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八下英语复习资料

2010-08-12  forwardnew


Unit 1 Will people have robots?

一、单词:

1.       关于fewer, less more (量词)

几乎没有   few   只修饰可数名词       some   a few         只修饰可数名词

表否定    little  只修饰不可数名词     一些   a little=a bit of  只修饰不可数名词

原级     比较级    最高级

a lot of   many = a number of      few      fewer      fewest

=lots of                        little      less        least

许多     much              many/much   more       much

2.       于“也许”,perhaps=maybe, may be

maybe  adv. 常用于句首;may be意为也许是,是一个情态动词“may +  动词原形的结构,may be 只是一个结构巧合。

e.g. Maybe he is a student.= He may be a student.

     Maybe he knows about this.= He may know about this.

3.       关于alonelonely:

lonely只作adj.,用于名词前或系动词后,意为:“(主观上)孤独的,偏僻的”。

alone 可作adj. 只用于系动词后,意为“(无感情色彩,只强调一个人的状态)单独的”。

     也可作adv., 与行为动语搭配使用,意为“单独地”。

e.g. The old man lived in a lonely house alone, but he never feels lonely.

4.       关于hundred等词的用法,<注意hundred的形式>

a hundred students(一百个学生), two hundred students(两百个学生);

two hundred of the students(这些学生中的两百个); hundreds of students(成百上千的学生)

5.       关于besides

besides  除了之外,相当于在原有的基础上增加;e.g. Besides milk, we need vegetables.

except  除了之外,相当于在范围内将其排除;e.g. We all went to the park yesterday, except him.

beside 旁边;He is standing beside me.

6.       关于suchso:

Such作形容词,意思是“如此的”“这样的”,修饰各种名词。so修饰形容词。

?  Such常和as搭配,表示一种类别。如We enjoy such a voice as hers.我们喜欢象她那样的嗓子。

?  Such常和表示结果的that从句搭配,表示“如此….以至于…”

         It was such a hot day that we all had to stay at home.

?  Such…that…so…that…“如此以至”,都可用来引出一个结果状语从句。由于such是形容词,所以that从句前有一个受such修饰的名词;而so 是副词,用以修饰形容词或副词,因此that从句前一般不出现名词。如

         They are such kind-hearted teachers that people in the village all respect them.

         The exam was so difficult that many students failed to pass it.

a)         如果名词是可数名词的单数形式,suchso位置不同

such+ a/an+形容词+单数名词              so+形容词+a/an+单数名词

b)        如果名词是不可数名词名词复数,只可用such,不能用so.

such+形容词+不可数名词或复数名词

c)         如果被修饰的不可数名词被much, little, 或复数名词被many, few等表示的形容词修饰时,so,不用such.

d)        little表示“年纪小的”时,可用such+little+名词

7.       human的复数形式为humans

8.       常见的系动词(其后接adj.

be(am, is, are, are, was, were, been)keepstay(表状态) became turnget(表变化达程); 

seem<似乎>look<看起来>smell<闻起来>taste<尝起来>sound<听起来>(表感观)

9predict 预测(动词,动作),predicting预测(名词,一件事),prediction 预测(名词,内容)

二、短语&句型:

1.         in ten years = 10 years from now  10年后in的时间短语用于将来时,提问用How soon

2.         fall in love with…             爱上… (fallfellfallen) 

3.         keep/feed a pet pig             养一头宠物猪(feedfedfed)

4.         fly to the moon               飞向月球 (flyflewflown)            

5.         the same as……相同        have/have the same sth as 有着同样的

6.         A  be different from B AB不同(=There is a difference/There are differences between A and B)

7.         wake up                      醒来(wake sb. up表示唤醒某人        

8.         go skating      去滑冰(类似还有go hiking/fishing /skating/bike riding等)(gowentgone)

9.         study on computers       通过电脑学习      talk on the phone

10.     agree with sb. 同意某人(的意见)   allow sb to do sth同意某人去做某事

11.     I don’t agree. = I disagree.       我不同意

12.     help sb with sth/ help sb do sth   帮助某人做某事

13.     many different kinds of goldfish   许多不同种金鱼   

14.     live in an apartment 住在公寓里 live on the twelfth floor       住在12

15.     live at NO.332,Shanghai Street   住在上海路332            

16.     as a reporter                          作为一名记者(表示身份)

17.     Are you kidding?                        你在骗我吗   

18.     in the future                                在将来/在未来

19.       no more=not …any more不再(强调动作不再发生)no longer=not… any longer不再(强调状态不再发生)

20.     be able tocan                         能、会

l be able to用于各种时态,而can只能用于一般现在时态和一般过去时态中;have to用于各种时态,而must只能用于一般现在时态)

e.g.     1.I have been able to/will be able to speak two languages. (不可以用can

2. will have to/ had to stay at home. (不可以用must

21.     come true 实现(不及物动词), make sth come true 使实现

e.g. My dream has come true. 我的梦想已经实现了

I have made my dream come true. 我已经实现了我的梦想。

22.     put on穿上(过程),wear 穿着(状态),dress sb. 给某人穿衣服

23.     Do you need something to eat? 你需要一些吃的吗?

24.     see sb. do sth.某人做某事(过程),see sb. doing sth看见某人做某事(片段)

watch, look at, hear,find与其同类。

25.     关于seem(似乎):seem + n./adj.  He seems a nice man.    The city seemed clean 2 years ago.

seem like + n.  It seems like a good idea.

seem to do     They seem to know what they are doing. 他们好像知道他们正在干什么。

    It seems that + 从句   It seems that she is unhappy these days.看来,这几天她不高兴。

26.     There be.表示某地有某物或某人(就近一致原则,答语只能用there来答)。

have/has 表示人或有生命的物体拥有某物

27.     There be.句型的将来时:

There will be.         There will not be.       Will there be?(Yes, there will. No, there won’t .)

There is going to be.   There isn’t going to be.  Is there going to be? (Yes, there is. No, there isn’t)

There are going to be + 复数.  There aren’t going to be.  Are there going to be?(Yes, there are. No, there aren’t)

28.     几个相似的“It句型”

?  It’s +adj.+ that从句:在该句型中,it代替that从句,形容词用来说明that从句内容的性质。如,It’s polite that you always give seats to the elderly on the bus.

?  It’s +adj.+to do sth.在该句型中,it代替to do sth的内容,形容词用来说明to do sth的性质。如,It’s useful to remember lots of words before the exams.

?  It’s +adj.+for sb. to do sth.在该句型中,it代替to do sth的内容,形容词用来强调to do sthsb而言的性质(常见的形容词有possible, important, necessary, difficult

?  It’s +adj.+of sb. to do sth.在该句型中,it代替to do sth.的内容,形容词用来强调of后所接宾语本身的性质(常见的形容词有kind, rude, clever, foolish, polite.

29.       make sb. do使某人做某事; make +n+adj.使某人/某物(处于某种状态);

make friends with sb.交朋友

30.     would like sth意思为想要某物 would like to do意思为想要做某事。回答would like句型的一般疑问句时,其肯定回答为Yes, please.”;否定回答No, thanksI’d like /love to, but….

三、语法:

一般将来时

1、 概念:用于表达将要发生的动作或存在的状态。

2、 结构will + do,  shall + do,  be going to do,

3、 常用的时间词:tomorrow, in the future, next + 时间词(next day)in + 时间词(in two days), 将来的某个时间(in 2050=in the year of 2050)

4、 讲解:

     句型:

肯定句

否定句

疑问句

I will go.

You(He, She, They) will go.

He is going to watch TV.

I will not go.

You(He, She, They)will not go.

He is not going to watch TV

Will you go?

Will you (he, she, they) go?

Is he going to watch TV

     比较be going to will:

A. be going to 表示近期、眼下就要发生的事情,will 表示的将来时间则较远一些。

如: He is going to write a letter tonight.          He will write a book one day.

        B. be going to 表示根据主观判断将来肯定发生的事情,will表示客观上将来势必发生的事情。
      He is seriously ill. He is going to die.     He will be twenty years old.

        C. be going to 含有计划,准备的意思,而 will 则没有这个意思,如:
      She is going to lend us her book.           He will be here in half an hour.        

        D. 在时间/条件状语从句中, 如果从句用一般现在时, 主句用将来时,另外在主句中,一般不用be going to, 而多用will, 如:If it rains tomorrow, I'll stay at home.

        E. 祈使句句型中:or/and sb. will do 

              Be quick, or you will be late=If you don’t be quick,you will be late

     比较shallwill: 两者都用于将来中,shall只与第一人称,即Iwe搭配,will可与所有人称搭配。

     对“将来时+ in+时间词”中的“in+时间词”提问该用How soon,如:

I’ll come back to Chongqing in two days.      How soon will you come back to Chongqing?

四、作文:

My life in 20 years

Life will be better in 20 years. Now let me tell something about it.

In 20 years, life will be different. The clothes we wear every day will be more colorful and beautiful. They will be lighter(更轻), warmer, and they don’t need washing(需要被洗), you don’t need to cook meals at home. All you will do is to make an order on the Internet and delicious food and drink will be sent to you before dinner. We will live in big and bright(明亮) houses and travel around the world. robots will do most of the work. With the help of (的帮助下) the new machines(机器) we will be able to travel under the sea. There will be more funny places for people to relax. Students don’t study at school because they will study on computers at home.

How wonderful life will be! Don’t you think so?

