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IDEL - A simple Instructional Design Tool for...

2009-04-27  随风飞扬
IDEL - A simple Instructional Design Tool for
E-Learning
A. Zimnas, D. Kleftouris, and N. Valkanos
E
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
PWASET VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
366
© 2009 WASET.ORG
suitable context.
Tested and successful face to face teaching practices do not
translate and transfer easily to successful interactions inside
the e-learning environments. Online courseware and
communication tools are not as accessible for the learner as
they claim to be, due to the technologies involved being not as
natural or intuitive to use. It is necessary therefore to study the
contribution made by the Computer Supported Cooperative
Work (CSCW) and Communities of Practice (CoP)
movements [5] - [7] (and develop the mechanisms for the
realignment of human and technology resources across
institutions and organisations, and a realignment for the
development of the environment with their particular needs in
order to improve efficiency and quality, enriching, thus,
previous works of other researchers to this direction [8] - [10]
and in online professional development [11].
The structure of this paper is as follows: section II will
briefly discuss Instructional Design, Instructional Systems
Design and the ADDIE ISD model in an attempt to define the
formal aspects for the development of the IDEL (Instructional
Design for Electronic Learning) tool and the e-learning
course. Section III will present the phases of analysis, design
and development of the course. In addition, the various modes
of operation available in the constructed tool IDEL and the
relative screen forms that students and educators use
extensively will be presented. More, some results of
evaluating the learning impact of the course as well as the
quality of operation of IDEL will be reported. Finally section
IV will summarise with concluding remarks and ideas for
future work.
II. I
NSTRUCTIONAL
S
YSTEMS
To achieve active and meaningful integration of technology
in the everyday teaching and learning process, it is important
that technologies
are integrated
pedagogically and
harmoniously by using Instructional Systems.
Instructional Systems aim to support and partially automate
the instructional process on a knowledge area, such as a
course, a seminar or a series of lectures [12]. The instructional
process refers to the combination of all the actions that
educators and learners perform to achieve best learning
objectives. Instructional Systems consist of resources that are
classified in three categories: human, educational and
technological ones. According to the educational philosophy
and the available learning resources, instructional systems
differ from each other. Of particular importance is the one that
is open, in the sense that learners are at the centre of the
system and around them are all the resources and tools
facilitating the learning process.
A. Instructional Systems Design
To build a successful Instructional System a teaching and
learning design methodology which facilitates the process of
course design with an emphasis on the use of technology
enhanced learning must be adopted. The most widely used
methodology for developing new learning programs is called
Instructional Systems Design (ISD). It is also known as
Instructional Systems Design & Development (ISDD), the
Systems Approach to Training (SAT) or just Instructional
Design (ID). This approach provides a step-by-step system to
the evaluation of students’ needs, the design and development
of learning materials, and the evaluation of the effectiveness
of the learning intervention. The application of a systems
approach to learning insures that educational programs and the
required support materials are continually developed in an
effective and efficient manner to match the variety of needs in
an ever rapidly changing environment.
Instructional Systems Design combines instructional
practice, research and theory into a methodology for learning
development that is systematic (inputs produce outputs which
in turn, become inputs) and systemic since the components
have a symbiotic relationship [13]. The goal of ISD is to
create successful learning experiences and to create transfer of
learning. ISD provides a road map to guide designers and
instructors
through
analysis,
design,
development,
implementation and evaluation to the goal as it appears in Fig.
1 [14].
Fig. 1 Dick and Carey Model (Systems-oriented)
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
PWASET VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
367
© 2009 WASET.ORG
ISD is based on an instructional design model which is a
representation of a view on how people learn. The main goal
of an ID model or process is to construct a learning
environment in order to provide the learners with conditions
that support the desired learning processes. They normally
cover the five phases of developing an ISD, while formative
evaluations are embedded in each of the five phases for
judging the value or worth of that process and while the
program activities are happening. Most model creators
subscribe to one or more learning theories which shape their
model. If the creator is a behaviourist, a cognitivist or a
constructivist the model will reflect that theoretical
background. According to [15], instructional design models
have the ambition to provide a link between learning theories
and the practice of building instructional systems. According
to the taxonomy defined by [16], models are described as
being classroom oriented, product oriented or systems
oriented. Systems oriented instructional design models aim to
provide “a complete instructional system for managing
learning needs” [17].
