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【新刊速递】《政治科学年度评论》(ARPS), Vol. 24, 2021, Part-2 | 国政学人

2021-12-05  国政学人

期刊简介

《政治科学年度评论》(Annual Review of Political Science)是一份1998年起发行的同行评审学术期刊,由Annual Reviews出版。该期刊每年出版1次,内容为对政治学研究重要进展的综述。据2021年发布的期刊引证报告指,《政治科学年度评论》的影响因子为8.091,在182份政治科学类的期刊排名第2位。

本期目录 

1. 对自由主义的衡量、与邪恶直面的回顾

Measuring Liberalism, Confronting Evil: A Retrospective

2. 总统单方面权力

Presidential Unilateral Power

3. 武装冲突期间针对平民的暴力行为:超越宏观与微观层面的鸿沟

Violence Against Civilians During Armed Conflict: Moving Beyond the Macro- and Micro-Level Divide

4. 西方民粹主义的起因

The Causes of Populism in the West

5. 冲突与合作网络

Networks of Conflict and Cooperation

01

对自由主义的衡量、与邪恶直面的回顾

题目:Measuring Liberalism, Confronting Evil: A Retrospective

作者:艾拉·卡茨尼尔森(Ira Katznelson)。

摘要:本文将自由主义视为基于法治、有公信力的政府、个人和公共权力关系中不可或缺但有内在脆弱性的设计和政治表现;本文对思想、机构和行为评估方法的研究集中在自由主义措施的起源和转变、成员的边界和主导、与旧民主政权的不稳定联系上。在早年和晚年的经历、不断变化的(冲突与合作)网络和相关机构的影响下,本文对思想和事件(尤其是美国经验)的分析提出了以下问题:何时以及为什么自由民主在范式上更有吸引力(不封闭、更宽容)与更加有效(不脆弱、更安全)。作为一名训练有素的政治历史学家,作者拒绝让该领域内的研究成为封闭式的或有清晰学科界限的,而是希望能在对因果关系和理解的寻找中做出选择。

Taking liberalism's measure as an indispensable yet inherently fragile design grounded in the rule of law, government by consent, individual and public rights, and political representation, my work at the intersection of ideas, institutions, and methods to appraise behavior has focused on origins and transitions, membership boundaries and domination, and an unsteady bonding with the older regime model of democracy. Shaped by early and later life experiences and guided by the good fortune of stimulating networks and enabling institutions, my analytical histories of thought and events, primarily in the American experience, have asked when and why liberal democracies become normatively appealing (less closed and more tolerant) and more effective (less vulnerable and more secure). As a political scientist trained in history, I have been keen to advance a discipline that refuses to be enclosed or too crisply divided into subfields, or, indeed, to choose between quests for causality and understanding.

02

总统单方面权力

题目:Presidential Unilateral Power

作者:Kenneth Lowande,密歇根大学政治系助理教授;Jon C. Rogowski,哈佛大学政府管理学院副教授。

摘要:与民主国家对政策制定的程式化描述相反,总统、州长和其他行政长官可以例行公事发布指令,如法令和行政命令,自行制定法律。本文评估了政治学家对总统单方面权力的认识。在我们看来,虽然最近25年的学术研究产生了各种理论预测,但这些既有研究提供了相互矛盾的,甚至可能不可靠的证据来证实和评判这些预测。我们回顾了占主导地位的理论观点,这些观点主要集中在与分权和对政治责任相关的约束。然后我们评估支持这些论点的证据,并为从概念、理论和经验等方面的进一步研究提出建议。

Contrary to stylized accounts of policy making in democracies, it is routine for presidents, governors, and other chief executives to issue directives such as decrees and executive orders to make law on their own. This article evaluates what political scientists have learned about presidential unilateral power. In our view, while a quarter century of scholarship on the topic has yielded a variety of theoretical predictions, the empirical record offers conflicting and perhaps unreliable evidence to substantiate and adjudicate between them. We review the dominant theoretical perspectives, which focus largely on constraints related to the separation of powers and political accountability. We then evaluate the evidence supporting these arguments and conclude with recommendations for conceptual, theoretical, and empirical advancement.