五、练习:

、用lessfewer 填空:

1. Her sister bought ______ books this time than last time.  

2. There was ______ noise in the room after the speech started. 

3. I will have ______ money if I don’t work.

4. The girl knows _______ words than John.

5. You should smoke ________ cigarettes and drink _______ beer(啤酒).

alonelonely填空:

1. My grandpa lives ______ in town.        2. He is ______in the new school.

3. His parents went ______to work today.    4. She has no friends and is a ______ girl.

5. Although he lives _______ in this big house, he doesn’t feel _______.

6. Jack works in a bar and he always goes home ________ at 2:00 a.m.

sosuch填空:

    1. He is_____ a good boy and works ______ hard that we all like him.

2. She is _____ nice a student that all the teachers love her.

3. They have _____ many books that they need another bookshelf.

4. I have ______ little money that I can’t buy anything.

5. He is _____ a little boy that he can’t carry the heavy box.

Ⅳ、用所给词的正确形式填空:

    1. Look! The workers ____________  (build) a tall building over there.

2. She ________ (fall) in love with the pet dog as soon as she saw it.

3. My brother isn’t a good rider ---he ________ (keep) _______ (fall) off all the time.

4. He _______ (write) back to his parents last night.

5. Don’t _______ (look) out of the window.

6. Susan _______ (begin) learning the piano eight years ago.

7. With the _______ (help) of my teachers, I can do well in the exams now.

8. Tomorrow is my mother’s _________ (forty) birthday.

9. It’s hard to ________ (prediction) the future.

10. I think France _______(win) the next World Cup.

Ⅴ、句型转换:

    1. There will be less pollution in the future. (变一般疑问句并作否定回答)

      _______  _______ be less pollution in the future? No, _________  _________.

2. There are 2000 people in the school now. (in a few years改写句子)

  There ______  _____ 2000 people in the school ____  _____  _____  ________.

3. I can see him tomorrow. (变同义句) I _____  ______  _______  ______ see him tomorrow.

4. He will write to his pen pal tonight. (yesterday改写句子)

 He ________  ______ his pen pal yesterday.

5. Our Chinese teacher will tell us a funny story this afternoon. (变否定句)

  Our Chinese teacher ______  ______ us a funny story this afternoon.

6. It will snow tonight. (提问) ______ will the weather ______ tonight?

7. I disagree with what he said. (同义句) I ______  _________ with his words.

Ⅵ、短文填空 1(根据3a,Section B改写)

    Ten years ______, I’d like to become a _______. I will live in Shanghai because I like this city ______  ______. It’s really _________. If I am a reporter, I am sure I will meet many ___________ people. I will live in an __________ with my best friends for(因为) I don’t want to live _______. If possible, I will have ______  ______ in my apartment in ten years for I like them. My mother ______ them so I can’t have any now. I probably keep a pet ________ in my room. And I will go ______ and ______ very often. On weekdays, I will wear a _______ because I want to look smart. At the ________, I can dress more _________. I will go to Hong Kong on ______ and one day I might even visit ________.

Ⅶ、短文填空 2 (首字母已给出)

     Water is the most i________ of all the things we eat and d_______. Not many people u         this but it’s quite t     . People can live w        food for a long time, yet two or three days without water can usually make people d     .

     Many people don’t understand how much water the human body n      . If we don’t have

e        water, we’ll feel t       and many of us will get i     . So you know, how important water is to us all.

 

Unit 2 What should I do

一、单词:

1. 关于surprise:

?  surprise 使惊奇(动词),surprise sb. 例:You surprised me.

?  surprising 令人惊奇的(形容词,修饰物),surprised 觉得惊奇的(形容词,修饰人)

?  surprise 吃惊,惊奇(名词) in surprise 吃惊地    to one’s surprise 让某人吃惊的是

2. 关于either(eithertoo, either both, either neither):

?  either(也不,adv.) too(也,adv.)在句中的位置相同,但either用于否定句,too用于肯定句;

      e.g. If I go there, he will, too.       If I don’t go there, he won’t, either.

?  either(两者之一,代词.) both(两者都,代词)谈论的范围都为两者, either所代替的对象为一个,both所代替的对象为两个。短语:either of … 两者之一(作主语被当成“三单”),both of两者都(作主语为复数)。

e.g.  I think either of them is a student.    I think both of them are students.

?  either … or.. (不是就是,连词)neither…nor (两者都不,连词)谈论的范围都为两者,都具有就近一致原则,但either…or表肯定(有一个)neither…nor表否定(一个都没有)

       e.g. Either you or he has to clean the room every day.    Neither you nor I know about that.

3. 关于return:

?  return 归还(及物动词) return sth to + sb/地点= give sth. back to + sb/地点

       e.g. I returned the book to him/the library.= I gave the book back to him/the library.

?  return 返回(不及物动词) return to + 地点 = come/go, get back to + 地点

       e.g. He returned to Chongqing yesterday. = He got back to Chongqing yesterday.

4.关于“忘记”(forget, leave

?  “把某物忘在某地”不能用forget, 而只能用leave

?  forget to do sth.忘记要去做某事(此事还没做)      forget doing sth 忘记做过某事(此事已做过)

?  leave sth + 地点 把某物忘在某地 (leave left left)

   e.g.  He left his math book at home. 他把数学书忘在了家里。

5.关于“借”(borrow, lend, keep)

?  borrow 向别人借进,(瞬间动词)    短语:borrow sth. from sb/地点     从某人/某地借进某物

   e.g.  He borrowed my computer. = He borrowed the computer from me.

?  lend 借出给别人(瞬间动词lend lent lent), 短语:lend sth to sb/地点  把某物借给某人/某地

   e.g.  He lent his computer to me.

?  keep 借(延续性动词,与一段时间搭配)

   e.g. I can keep the book for two weeks.    How long can keep the book?

6.关于“花费”(take, cost, spend, pay)

?  作主语只能用:take(花时间、金钱) cost(多用于金钱)

作主语只能用:spend(花时间、金钱) pay (多用于金钱)

?  相关用法:  

              时间

It/sth takes sb.          to do sth.        ()某事花某人时间/金钱。

              金钱

It/sth cost sb 金钱 to do sth.             ()某事花某人金钱。

 
             时间       (in)doing sth.

某人 spend                           某人花时间/金钱做某事。

                 金钱       on sth

    某人pay 金钱 for sth 花钱买    pay sb. for sth 付钱给某人买

?  其它用法:spend (时间) with sb 与某人共度时光;

take a bus = go …by bus=go…on a bus乘公共汽车;

7.关于enough(adj. 足够的): enough + n.(例:enough money),  adj. + enough (例:old enough)

?  enough to do 足够以至于能做

?  too adj. to do 以至于不能… = not adj.(反义) enough to do = so adj. that + 从句(否定)

8.关于loudloudlyloud (adv.) = loudly (adv., 只作adv.), 并且loudly含有“闹得烦人”的含义;

  loud (adj.)修饰名词,如:in a loud voice 大声地,He likes speaking in a loud voice.

 

二、短语&句型:

1. too loud太大声                       2. out of style过时的                    3. in style流行的

4. call sb. up=ring sb. up=call/ring/phone sb.          …..打电话            

5. a ticket to/for a ball game                  一张球赛的门票

注意:the key to the door; the key/answer to the question; the solution to the problem .此处几个短语不能用of表示所有格

6. talk about sb./sth谈论关于某人的事;      talk with/to sb. 与某人交谈                     

7. buy sth for sb.=buy sb. sth                 ……买东西(buyboughtbought)

 还要注意:make sb. sth = make sth for sb.给某人制作某物;get sb. sth = get sth for sb 给某人买/送某物

8. tell sb to do sth告诉某人做某事;         tell sb not to do sth. 告诉某人不做某事

9. want sb. to do sth.=would like sb. to do       想某人做某事

10. find out                               发现;查清楚;弄明白     

11. fail (in) the test=not pass the test           考试不及格

fail in (doing) sth… ...上失败 ;         succeed in (doing) sth...方面成功

12. write sb a letter = write to sb.给某人写信(writewrotewritten)

13. ask sb. for sth                          寻求/向某人要某物   

14. argue with sb. = have an argument with sb.   与某人争吵     

15. have a fight with sb.=fight with            与某人打架  

16. prepare for…=get/be ready for…                 做准备     

17. after-school clubs课外俱乐部            18. get on /along well with sb. 相处很好       

18. all kinds of= different kinds of                   各种各样

19. as much as possible=as much as 某人 can/could        尽可能多

20. take part in=join in 参加(某种活动/集会) take part in = join参加(组织)          

   join sb. in sth/doing sth 参加某人的活动

21. a bit + adj. =a little+adj. 一点儿     a bit of +不可数名词= a little+不可数名词 一点儿/一些

22. be angry with sb. = be mad at sb = get annoyed with sb       生某人的气     

23. on the one hand       一方面                     on the other hand 另一方面

24. not…until                                                  直到才(谓语动词一般是非延续动词)  

25. find + it + adj. + to do sth 发现做某事是…. (findfoundfound)

   e.g. We found it interesting to learn English. 我们发现学英语很有趣。

26. compare sth/sb. with sth/sb. 作比较

27. It’s time (for sb.) to do sth. = It’s time for sth. 该是(某人)做某事的时候了。

28. I’m very upset and don’t know what to do. 我很沮丧,不知道该怎么办。

   = I’m very upset and don’t know what I can do. (用从名替换“疑问词+不定式”结构)

= I’m very upset and don’t know how to do with it.

     I’m very upset and don’t know how to do. (x)

29. 询问问题:

    What’s wrong (with sb.)? = What’s up (with sb.)?=What’s the problem (with sb.)?=What’s the trouble(with sb.)? =What’s the matter (with sb.)…怎么啦?