People with a relevant background in Information and
Communication Technologies (ICTs) are normally responsible
for developing an e-learning system, or designing suitable
tools for developing an e-learning system. It is reasonable to
assert that they need to be guided by people who have
appropriate knowledge and suitable background in
Instructional Systems Design Methodologies, since the
deliberate and intentional act of communicating content to
student (educational communications) and the technologies in
which they are encoded are conceived, analysed and designed
by educational analysts [18]. Effective instruction in any mode
(traditional or networked) is a result of careful planning that
follows a transparent process from the project idea to
evaluation and review. Thus, in developing an e-learning
system there is a need to face the matter in a systemic
(holistic) approach.
Β. The ADDIE Model
In delivering instruction various models have been
proposed. The most well-known and frequently used models
in Instructional Systems Design are usually based on the
ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation,
and Evaluation) concept. The ADDIE model is a generic and
systematic approach to the instructional design process which
provides instructional designers with a framework in order to
make sure that their instructional products are effective and
that their creative processes are as efficient as they can
possibly be [14]. This fundamental model consists of the five
steps mentioned above which are found in almost all ISD
models. Each step has an outcome that feeds the subsequent
step. During the phase of analysis, the designer identifies the
learning problem, the goals and objectives, the learners’
needs, existing knowledge and any other relevant
characteristics. Analysis is also concerned with the learning
environment, any constraints, the delivery options and the
timeline for the project. The design phase documents specific
learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises and
content. The actual production of learning materials is
completed in the development phase. During implementation,
a procedure for educating the learner is developed and the
materials are delivered or distributed to the student group.
After delivery the effectiveness of the learning materials is
evaluated.
The ADDIE ISD model covers the whole process of
development of learning programs from the minute the
question “what must the students learn” arises to the minute
the question “ did the students learn what they needed ? ” is
submitted and also provides a complete linear process which
manages the development of a course’s design. Its
methodology consists of the five phases mentioned already
and each phase is characterised by a set of activities and a
project output in the form of a tangible deliverable. The
deliverable for one phase is the input for the next one. Each
phase of the ADDIE model is an important element of the
instructional design process. In each phase the instructional
designer makes decisions that are critical for ensuring the
effectiveness of the instructional experience.
An adaptation of the basic framework structure and,
subsequently, its transformation in order to satisfy the needs
and requirements posed within a Networked Learning
Environment could be made in a way that follows the
principles of Information Systems (IS) development, since e-
learning is an IS itself.
III. U
SING THE
A
DDIE
M
ODEL FOR
D
EVELOPMENT OF AN
E-
L
EARNING
C
OURSE
IDEL is a web-based learning framework which was
developed
to
facilitate
course
development
and
implementation in accordance with the ADDIE model and the
instructional design principles. It aims at providing the
educators with facilities to develop their own courses with the
essential educational material and manage communication
with students. The implementation of a course is given as an
example case of how a teaching and learning system design
can be materialized and utilized.
The IDEL tool was applied at the Informatics Department
of the Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki.
One of the department’s objectives was to provide students
with a simple environment suitable for e-learning. The first
course that was developed and applied on IDEL was Web
Programming to help students to acquire the basic knowledge
and skills in developing web-pages. Achieving such a goal,
the students were benefited by the acquisition of basic
principles and suitable knowledge, and programming skills
regarding the programming languages HTML and JavaScript,
the techniques of XHTML and DHTML and the use of XML
and CSS (Cascading Style Sheets).
A. The Analysis Phase
It was not required students to have any previous
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
PWASET VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
368
© 2009 WASET.ORG
knowledge in developing web-pages. Thus, the lessons
provided were focused both on introductory issues and more
advanced ones, as the course proceeded. In the end of the
course, students were able to develop their own web-pages,
either simple or more complicated interactive ones, using CSS
for their formation.
B. The Design Phase
The lesson materials existed in electronic form. The
subject’s content was organized in autonomous units. The
order of these units was critical in understanding the subject.