03

内战期间,领导人的经历和叛乱如何影响军队招募

题目:Violence Against Civilians During Armed Conflict: Moving Beyond the Macro- and Micro-Level Divide

作者Laia Balcells,美国乔治城大学政府学院;Jessica A. Stanton,美国天普大学政治学系。

摘要:关于战时针对平民暴力行为的早期研究强调了宏观与微观层面方法间的区别。宏观层面的方法以国际关系研究子领域为基础,侧重于国家间或冲突间的差异,而微观层面的方法则受比较政治研究子领域的影响,侧重于国家内部或冲突内部的差异。然而,最近一些关于平民目标的研究并不完全符合这二分法,如比较冲突中的次国家行为体或武装组织的研究,或者依据地理参照事件数据对多种冲突的研究。本文回顾了既有文献,并提倡超越微观和宏观层面的划分,从五个不同层面分析针对平民的暴力行为的决定因素:国际、国内、次国家、组织和个人。本文承认该领域研究已取得重大进展,但主张进一步研究,旨在对推动暴力侵害平民行为的多种行为者和互动社会过程形成更加完整的理论理解。

Early research on wartime violence against civilians highlighted a distinction between macro- and micro-level approaches. Macro-level approaches, grounded in the international relations subfield, focus on variation across countries or conflicts, while micro-level approaches, more influenced by the comparative politics subfield, focus on variation within countries or conflicts. However, some of the recent research on civilian targeting does not fit neatly into this dichotomy—such as research comparing subnational units or armed groups across conflicts or research relying on geo-referenced event data for multiple conflicts. We review the literature and advocate moving beyond the language of the micro- and macro-level divide, instead focusing on the determinants of violence against civilians at five different levels of analysis: international, domestic, subnational, organizational, and individual. While acknowledging significant advances in the field, we argue for continued research aimed at developing a more integrated theoretical understanding of the multiple actors and interactive social processes driving violence against civilians.

04

西方民粹主义的起因

题目:The Causes of Populism in the West

作者:Sheri Berman,哥伦比亚大学巴纳德学院政治学系教授。

摘要:随着民粹主义在全球范围内的崛起,与之相关的研究也呈爆炸式增长,汇集了关于美国和比较政治的学术研究,并鼓励政治学家、经济学家和社会学家之间的知识交流。处理如今广泛和跨学科文献的一个很好的方法是关注关键的辩论。本文回顾了美国、欧洲和其他发达工业国家关于民粹主义,特别是右翼民粹主义成因的文献,也借鉴和参考了世界其他地区的研究。这篇综述分析了有关民粹主义起因各类解释的本质和优缺点,包括需求侧和供给侧的解释,基于经济不满和基于社会文化不满的解释,以及基于结构和能动者的解释。

The global ascendance of populism has produced an explosion of research, bringing together scholarship on American and comparative politics as well as encouraging intellectual exchange among political scientists, economists, and sociologists. A good way to get a handle on what is now a wide-ranging and interdisciplinary literature is to focus on the key debates characterizing it. This article reviews the literature on the causes of populism, and in particular right-wing populism, in the United States, Europe, and other advanced industrial nations generally, but much of this literature draws on and refers to research on other parts of the world as well. This review analyzes the nature as well as the strengths and weakness of demand- and supply-side explanations of populism, economic grievance–based and sociocultural grievance–based explanations of populism, and structure- and agency-based explanations of populism.

05

冲突与合作网络

题目:Networks of Conflict and Cooperation

作者:Jennifer M. Larson是范德堡大学政治科学系副教授,其研究和教学兴趣包括比较政治、政治方法论、国际关系、社交网络、冲突与合作的政治经济学。

摘要:冲突与合作不是由孤立的个体行为引起的。在暴动、国家间冲突、抗议动员和非正式治理等环境中,各个行为体是高度相互依赖的。网络研究旨在确定相关的相互依存关系是什么?至关重要的是,这些关系又如何影响冲突和合作结果。尽管这是一个相对较新的研究领域,但其早期研究成果令人信服地证明网络很重要。为了帮助群体克服社交困境,社交网络提供信息、传递同伴压力和构建互动。大量研究记录了特定领域特定成果的重要性,下一步骤则是将各个部分结合在一起。各个角色之间的哪些联系在何种情况下如何体现出重要性?先前的研究已经为未来的研究工作奠定了良好的基础。

Conflict and cooperation do not result from isolated individual actions. In settings such as insurgency, interstate conflict, protest mobilization, and informal governance, actors are highly interdependent. The study of networks aims to identify what the relevant interdependencies are and, crucially, how they shape conflict and cooperation outcomes. Although this is a relatively new research area, its early results convincingly establish that networks matter. Social networks provide information, transmit peer pressure, and structure interactions in ways that help groups overcome social dilemmas. With much research documenting the importance of particular outcomes in particular areas, the next major step will be putting the pieces together. Which connections between actors matter in which circumstances and how? The groundwork has been well laid for this large future research endeavor.

编译 | 吕紫烟 王芷汀 钱  靓 戎秦婴 徐一凡

责编 | 李博轩 卫艺璇 黄慧彬 杨沛鑫 姚寰宇

排版 | 刘吉文 方引弓

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