三、语法:

提建议

1. You should do. 你应当….       2. You could do. 你可以….     3. Why not do sth? 为什么不…?

4. Why don’t you do sth? 你为什么不….             5. What/How about sth/doing sth? …怎样呢?

四、作文:

Dear Lucy,

     I’m sorry to hear that you are worried about how to use the Internet. Here is what I think of the Internet.

     On the one hand, we can get the latest news(最新的新闻), listen to music, see movies and do some shopping with it. We can play games, chat(聊天) with our friends from far away, send and receive emails. It’s fast and useful(有用的). It’s a good way for us in our daily life.

      On the other hand, surfing the Internet or playing games may take up(占据) a lot of our time, and sometimes we may meet harmful(有害的) people. That’s too bad.

      I think you should work hard at your lessons, and spend more time with your friends. I hope that you will have a good time surfing the Internet as well().

      Best wishes!(祝你一切顺利)

Yours,

Mary

五、练习:

Ⅰ、用所给词的适当形式填空:

1.       My little brother often speaks in a ________ (loudly) voice in public. We feel sorry for that.

2.       Sally, please speak ________ (loud), so we all can hear you clearly.

3.       Listen, someone is knocking at the door ________ (loud).

4.       The news on TV last night really ________ (surprise) me a lot.

5.       We all feel _______ at the ________ (surprise) news.

6.       To my ________ (surprise), he failed in the exam.

7.       I think you should _______ (stay) at home.

8.       All our teachers are very _________ (friend) to us.

9.       Ted, I want you _________ (go) to bed early at night.

10.   I don’t have enough money ___________ (buy) the sports shoes.

11.   I have finished ________ (do) my homework now.

12.   What you should do is __________ (relax) yourself.

13.   The woman tried to leave the market without __________ (pay) for the dress.

14.   -----Did you pass the exam last week?  ----- No, I ________ (fail) it.

15.   Mum is ________ (prepare) lunch in the kitchen. Let’s go and give her a hand.

、句型转换:

    1. I bought the Chinese-English dictionary for 10 dollars. (变同义句)

      I _______ 10 dollars ______ the Chinese-English dictionary.

      I _______ 10 dollars ______ the Chinese-English dictionary.

      The Chinese-English dictionary ________ me 10 dollars.

2. I think your parents can lend some money to you for that. (变同义句)

  I think you can ________ some money ________ your parents for that.

3. I think you should ask your teacher for help. (变否定句)

  I _______  _________ you _________  ________ your teacher for help.

4. I would like to join in the after school activities. (变同义句)

  I _______ to ________  ________  ______ the after school activities.

5. I will return the book to the library tomorrow. (变同义句)

  I will ________ the _______  _______ to the library.

6. I don’t have enough time. (改为一般疑问句的肯定形式)

  _______  ________  _______ enough time?

7. It seems that Lily is unhappy today. (同义句)

  Lily _______ to ______ unhappy today.

8. Susan is very upset and doesn’t know what to do. (改为过去时)

  Susan ______ very upset and _______  ________ what to do.

9. She finds it very important to learn Chinese well. (同义句)

  ______ is very important _______  _______ to learn Chinese well.

10. The shoes are out of style, ________  _______ ? (反义疑问句)

、翻译:

    1. 我需要弄些钱来买这些球鞋。I need to ______  ______  ______ to ______ the sports shoes.

2. 你应该向你哥哥借些钱。You can _________  _______  ________  _______ your brother.

3. 你应该向你父母要些钱。You should _______ your parents ________ some money.

4. 我叔叔也没钱。My uncle doesn’t ________  ________ money, ________.

5. 他可以请一位家教来家里帮他学习英语。

   He can _______  _______ tutor to come to his home to help _______ his English.

6. 这本书很简单,八岁大的孩子足可以读得懂。

   The book is ________  ________ for _________________ child to read.

7. 除周日外,我姐姐每天都早起。My sister ________  _____ early every day ______ on Sundays.

8. 我觉得学数学很有趣。 I find ______   ___________ to learn math.

短文填空 1(根据3a,Section B改写)

My name is Mary and I am in charge of (主管) a newspaper advice column (专栏). Here is a letter from a lonely kid. In the letter, he says he has a ________ and _______ my help. He always thought he was ________ at school. But he just _______  _______ that his friends were _________ a birthday party for his best friend and they didn’t _______ him. _________  ________ in his class was _______  _______ him, and he doesn’t know ________. He can’t think what he did _______. He is very ________ and doesn’t know what to do. My dear friends, can you give him some advice? Thank you!

短文填空 2

     Nowadays(当今), in China, you can ________ a lot of parents pay special attention to (特别关注) their one child’s growing _______. When their child is two or three years old or even _________, they will _______ to choose a good kindergarten (幼儿园) _______ his kid. Some parents will spend about eight hundred to nine hundred yuan _______ their kid’s tuition (学费). This is a ________ burden (负担) for the young ________. But for their little emperor’s bright (光明的) _________, what _______ could they do?

 
 

Unit 3 What were you doing when the UFO arrived?

一、单词:

1. 关于other:


单数

复数

泛指

another

other(girls)

others

特指

the other

the other(girls)

the others

词组

one…the other

some…the other+名词

some…the others

?  another作代词用时,意为另一个,又一个,表示泛指。

       e.g. I don’t like this one. Show me another.我不喜欢这个,请给我看另一个。

?  another作形容词,不直接与名词的复数形式连用, 如果要表示另外的、额外的、附加的                意思时,可用another+基数词+名词 =  基数词+ more +名词的复数

       e.g. I’d like another two cakes. = I’d like two more cakes. 我想再要两块蛋糕。

2. 关于hero(英雄)

   o结尾的可数名词,能吃的加es, 如:tomatoes, potatoes; 不能吃的加s, 如:photos;但hero的复数形式为heroes.

3. 关于close:

close 关闭(动词)  反义    open (打开)         closed 关着的(形容词)  反义     open 开着的

注意:水、电、气的打开应说:turn on ; 关闭应说:turn off

close 邻近的(adj.) 短语:close to = next to = near  e.g. The school is closed to the library.

close 亲密的(adj.)  e.g. He is my close friend.

4. 关于bright

       bright (adj.) 明亮的,聪明的

5. 关于happentake place:

      take place发生事先计划或预想到的事物happen一切客观事情或情况的偶然或未能预见地发生。两者都是不及物动词或短语,后面不能跟宾语,也不能用于被动语态;

短语: happen to do 碰巧做某事; sth happens to sb某人遭遇某事,在某人身上发生某事

6. 关于die(死亡):

   die 死亡(v.过去式    died 过去分词   died  现在分词  dying  名词    death形容词    dead

二、短语&句型:

1. in front of         ……的前面(外部)     in the front of           ……的前面(内部)

2. get out of         出去;               get into                 进入

3. sleep late         睡懒觉                      get to sleep = fall asleep    睡着

4. walk down/along         沿……

5. take off               (飞机)起飞;脱下(衣帽)

6. in the tree            在树上(本身不属于树)       on the tree             在树上(本身属于树)

7. take photos照相

8. run away             跑开,逃跑

9. as+adj./adv.原形+as     一样…(同级比较)   e.g. I can run as fast as he(him)

  not as + adj./adv.原形+as …不如…(可与比较级进行同义转换)

  e.g. He doesn’t run as fast as I .= I run faster than him.

10. buy/draw/make sth. for sb.为某人买//制作

11. in history在历史上                         12. for example                  例如

13. on/in the playground         在操场上              14. of course=sure=certainly    当然 

15. all over the world=around the world      遍及全世界  16. outside/inside the station    在车站外/

17. hear about/of                   听说       18. in silence                沉默不语

19. arrive at / in = reach = get to       到达      20. have an unusual experience  有不寻常的经历

21. shout at sb.  对…叫喊(带有恶意的)           shout to sb.             大喊(只是声音大)

22. be crowded                    拥挤      23. call the police              报警         

24. follow sb. to do sth = walk after sb. to do sth    跟随某人去做某事          

25. be surprised (at sth) (事情)感到吃惊      We were surprised at the surprising news.

26. the flight to New York           到纽约的航班      

27. hear from sb. = get a letter from sb.收到某人的来信

28. be killed/ murdered / destroyed by…被….杀害/ 毁坏(被动语态)

29. have fun doing sth              做…很有意思

30. stop doing sth                  停止做…    stop to do sth                停下来,去做…

31. 感叹句:(how用于感叹形容词,what 用于感叹名词)

How + adj. /adv. + 主语 + 谓语(动词)

What a/an + adj. + 名词(可数名词单数) + 代词 + 谓语(动词)

What + adj. + 名词(不可数名词或可数名词复数) + 代词 + 谓语(动词)

  e.g. It’s an interesting book. How interesting the book is! = What an interesting book it is!

     The weather is good. How good the weather is! = What good weather it is.

     They are interesting books. How interesting the books are! = What interesting books they are!

32. 否定疑问句(表达肯定的含义)

be动词、情态动词、助动词的否定形式开头的句子,翻译为“难道不…?”:

Isn’t that amazing? = That is amazing. = How amazing it is! 难道那不令人惊奇吗?

Didn’t you know about that? = I think you have known about that.

33. You’re kidding.                 你在开玩笑.  34. at the doctor’s        在医生的诊所

35. not …until直到

三、语法:

过去正在进行时

1. 概念: 表达过去某个时刻正在做的事或发生的动作。

2. 结构:be doing (其中be动词仅为:was were)

3. 常用的时间词:at this time yesterday(过去的某个时刻)at that moment

4. 讲解:

     句型:

肯定句

否定句

疑问句

I was working.