Self-evaluating tests helped students to rank the level of
understanding they achieved either during the course or as a
summative evaluation. The results of either form of evaluation
became part of their final grade. These tests were composed
with multiple choice questions, blank completion and multiple
answers correspondence. Project assignments were provided
in the form of homework that students were able to complete
throughout the application. Students were, also, able to try
their programs code throughout the development of the
application. Any information needed by students to know was
provided through suitable bulletins and a diary. Forums and
chats took place, and educators’ e-mails were at students’
disposal, so that they could communicate with their tutors and
raise any additional questions. Finally, all lesson’s
documentation and useful links were provided to students
throughout the application.
C. Use Cases
From the moment a student logs into IDEL, he/she can
choose one of the following options:
Start a lesson.
Study a unit.
Move onto the next unit, after completion of the
current unit.
Test a particular piece of code.
Answer a self-testing questionnaire, after completion
of a unit.
Look at the course’s assignments.
Communicate with his/her tutor through the e-mail
service.
Visit any given course’s links.
Search through the diary for any part of the course
he/she is interesting in.
Deliver an assignment.
Check his grades.
Be informed about the discussion matters of the
forum.
Add a new subject.
Use the chatting facility to communicate with his/her
tutor and peers.
Give an answer concerning a raised question.
Accordingly, an educator is able to intervene in order to add
or erase any of the following:
Documentation about the course.
Assignments regarding the course.
Information relevant to the course.
Bulletins about the course.
Links referred to the course.
D. The Development Phase
Based on the design specifications, IDEL begins with a
main menu that provides, on the left hand side of the screen,
the necessary buttons for navigating through the application.
There is also a help menu, at the top of the screen, which
includes only the basic choices. The course’s materials exist in
an electronic form and so, through a reasonable use of a
suitable button, any part of the course can be visited. The
prototypes (screen forms) available regarding the course are
the following:
Announcements.
Documentation.
Assignments.
Communication.
Discussion.
Forum.
Chat.
Units.
Self-testing.
Code testing.
Assignments delivering.
Diary.
Grades checking.
Control Table (used only by educators).
Maintenance.
E. Evaluation
During the reviewing phase some errors were detected
regarding the cross browser operation of the tool. Also, some
others were related to the letter fonts used. All types of errors
were faced effectively. During testing, students from various
other departments located some errors in the lesson texts used
and some inconsistencies in questions and the evaluation
system, as well. All types of errors and inconsistencies were
faced and corrected.
IDEL, was used and tried with success by four students.
Two of them were registered with the department of
Informatics, while the other two were registered with other
departments. The usage of the system delivered good results
and gave a hopeful message regarding its effectiveness. The
students from the department of Informatics, who were aware
of some basic principles regarding the web-page development
process, found the advanced parts of the lesson particularly
interesting. The students from the other departments
considered of particular value the system interactivity
features, as well as the navigation facilities and the feedback
possibilities the system offered.
The following figures display screen forms regarding
prototypes about lesson information, lesson documents, lesson
assignments and various lessons, respectively.
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
PWASET VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
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© 2009 WASET.ORG
Fig. 2 Lesson Information Prototype
Fig. 3 Lesson Documents Prototype
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
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Fig. 4 Lesson Assignments Prototype
Fig. 5 Various Lessons Prototype
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
PWASET VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
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IV. C
ONCLUSION
In recent years, many universities and learning
organisations have been developing courses using a variety of
media, multimedia and hypermedia, with most common the
World Wide Web (WWW) and the Internet, to deliver
education programmes, with e-learning being the most
popular form. However, the task of transforming a lesson plan
from a description to a complete learning design is not trivial
and requires a thorough knowledge of techniques and
instructional systems design practices. Approaches which
support E-learning need to be complemented with tools
allowing educators, researchers and learners to organise their
learning material and actions into a comprehensive
framework.
IDEL is a simple ISD framework that facilitates the
learning process of e-learning courses with the emphasis
placed on the use of technology enhanced learning. Learners,
with the many screens available in the tool, can easily satisfy
their instructional and learning needs and collaborate with
tutors and fellow students. Educators can easily draw useful
conclusions about the effectiveness of the learning system
design or the use of selected educational content and if needed
can proceed with useful modifications. We intend to continue
our efforts to improve IDEL, so that eventually it becomes a
useful tool for designing and implementing successful and
effective e-learning courses.
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PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
PWASET VOLUME 37 JANUARY 2009 ISSN 2070-3740
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© 2009 WASET.ORG

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