lobster,

We together came out after dinner

Enjoying the cool wind under the tree

The west sky with the setting sun,

Now it is especially blue and clear

Were in July

Theres a village of middle China,

And now its near 8o clock in evening

But its still lighting at the time.

(Over)

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