He/ She was working.

You/They were working.

I was not working.

He/ She was not working.

You/They were not working.

Were you working?

Was he/ she working.

Were you/they working.?

   ② 关于 whenwhile

     when表示“当的时候”,它引导的从句中既可用延续性动词,又可用非延续性动词;

           e.g. I was watching TV when my mother came back.

     while表示“在的时候”,它强调主句的动作与从句的动作同时发生或主句发生在从句的动作过程中。while从句中必须是表示动作或状态的延续性动词。

           e.g. While the boys were playing football, the bell rang.

     即:when既可以表不时间点,也可以表示时间段,而while只表示时间段。注意以下时态搭配:

?  若从句是一般过去时,只能用when引导;

?  若主、从都是过去进行时,则从句只能用while引导;

?  若主句是一般过去时,从句是过去进行时,则用whenwhile都可以。

四、作文:

     On May 12th,2008, we were having a class when our classroom began to shake terribly. At first I didn’t realize what was happening. Finally, I heard my teacher shouting loudly, “earthquake! Earthquake! Run! Run!” All the students began to run. Just then, my classmate Li Ming heard a low voice “Help! Help!” from the ruins(废墟). He ran back to the ruins and carried a boy on his back, running out of the classroom as fast as he could. Li Ming is a hero. We should learn from him.

五、练习:

Ⅰ、whenwhile填空:

    1. Li Ming was listening to music _________ his father was reading a newspaper.

2. Mary visited my house ________ I was watching TV in the living room.

3. _______ the teacher came in, we were talking.

、用所给词的正确形式填空。

1. Jim _________ (brush) his teeth when the phone rang.

2. What _______ you _______ (do) last Sunday?

3. How about _______ (go) out for a walk?

4. The boy ________ (run) when it began to rain.

5. While I _________(read) a book, my best friend ________ (ring) me.

6. My parents watched TV while my little brother __________ (cry).

7. It is hard for me ___________ (speak) English in public place.

8. While I was playing basketball, I ________ (hear) a loud noise.

9. He was __________ (surprise) to hear the news.

10. While I _______ (look) for my books, he called me.

11. My brother _________ (wash) his clothes at 10:00 a.m. yesterday.

12. What were you doing when he __________ (arrive)?

13. How _________ (scare) the girl is.

14. Our life ____________ (be) better in the future than it ________ (be) today.

15. What _________ he _______ (do) when the UFO arrived?

16. It took me 10 minutes ___________ (get) to the park.

17. They planted many different kinds of ___________ (color) flowers in the garden.

18. I ____________ (buy ) a pen yesterday.

、用介词或副词填空:

     1. You should say goodbye _______ your mother.

     2. He saw a cat ________ a tree.

     3. While Hai Yan was ________ the doctor’s, I was going to class.

     4. The girl was born _______ Nov. 1st, 2002.

     5. When did you hear _________ the story?        6. They walk home _________ silence.

     7. Man walked on the moon _______ the first time in 1969.

、句型转换:

     1. Mary was washing clothes at this time yesterday. (对画线部分提问)

       What _______ Mary ________ at this time yesterday?

     2. It is a good idea. (改为感叹句)  ________ a good idea ________ is!

     3. I am playing games at home now. (this time yesterday改写句子)

       I ______  ________ games at home this time yesterday.

     4. I am free every day, but not free today. (同义句)   I am free every day _________  _________ .

     5. They were talking about the film when the teacher came in. (变一般疑问句)

       ________ they ________ about the film when the teacher came in?

     6. He cut his hair just now. (变一般疑问句)  ________ he ______ his hair just now?

     7. He grew up in England, too. (变否定句)  He ______  ________ up in England, _________.

     8. They were surfing the Internet this time last week. (对画线部分提问)

       _______ were they ________ this time last week?

     9. We need two more chairs. (同义句转换) We need _______  ________ chairs

     10. I was taking a shower a shower when my mother came back. (同义句转换)

        _______ I was taking a shower, my mother came back.

、短文填空 1 (根据3a. Section B改写)

     Linda loves her dog Davy. They went to the New York City last Saturday. While Linda was _________ a newspaper ______ the train station, the dog got out ______ his box and ______  ________. The station was _________ and Linda couldn't see Davy anywhere. When Linda _________ his name, some people looked at her but Davy didn’t come. Then she called the police. While she was talking _______ the telephone, Davy met _________ dog outside the station. While the police were coming, Linda walked around the station and called Davy’s name. She didn’t think about looking ________ the station. ________, a little boy said to her, “Did you look outside? I saw a big black dog when I came in.” When Linda finally saw Davy, he was _________ and  running _______ another dog. There was a police officer next to them. The police officer said to Linda, “I think my dog ________ your dog.”

、短文填空 2

     Last year English was _________ for me. First of all, it wasn’t easy for me to understand the teacher ________ she talked to the class. Because I thought she spoke too _______ and I couldn’t understand every word. _______, I realized(意识到) that it doesn’t matter ________ you don’t understand every word. Also I was afraid to speak in class, because I thought my classmates might ________ at me. I couldn’t always make complete(完整的) sentences, either. Then I started to ________ English TV. It helped a lot. I think that doing lots of listening practice is one of the secrets of _________ a good language learner. Another thing that I found very difficult was English grammar(语法). So I decided to _______ lots of grammar notes in every class. Then I started to write my own original sentences using the grammar I was learning. It’s amazing how much this helped. Now I amd enjoying learning English and I got ______ A this term.

Unit 4 He said I was hard-working.

一、单词:

1. 关于decision 决定(名词)

decide 决定(动词)  make a decision = decide

decide to do sth = make a decision to sth 决定去做某事;

decide on (doing) sth = make a decision on (doing) sth 决定()某事

2. 关于message(消息)

?  message 消息(可数名词) take a message for sb.(给某人捎口信)leave a message 留言

       news 新闻、消息(不可数名词)information 消息、信息(不可数名词)

       a piece of news/information 一条信息,two pieces of news/information 两条信息

?  与此类似的还有:advice 建议(不可数), suggestion 建议(可数); some advice/suggestions

     3. 关于bring, take:

?  bring从别处把东西或人带来”“拿来,表示将人或物带到或拿到说话者所在的位置的这个动作; 短语:bring … to …带来… (bring brought brought)

?  take把东西带走或拿走,表示将人或物拿开或带离说话者所在的位置的这个动作;

短语: take … to … 带去

二、短语&句型:

1. every Saturday       在每周六(其前不加任何介词)  2. first of all              首先

3. both … and…       两者都                        both of                 两者都

  neither … nor …      两者都不(就近一致原则)      neither of + n.            两者都不(三单)

  either … or…       两者之一 (就近一致原则)        either of + n.            两者之一(三单)

  Me neither. = Neither/Nor + 助动词/情态动词、be动词 + I                     我也不

  Me too. = So + 助动词/情态动词、be动词 + I                                我也

  So + 主语 + 助动词/情态动词、be动词             的确(对别人的观点表示赞同)

4. most of + 可数名词复数/不可数名词                           绝大多数

5. agree on something    同意某人的计划                agree to do sth.                 答应/同意做…

  agree with sb.       同意某人的观点                allow sb. to do sth    同意某人去做某事

6. pass on        传递

7. be supposed to do sth. = should do                    应当做…; 被期望或被要求做... ...

8. be in good health = be healthy身体健康               9. get over (it)       克服

10. open up       打开                        11. care for         照料;照顾

12. be/get mad at/with sb. 生某人的气                  be/get mad about sth       事生气

   get angry/annoyed with sb. 生某人的气

13. have a surprise party  开一个惊喜晚会            14. do a homework project    做家庭作业

15. do well in = be good at在……方面做得好         16. do better in=be better at    在……做得更好

17. do badly in =be weak in在……做得糟     

18. a hard-working boy    一个勤学的男孩           19. work hard              努力学习  

20. a disappointing result令人失望的结果              22. be disappointed at sth/sb. 感到失望

23. have a hard time with sth方面有困难           

24. fight with sb. = have a (big) fight with              和……打架

argue with sb. = have an argument with sb          与…争吵

25. change one’s life         改变…的生活 (life 生活,生命;可数名词,复数为:lives)      

26. open up one’s eyes开阔视野                     27. give a good start in life  给生活一个好开始            

28. a poor mountain village     贫穷的山村           29. a one-year program    一年的项目  

30. Things are fine here.        这里情况很好。       31. How is it going?       情况如何?      

32. I hope everything goes well.  我希望一切顺利                       

33. Best wishes and good luck for you.       祝福你,祝你幸运..

34. Mom and dad send their love to you. 爸爸妈妈向你问好。

35. That’s about all the news I have for now.那就是我要说的。     

三、语法:

直接引语        间接引语

()、概念:

直接引语:说话人直接引用别人的原话,引用部分要加引号。 

间接引语:说话人用自己的话把别人的意思转述出来,转述部分不用引号。

()、转换方法(两注意,一了解):

?  两注意:先注意人称变化,再注意时态变化;一了解:指示代词、时间状语、地点状语的变化。

l  人称变化:一随主(直接引语中的第人称应随句中的语变为相应的人称,但注意只改人称不变词性

e.g. He said: “I am a good student.”He said he was a good student. (主格)

             He said: “My parents are teachers.”He said his parents were teachers. (形代)

          二随宾(直接引语中的第二人称应随主句中的宾语变为相应的人称,同样只改人称不变词性)

          e.g. He said (to me): “ You have to go there.” He said I had to go there.(主格)

         He said (to me): “Your brother has to go there.”He said my brother had to go there.(宾格)

          三不变(直接引语中的第三人称不需要改变)

          e.g. He said: “ He swims every day.”He said he swam every day.

l  时态变化,按下表进行改变

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时(客观真理除外,仍用现在时)

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

一般过去时

过去完成时

过去完成时

过去完时

一般将来时

过将来时

 

?  一了解:指示代词、时间状语、地点状语可以不变,也可按以下规则进行变化:

 

直接引语

间接引语

指示代词

this these这些

that those那些

 

时间状语

now现在

then那时

today 今天

that day 那天

tonight  今晚

that night那天晚上

this week 这星期

that week那个星期

yesterday 昨天

the day before前一天

last week 上星期

the week before前一个星期

ago以前

before 以前

tomorrow明天

the next/following day第二天

next week 下星期

the next week 第二个星期

地点状语

here 这里

there  那里

动词

come

go

()、注意以下几种句型,它们在直接引语变间接引时,除了遵循以上人称和时态的变化外,还有一些特殊的要求:

     1. 直接引语为陈述句,完全遵循以上方法;

     2. 直接引语为一般疑问句选择疑问句反义疑问句时,先用ifwhether来引出从句,再把从句写成一个陈述句。

        e.g. He asked me: “Are you a student?”.(一疑)He asked me if I was a student.

           He asked me: “Do you like math or English?”(选疑)He asked me if I liked math or English.

           He asked me: “He is your brother, isn’t he?”(反疑)He asked me if he was my brother.

     3. 直接引语为特殊疑问句时,先保留特殊疑问词,再把从句写成一个陈述句。

        e.g. His mother asked: “Where is Tom?”His mother asked where Tom was.

           She asked: “Where do you come from?”She asked where I came from.

     4. 直接引语为肯定祈使句时,应用短语:ask/tell sb. to do sth来转换。

        e.g. The teacher said: “Open the door.”The teacher asked/told me to open the door.

     5. 直接引语为否定祈使句时,应用短语:ask/tell sb. not to do sth 来转换

        e.g. My parents said: “Don’t play in the street.”My parents asked me not to play in the street.

四、作文:

Dear Dad and Mom,

     How is it going? I hope you are in good health. Everything is OK here. Last week, I finished my end-of-year exams. I have got my report card today. English is my favorite subject. My English teacher said I was good at speaking. My Chinese teacher said I was hard-working. And I got full marks (满分) in physics. My math teacher said I could do better. My history teacher said I needed to work hard. So I’ll try my best to study.

Yours,

Jack

五、练习:

Ⅰ、用所给词的适当形式填空:

  1. My brother said he ______ (be) doing his homework.

2. John said he ________ (can) speak Japanese.

3. Mike said he ________ (go) to Shanghai last Saturday.

4. Wendy’s math teacher said that all _________ (be) good students.

5. Gina told him that she ________ (will) visit China next year.

6. She always said that she ________ (run) faster than Lily.

7. I happened _________ (be) a football fan.

8. She was surprised __________ (see) something like a UFO in my picture.

、直接引语变间接引语:

    1. He said, “I am the best.”________________________________________________________

2. Jane said, “I am glad to help you”________________________________________________

3. Joe said, “I am watching TV.”____________________________________________________

4. He said, “I will call you.”_______________________________________________________

5. She said, “I forget to do my homework.”___________________________________________

6. He said, “You may have a try.”___________________________________________________

7. The teacher told us, “The earth moves around the sun.”________________________________

8. He said, “I like math very much.”_________________________________________________

9. She told me, “I will practice the piano today.”_______________________________________

10. “Do you get up at 6 o’clock?” he asked.___________________________________________

11. “Do you like green?” he said.___________________________________________________

12. She said, “why do you enjoy reading?”___________________________________________

、同义句转换

    1. You should go to bed on time.You ______  ___________  ______ go to bed on time.

2. Robert is good at playing table tennis.Robert ______  _______   _______ playing table tennis.

3. Remember to turn off the light before you go to bed.

  ________  ________  _________ turn off the light before you go to bed.

4. I tried my best and I can do no more about that.

  I tried my best and I _________ do _____  _________ about that.

5. He works very hard. He is a ________________ student.

、根据首字母提示填空:

    1. The families are so poor that hter isn’t enough money for e___________.

2. His book is very thick, but mine is very t________.

3. But l_________, I did OK this time.

4. She said she likes being a good i_____________ in the children’s lives.

5. Our h__________ is becoming more and more beautiful.

6. The mountain is over 1600 meters above sea l_________.

7. She is a Beijing University g____________.

8. The teacher was m______ at the boy.

9. The boy said he wasn’t late for school a____________.

10. I have finished my end-of-year exam. I’ll get my r________ card next week.

Ⅴ、短文填空(根据3a,Section B改写)

    Dear grandma,

    How’s it going? I hope that grandpa is well now. I was ________ to hear that he had a cold last week. I hope you are in good _________.

    Things are fine here. I finished my ______________ exams last week, and got my ________ card today. I always get _________ when I see the __________ from school in the mail, but _________ I did OK this time. I had a really hard time ___________ science this ___________, and I wasn’t ____________ to find that my ___________ report was from my science teacher. She said I was _________, which isn’t _______. It’s just that I find science really __________. Another _______________ result was in history. My history teacher said I ________ do better. The good news is that my math teacher said I was hard-working. And my Spanish teacher said my ___________ was good.

    Well, that’s about all the news I have ______ now. Mom and Dad _______ their love.                                                                                               

                                                   Love,                                                                                            

                                                             Alan

Unit 5 If you go to the party, you’ll have a great time!

一、单词:

1. 关于class:

?  class 全班同学(复数), 班级(单数)family 家人(复数),家庭(单数)

       e.g. All the class are very  interested in English.

          Our class is on the fifth floor.

?  the + 姓的复数(如:the Greens)表示一家人, 此结构表达复数概念

       e.g. The Greens are going to Shanghai on vacation.

?  people, police 永远为复数。

2. 关于hard, hardly:

   hard 困难的(adj.) = difficult , e.g. The question is hard to answer.

   hard 坚硬的(adj.)   e.g. The seats(座位) are hard.

   hard 努力地、猛烈地(adv.) e.g. He works hard.    It’s raining hard.

   hardly 几乎不(adv. 表否定,它不是hard的副词形式)

     It’s so heavy that I can hardly move it a little. 它太重了,我根本移不动。

二、短语&句型:

1. at the party               在晚会上             2. stay at home               呆在家

3. ask sb. to do sth.                邀请/要求某人做某事  ask sb. not to do sth        要求某人不做某事

  ask (sb.) for sth.           请求得到           ask sb (about) sth          询问某人某事

4. half the class/students       一半学生(作主语为复数) 5. get injured             受伤

6. have a great time = have a good time = have fun = enjoy oneself                        玩得高兴

7. take sth away                运走,取走           8. all the time=always      一直,始终

9. make a living (by) doing sth  (…)谋生           10.in order to do sth            为了做某事

11.have a party (for sb.)       ()举行聚会     12. go to college                   上大学

13. be famous/well-known for sth 因……而著称       be famous/well-known as   …(身份)而著名

14. make money                挣钱                15. in fact              事实上

16. laugh at sb.                嘲笑某人

17. too much + 不可数名词   太多                too many + 可数名词复数    太多

much too+形容词/副词      太……

18. get exercise = do sports = play sports  锻炼

注意:exercise当“锻炼”是不可数名词;而当“操<morning exercises>”“练习”是可数名词)

19. travel around the world      周游世界

20. let sb./sth in          允许……进入         let sb./sth out 允许……出去

   let sb. do = make sb. do sth  让某人做某事

21. get an education             获得教育

22. take a bus to the party= go to the party by bus = go to the party on a bus乘车去参加晚会

   即: take a + 交通工具 = go… by + 交通工具 = go … on a + 交通工具

23. study for a test为考试复习

24. help sb. organize the party = help sb. to organize the party = help sb. with the party   帮助组织晚会

   with one’s help = with the help of sb 的帮助下

25. an end -of- year party 一次年终晚会

26. rules for school library      阅览室的规则            

27. shout at sb.               向…大叫(不礼貌的)     shout to sb. 大叫(只是声音大)

28. school clean-up           学校大扫除          

26. become a professional athlete成为职业运动员       27. play sports for a living   以运动来谋生

28. give money to the charities捐款给慈善机构         29. raise money for charity  为慈善机构筹钱

30. do lots of things to help people做许多事帮助人们

31. make life difficult         使生活变得困难        make sth/sb. adj.          使某物/某人

   make sb. do sth           使/让某人做某事

32. have a difficult time (in) doing sth =have a hard time (in) doing sth                做某事有困难

33. make predictions = predict  预言                                            

34. do the following things     做以下的事           follow you everywhere       到处跟着你

   follow sb. to do sth        跟着某人去做某事

35. improve English = make progress in English                                  提高英语

三、语法:

关于IF的条件状语从句

    1. 含义:if意为“如果”,可用来引导条件状语从句。条件状语从句用来表示主句动作发生的前提条件。

    2. 结构:

       If + 陈述句(主谓顺序),主语 + 谓语(动词)   主语 + 谓语(动词) + if + 陈述句(主谓顺序)

 

 从句                主句                  主句               从句  

3. 用法:

  主将从现:若主句为一般将来时,则从句使用一般现在时,并且主句只能用willshall来表示将来,不能用be going to.

     e.g. We will have a football match if it doesn’t rain.

         If it doesn’t rain, we will have a football match.

  若主句含有情态动词can, may, must等,则从句也使用一般现在时。

     e.g. If you play in the street, a car may hit you.

  若主句为祈使句,则从句用一般现在时。

     e.g. Open the window if you feel hot.

 4. 注意:if意为“是否”时,它引导的是宾语从句,此时该从句的时态根据需要选择恰当的时态。

      e.g. I don’t know if he goes to work every day.

         I don’t know if he came here yesterday.

四、作文:

     If I have a lot of money, I’ll buy what I need and do what I want. For example, traveling around the world, studying abroad(在国外), buying my parents a big house. My dreams will come true. Of course, I can do a lot with the money. I will do something important. I’ll help the old. I’ll help the poor. Most of all(最重要的是), I’ll help those poor children who can’t go to school. I hope they will not only change themselves in the future with the knowledge (知识), but also change the world around them(not only ……., but also…不仅,而且…). At the same time, I think I’ll help my parents enjoy their lives. I can do a lot of wonderful things and make a contribution to (作出贡献) our country.

 
 
 

五、练习:

、用所给词的正确形式填空:

1. I think I __________ (stay) at home.      2. Let them _________ (wash) their hands before lunch.

3. If I join the Lions, I will become a famous ___________ (play).

4. My dream is to become a _____________ (profession) lawyer.

5. If you want to be more ___________ (athlete), you’d better take more exercise.

6. ____________ (become) a teacher might seem like a dream job.

7. The family made a living ___________ (sell) rubbish.

8. She writes books for ____________ (live).

9. He was __________ (injure) so he couldn’t go any more.

10. I have a difficult time ___________ (find) my uncle’s house.

11. He divided the apple into two _________ (half).

12. Ask the students ______________ (not talk) in class.

13. I want to be a good ________ (cook) so that I can make good food.

14. I have an easy time ___________ (learn) English because I love it.

15. ___________ (study) hard, and you’ll be successful.

16. I spend much time __________ (clean) my house every day.

17. I think tomorrow is a good time __________ (have ) the party. Everyone _________ (have) fun at that time.

18. I don’t know if he ________ (come) tomorrow, but if he __________ (come), I’ll let you know.

19. Tell me when they ___________ (hold) the party. If they ___________ (hold) the party next week, I __________ (join) in it.

20. If you _________ (go) to the party, you _________ (feel) happy.

21. If it __________ (rain) tomorrow, I __________ (not go) hiking.

22. Try your best, and you _______________ (improve) your math.

23. Remember to bring the key to the house, or you __________ (not go) into it.

24. If she __________ (finish) work early, she can go home.

25. If the weather is fine, we _____________ (go) for a walk.

26. If I __________ (have) time tonight, I will finish the book.

27. If it _________ (rain) next Sunday, we won’t be able to plant trees.

28. If she ___________ (arrive) home, she will phone me.

29. Unless(除非) you speak to him first, she ________________ (not speak) to you.

30. I don’t know if it ____________ (rain) tomorrow.

31. Have a rest if you _____________ (be) tired.

32. Don’t come unless I __________ (call) you.

33. She makes a good __________ (live) by writing books.

34. I think you should take some _____________ (profession) advice from the lawyer.

35. The more you take exercise, ________________(athlete) you are.

36. If it _________ (rain) tomorrow, we won’t go shopping.

37. My mother ____________ (take) away my jeans yesterday.

38. Many students feel ___________ (bore) because they are watching a video all the time.

39. I usually spend half an hour _________ (walk) with my daughter after supper.

40. It’s time ___________ (begin) the party, but our teacher hasn’t come yet.

、句型转换:

    1. Students will leave early to study for the test. (否定句)

      Students ________  ________ leave early to study for the test.

2. We will have the party on Sunday. (提问)  __________ you have the party?

3. I am going to the class party. (改为一般疑问句) _______ you ________ to the class party?

4. We will go to the party. We’ll have a great time. (if改写条件从句)

  _______ we _______ to the party, we’ll have a great time.

5. If you work hard enough, you’ll pass the exam.

  改为祈使句:_______ hard enough, _______ you’ll pass the exam.

  改为同义句:If you __________ work hard enough, you’ll ________ the exam.

  改为同义句:Work hard, ________ you’ll fail the exam.

6. He has to leave the party because he wears jeans. (提问)

______  ________ he _______ to leave the party?

7. Some students go to school by bike. (同义)  Some students ________  _____  _______ to school.

8. Get up, or you’ll miss the early bus. (同义)

 ______  ______ get up early, you’ll ___________ the early bus.

    9. I teach Chinese for a living. (同义) I ________ a _________ by _________ Chinese.

10. My parents don’t agree with me. (同义)  My parents ___________  ________ me.

、短文填空 1(根据3a, Section B改写)

If I become an athlete, _______I _____ happy?

     ______ many young people, __________ a professional athlete _______ seem like a dream job. If you become a ____________ athlete, you’ll be able to make a living ________ something you love. If you become _________, people all over the world will know you. Many _________ give money to schools and _________, and do a lot of work to help people. This is a great _________ that many people do not have.

     _________, professional athletes can also have many problems. If you are famous, people will _______ you all the time and ________ you everywhere. This can make life __________.

     If you play sports for a ________, your job will sometimes be very __________. Many professional athletes get _________. And if you become _______, you will have a difficult time _________ who your _______ friends are. In fact, many famous people ____________ that they are not happy. They say they were happier before they became rich and famous.

、短文填空 2

         If you are on a school bus, follow these safety rules---they could help you.

u  Be sure to get to the bus stop early. Be there five minutes earlier _________ the bus comes.

u  Don’t _________ in the street while you are waiting for the school bus.

u  Make sure the bus ________ before you try to get on.

u  When the bus stops, the door will open. Hold the handrail(扶手) and get on the bus. Be ___________! It’s a big step for a little person. _________ push while you are getting on or off the bus.

u  When you get on the bus, go to your seat(座位) and sit _________. Keep all parts of your body inside the bus at all times. You shouldn’t put your hands or head out of the __________.

u  After getting off the school bus, _________ quickly to the sidewalk(人行道).

 
 

Unit 6 How long have you been collecting shells?

一、单词:

1. 关于collect:

   collect 收集(动词, 动作)  collection 收藏品(名词, 可数)    collecting 收集(名词,一件事)

   collector 收藏者, 收藏家

2. 关于pair:

?  可数名词:一对,一双  

e.g. a pair of shoes 一双鞋(三单)   This pair of shoes is cheap.

  two pairs of shoes 两双鞋(复数)

?  代词:一(条、副、双) 

     e.g. This pair of shoes is too big for me. Could you give me another pair

3. 关于store:

?  名词:商店(shop)  e.g. a book store/shop  书店

?  动词:储存, 存放  e.g. There is no room to store so many books.

4. 关于miss:

?  名词:小姐,用于未婚女性的姓前。e.g. Miss Green

?  动词:思念,想念   e.g. His mother missed him very much after he left for Beijing.

          错过(miss sth/doing sth)   

e.g. miss the early bus = miss catching the early bus 错过()早班车

5. 关于room:

?  可数名词:房间 e.g. There are four rooms in the house.

?  不可数名词:空间,空地 e.g. The bus is so crowded that I can’t find room to stand.

6. 关于agobefore:

?  时间副词,两者都可以表示“以前”;                         ago

?  ago表示从现在算起一段时间“以前”,和动词的一般过去时连用。        now       future

?  before单独使用,则表示从过去某时算起若干时间以前,用于完成时。 before

e.g. I have never been there before.

二、短语&句型:

1. raise money (for sb./sth)      (…)筹钱            2. run out of            用尽

3. by the way                         顺便说一下           on the/one’s way to..              (某人)的路上

  in the way                在路中间,挡路       in adj. way(s)           方式

4. be interested in sth/doing = have/show, take an interest in sth/doing              对…感兴趣

5. more than=over                  超过                 less than               少于

6. fly kites                             放风筝               fly to + 地点           乘飞机去某地

7. three and a half years = three years and a half                               三年半

8. how long多长时间        since +过去的时间     for+ 一段时间          since+一段时间+ago

e.g. since 2004            since last year从…到现在    since I was 10 years old.从我十岁时到现在

since two hours ago     for two and a half hours= for two hours and a half两个半小时

9. start to do sth             开始去做           start doing sth           开始做某事

10. skating marathon         溜冰马拉松           11. each student         每个学生(三单)

12. several skaters= a few skaters几个溜冰运动员     13. in fact               事实上

14. be the first one to do       第一个做的人        

15. the whole five hours       整整五个小时        16. all the class= the whole class全班

17. a snow globe with animals in it=an animal snow globe                    一个里面有动物的雪球

18. on my ninth/ 9th birthday  在我九岁生日时       19. the capital of        的省会, …的首都

20. an interesting city with a very colorful history               一个具有丰富多彩历史的有趣的城市

21. in Russian style           俄国风格            22. be welcomed by         受到…的欢迎

 

23. the more, the more     越…,越…          

24. far away from             离…遥远         23 kilometers away from    23公里

25. be sure = be certain         确信             26. learn about            了解关于….   

27. a foreigner like me         一个像我一样的外国人

28. have problems with sth     方面有困难        

29. I started skating when I was 7 years old. = I started skating at the age of 7. 我七岁时开始滑冰。

30. I’ve been skating since 7 years ago. = I’ve been skating for 7 years. 我已经滑了七年的冰了。

三、语法:

现在完成时(have/has done)、现在完成进行时(have/has been doing)

1. 概念:表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果; 表示从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态 (除在否定句中外,瞬间动词不能与一段时间搭配)

        e.g. He has gone to Beijing. 他已经去了北京。(可能在北京,可能在路途中,但肯定不在这里)

           He has stayed in Beijing for 20 years. 他已经在北京待了20年了。(20年前开始呆在北京,现在仍然呆在北京)

           He has come to Chongqing.  他已经来到了重庆。                       ()

           He has come to Chongqing for two weeks. 他已经来到重庆两个星期了。    ( X )

           He has been/stayed in Chongqing for two weeks. 他已经来到重庆两个星期了。()

2. 结构:have/has done 其中have为助动词,done代表所有动词的过去分词,动词过去分词的规则变化与动词过去式的规则变化相同,动词过去分词的不规则变化需要“一一对应”地记清楚。

肯定句

否定句

疑问句

I have worked.

He has worked.

I have not worked.

He has not worked.

Have you worked? Yes, I have.  No, I haven’t.

Has he worked?.  Yes, he has.  No, he hasn’t.

3. 常用的时间词:since + 过去的时间, e.g. since 1997 自从1997年;

since + 从句(过去时)e.g. since he was five years old;

since + 一段时间+ agoe.g. since 2 years ago;

for + 一段时间, e.g. for 2 years;

?  除以上结外,还有:

already(已经), yet(已经,仍然;用于疑问、否定句), ever(曾经), never(从来没有,表示否定)

?  在句型It is the first / second time…. that…中的从句部分,用现在完成时。

          e.g. It is the first time that I have visited the city.

?  在句型This is the… that…中的从句部分,用现在完成时。

          e.g. This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.

4. 讲解:

1)        区别现在完成时和现在完成进行时

现在完成时现在完成进行时的用法基本一样,只是现在完成时仅表示动作或状态自从过去发生一直持续到现在为止,不涉及将来;而现在完成进行时是在过去发生,持续到现在的基础上,还要在将来继续下去。

e.g. I have collected shells since 2 years ago.

自从两年前我就在收集贝壳了。(我现在有很多。)

    I have been collecting shells since 2 years ago.

自从两年前我就在收集贝壳了。(我现在已经有很多了,我还会继续收集下去。)   

2)        区别现在完成时和过去时

    现在完成时的动作从过去开始并持续到现在,强调现在的状态;过去时仅表示动作发生在过去,但与现在无关。

e.g. I have collected many shells.

我已经收集了许多贝壳。(以前就开始收集,所以现在有很多)

I collected many shells.

我收集过许多贝壳。(我以前收集过许多,这只能说明我以前做过这样一个动作,但现在还有没有贝壳就不知道了。)

3)        区别have been to, have been in, have gone to

?  have been to 表示“去过某地(已返回)”,可与just, ever, never, twice等搭配。

?  have gone to 表示“到某地去了(主语不在说话现场,还没返回)”。主语一般不会是I, we, you.

?  have been in 表示“已经在某地呆了多长时间”,常和表示一段时间的状语搭配。

        e.g. I’ve been to that village three times.

           --- Where is Tom?   --- He has gone to the supermarket.

           Mr. Brown has been in Shanghai for three days.

4)        常用的瞬间动词与延续性动词的转换:

borrow/lend

keep

begin/start开始

be on

leave离开

be away (from)

buy  

have


open打开

be open


get up起床

be up

finish/end完成

be over


close关闭

be closed


fall asleep睡着

be asleep

arrive/come/go

be in/at…


die死亡

be dead


fall ill生病

be ill

lose丢失

be lost


become变成

be


join加入

be in/be a member

catch a cold感冒

have a cold

几个常见的同义句转换:

他参军已经两年了。He joined the army two years ago. = He became a soldier two years ago.

= He has been in the army for two years. = He has been a soldier since two years ago.

= It’s two years since he joined the army. = Two years has passed since he became a soldier.

四、作文:

The Whites have different hobbies. Mr. White likes fishing very much. He often sits at the river(坐在河边) for hours without catching anything. But he still likes fishing because he enjoys sitting in the sun. He thinks he is enjoying life.

Mrs. White’s hobby is gardening. She grows many different kinds of flowers in her garden. She thinks the flowers are very beautiful and she enjoys them very much.

Peter’s hobby is not the same as his parents’. He enjoys collecting stamps. He’s been collecting them since he was eight years old. In his eyes, collecting stamps is an interesting hobby and he can learn a lot from the stamps.

五、练习:

Ⅰ、用forsince填空:

    1. The farmer has been working on the farm ________ 6 years.

2. Tom has studied math _________ he was ten.  3. we have been reading _________ last night.

4. He skated _______ over 4 hours.   5. That woman has been calling the police _________ 9 o’clock.

6. The boy has been swimming __________ two hours ago.

Ⅱ、用所给单词的适当形式填空:

1. He ____________ (work) in this city for 8 years.

2. How long _______ your aunt _______ (be) in the school?

3. My father ____________ (wash) the car since 9 o’clock.

4. I ___________ (write) the letter to my mother since two hours ago.

5. I __________ (feel) very tired now because I ___________ (skate) for over five hours.

6. ---When _________ you ________ (begin) to learn to swim?  ---When I ______ (be) 7 years old.

  ---How long _______ you ________ (skate) ever since then. ---For more than 8 years.

7. He is a coin collector. He _____________ (collect) for three years.

8. It __________ (rain) all week. It is still raining right now.

9. ---What _______ you _______ (do) now? ---I __________ (sweep) the floor.

10. I ___________ (borrow) the book from the library yesterday.

11. Study hard, and you ___________ (pass) the exam.

12. I will go to the zoo if it ______________ (not rain) tomorrow.

13. He ____________ (ill) for several days.      14. Sally ______________ (write) all morning.

15. Sally _________ (write) 8 letters since breakfast.

16. I ________________ (speak) in English since I _________ (come) to live in America.

17. When he ________ (be) a little boy, he ____________ (begin) to learn the piano.

、句型转换:

    1. She’s been skating for four hours. (改否定) She ______  ______ skating for four hours.

2. I have been watching English movies since 8 o’clock. (改一般疑问句)

  _______ you ________ watching English movies since 8 o’clock?

3. The children have been watching TV since lunch. (改反意疑问句)

  The children have been watching TV since lunch, __________  __________?

4. They lived here in 1997. (提问)   ________  ______ they ________ here?

5. I have been sitting here for an hour. (提问)  ______  _______ have you been sitting here?

6. Sam has been learning the word since 10 minutes ago. (提问)

  ________ has Sam been ________ since 10 minutes ago?

7. Celia asks, “What have you been doing these days?”

  Celia asks _______ I ________ been doing those days.

、短文填空 1 (根据3a, Section B改写)

      Thanks for _________ me the snow globe of the monster. I love it. In fact, I think it’s _________ my _________. I’ve been __________ snow globes for seven years, and now I have 226 of them. My mom ______ I have to stop, because we’ve ______  ______  _____  _______ to store them. They’re all around our _________. I _______  _______ them in boxes under my bed.

      The first one I ______ got _____ a birthday cake snow globe _____ my ________ birthday. I __________ love globes with animals. I have a big one with bears in it, and ________ one with penguins. If you know anyone else who _________ them, please tell me. I’d like to start a snow globe _________ club. By the way, what’s your ________?

、短文填空 2

      Ellen likes to _______ snow globes. _______ she was only 7 years old, she _______ to collect them. On her seventh birthday, she got a _________ present, a snow globe ______ a birthday cake in it. That’s her _______ snow globe. From then on, she has _______ collecting snow globes for 7 years, and has collected 226 of them. She could _______ find room to store them, even them in boxes under her bed, they have been all around her apartment. So her mother asked her to ________ collecting them. But she really likes them, _________ loves globes with animals. She wants to __________ a snow globe collectors’ club. If you know anyone _______ who collects them, please tell her.

      Thank you!

 

Unit 7 Would you mind turning down the music?

一、单词:

    1. 关于voice, sound, noise:

      voice专指人的声音(如说话,唱歌,笑的时候发出的声音等)。

sound表示能听见的任何声音。

noise通常是指大而令人不快的噪音,嘈杂声,喧闹声等。

2. 关于allow(同意,允许)agree(同意)

?  allow sb. (not) to do sth 同意某人()做某事 be allowed (not) to do sth ()被允许做某事

           allow sth/doing sth 同意() [这个短语里,不能接人]

       e.g. My parents allowed me to stay out late this time. 这一次我父母允许我在外面呆很晚。

           I was allowed to stay out late by my parents this time. 这一次我被允许在外面呆很晚。

           My parents don’t allow smoking. 我父母不允许吸烟。

?  agree with sb. 同意某人的观点             agree to do sth 同意去做某事

           agree on sth  达成一致 

e.g. We agree on it. 我们在这一点上意见一致。

     3. 关于break:

?  名词:(短暂的)休息 have a break 休息一会

?  动词:打破,违犯,折断(breakbrokebroken)  break the record 打破纪录

           e.g. The stone(石头) broke the window.

               He broke the law. 他犯法了。

?  broken 坏的,失灵的   The pen is broken.

      4. 关于pick up:

?  捡起来:He picked up the books for the teacher. (He pick it up for the teacher.)

?  收拾好:You had better pick up your room quickly. 你最好赶快收拾好你的房间。

              had better do sth 最好做某事; had better not do sth 最好不做某事)

?  采,摘:The farmers are picking apples. 这些农民正在摘苹果。

         (开车)接人:= give sb. a ride   I’ll pick you up at the airport. = I’ll give you a ride at the airport.

               (take a ride <别人>)

     5. 关于annoy:

?  动词:使生气,使恼怒  annoy sb. = make sb. angry/mad

        e.g. Are you doing that to annoy me? 你那样做是要气我吗?

?  annoyed 觉得生气的(形容词,修饰人)get/be annoyed with sb. 生某人的气;

get/be annoyed at/about sth 事生气

        e.g. He was annoyed with me at making the same mistake. 他因为我犯了同样的错而生气。

?  annoying 使厌烦的

e.g.It’s an annoying voice. 那是一个令人厌烦的声音。

     6. 关于work:

?  不可数名词:工作(要做的事)

        e.g. I have a lot of work to do. 我有许多工作要做。

?  动词:工作,学习

        e.g. I have to work hard to get good grades. 我必须要努力学习来取得好成绩。

               运行,运转

        e.g. The pen doesn’t work. = The pen is broken.= There is something wrong with the pen.

二、短语&句型:

1. turn down/turn up 关小声/调大声音(电器)    turn on/ turn off      打开/关闭(电器)

2. move sth                      移动某物               move to                 迁往某处居住

3. in a minute = right away = right now = in no time= in a moment = at once         立刻,马上

4. be late for school/class = arrive late for school                                 上学/上课迟到

5. wait in line = stand in line= join the line                                    排队等候

cut in line = jump a queue = cut in front of you in a line                       插队

6. sth happen to sb                  某事发生在…身上       happen to do              碰巧做某事

7. half an hour                        半小时    two and a half hours= two hours and a half   两个半小时

8. at first                         首先                   at last=in the end=finally   最后

9. in public                    当众地;公开地         in public places                在公共场所 

10. put sth out                  熄灭,放在外面      11. drop litter                      扔垃圾

12. keep the voice down    压低声音              13. not at all               一点也不, 根本不

14. the way to + 地点     /去…的路           15.put on another pair of jeans穿上另一条牛仔裤

16. finish the tasks        完成这些任务            finish doing              完成做某事

17. do/ wash the dishes    洗碗                   18. complain about sth       抱怨某事

19. give you a terrible haircut给你一个糟糕的发型   20. order a hamburger        预订一个汉堡包

21. the most annoying thing最令人气恼的事        22. follow sb. around         到处跟着某人

23. have a long telephone call/ conversation                                    打一个很长的电话

24. be with sb.           和…在一起            25. even if                  即使

26. take care (to do sth)    小心, 注意(去做)       take care of sth/sb. = look after  照看,照顾

   take good care of = look after … well                                       好好照看

27. all the time = always   一直                  28. try (not) to do sth          努力()做…

29. perhaps= maybe= probably也许(副词) 

30. wait for sb           等待某人              31. an English-speaking country一个说英语的国家

32. normal and polite social behavior正式的礼貌的社会行为  

33. be useful to do sth     做…是有用的          34. in all situations            在各种情况

35. give some suggestions = give some advice        提出建议

36. be criticized          受到批评              37. drop litter                扔垃圾

38. No smoking!         禁止吸烟              give up smoking (give up doing) 戒烟(放弃做…)

39. Smoking on the bus is not allowed.             车上不准吸烟.

40. Dropping litter is never allowed all over the world. 在世界各地,扔垃圾都是不被允许的.

41. What annoys you? 什么使你气恼?             42. That’s no problem.         没问题.

43. can’t stand sb.         不能忍受某人          can’t stand sb. doing sth    不能忍受某人做某事

   can’t stand to do sth  不能忍受做某事(没做)  can’t stand doing sth 不能忍受做某事(正在做或做过)

三、语法:

提请求、建议

表示请求、建议的常用句型有:

?  Would/Do you mind (sb./one’s) doing sth?  Would/Do you mind (sb./one’s) not doing sth?

[你介意(某人)做某事吗?]             [你介意(某人)不做某事吗?]

 肯定回答:No, not at all. = No, of course not. = No, please do it. = Certainly not. 不介意。(你可以)

否定回答:Yes, of course. = Sorry, I am afraid not. = Sorry, I wish you wouldn’t. 介意。(你不可以)

      e.g. Would you mind me singing here. 你介意我在这儿唱歌吗?

          No, not at all. 你唱吧,我不介意。 Sorry, I’m afraid not. 不行,恐怕你不能在这儿唱。

?  Could you please do sth?  请你做某事,好吗?

Could you please not do sth? 请你不做某事,好吗?

?  Would you like to do sth? 你愿意做某事吗?

?  Do sth, please.请你做某事。Don’t do sth, please. 请你不要做某事。

?  You’d better do sth.你最好去做某事。(You’d better = You had better)

You’d better not do sth. 你最好不去某事。

?  Why not do sth? 为什么不做某事

Why don’t you do sth? 为什么不做某事

?  How/What about doing sth? 做某事如何?

()、使用-ing分词的几种情况

  1.在进行时态中。如: 1.He is watching TV in the room. 2.They were dancing at nine o'clock last night.

  2.there be结构中。如:There is a boy swimming in the river.

  3.have fun/problems结构中。如:We have fun learning English this term.

       They had problems getting to the top of the mountain.

  4.在介词后面。如:Thanks for helping me.             Are you good at playing basketball

              What /How about doing sth? 做某事怎么样?            I am interested in playing football.

       5.在以下结构中

1. enjoy doing sth              喜欢做某事             2. finish doing sth       完成做某事

3. feel like doing sth         想要做某事           4. stop doing sth          停止做某事(原来的事)

5. forget doing sth           忘记做过某事            6. go on doing sth       继续做某事(原来的事)

7. remember doing sth     记得做过某事         8. like doing sth          喜欢做某事

9. find /see/hear/watch sb doing 发现/看到/听到/观看某人做  9. try doing sth             试图做某事

10. need doing sth         需要做某事           11. prefer doing sth        宁愿做某事

12. mind doing sth               介意做某事           13. miss doing sth          错过做某事

14. practice doing sth        练习做某事           15. be busy doing sth    忙于做某事

16. can't help doing sth      禁不住做某事         17. waste time/money doing  浪费时间/金钱做…

18. keep sb.doing                 让…始终/一直做…    19. stop/keep sb.(from)doing  阻止某人做某事

20. prefer doing A to doing B=like A better than B喜欢做A更喜欢做B

21.do some +doing”短语

: do some shopping/do some washing/do some reading/do some practicing/do some cleaning

22.“go doing”短语去做某事(主要指文娱活动等)

如:go shopping/go fishing/go swimming/go hiking/go skating/go camping/go skiing(滑雪)/go boating

四、作文:

     Dear Father,

          I hope you are well. Would you mind my giving you some advice? Would you please stop smoking? It’s bad for your health. Because you play computer games too late, you can’t get up early. And you often go work without breakfast. Could you please exercise more and eat healthy food? Mum is busy and tired. Could you please help her do some housework?

          Thank you.

Yours,

son

五、练习:

、用所给词的正确形式填空:

    1. Would you Mind _____________ (not wear) those jeans?

2. This game sounds _____________ (interest).

3. The store clerk _________ (give) me the wrong size yesterday.

4. You have to help me __________ (make) dinner.

5. You must be excited __________ (be) in a new house. 6. Sorry, I __________ (move) it in a minute.

7. Mr. Zhang has been to many English-speaking _________ (country).

8. __________ (drop) litter is almost never allowed in every country.

9. Could you please __________ (speak) louder?

10. Some children make their parents _________ (buy) too many toys.

11. Linda __________ (pay) 100 yuan for the dictionary.

12. He had a bad cold. He ___________ (sneeze) all the time yesterday morning.

13. Our teachers ___________ (allow) us _____________ (play) basketball at noon.

14. I _________ (return) in a minute.  15. What _______ you ______ (do) when your mother returned.

16. If she _______ (cut) in line, other people will not be pleased.

17. Jack _________ (wait) for the NO.401 bus now.

18. It’s not right _____________ (break) the rules.

  、句型转换:

    1. I’ll let you know. He’ll call you. (if 连成一句) _____ he _______ you, I ______ let you know.

2. Would you mind turning up the radio? (同义句) _______ you ________ turn up the radio?

3. My father is at a meeting. (同义句)  My father is _______  ____  __________.

4. My mother is cleaning the kitchen. (reading books改为选择疑问句)

  _____ your mother cleaning the kitchen _____ reading books?

5. His radio doesn’t work. (同义句) There is __________  _________  _______ his radio.

6. Mike is 14 years old. David is 12 years old. (合并为一句) Mike is 2 years ______  ______ David.

7. If you work hard, you may pass this English exam. (同义句)

  _________ hard, ________ you may not pass this English Exam.

8. The pen you bought didn’t work. (对画线部分提问)  ________  _______ didn’t work.

9. He spent much money on clothes. (同义句) It ______ him much money _____  ______ clothes.

  、情景对话:

(    )1. ---Will you please stay here for dinner?  

---Sorry, I _____. I’ll have to go to an important meeting.

       A. won’t            B. mustn’t          C. needn’t            D. can’t

(    )2. ---Dad, ______ I play the piano?

       ---Yes, you can. But you have to finish your homework first.

       A. must             B. may             C. will              D. need

(    )3. ---Would you like to come for dinner this Sunday, Xiao Ming?   ---_________.

       A. I’d love to, but I’m too busy to come.      B. Oh, no. That’ll be too tired.

       C. I’ll stay at home.                      D. Yes, please.

(    )4. ---Would you mind watering the flowers for me?

       ---_______. I have to go to the post office.

        A. Not at all.         B. Never mind.      C. No, please.         D. sorry, I can’t.

(    )5. ---_____ I return the MP3 to you today, Tina? ---No, you needn’t. Tomorrow is OK.

        A. Shall             B. Must            C. Will              D. Can

  、短文填空 (根据3a, Section B改写)

     We asked some people what ________ them. Here’s what they said:

     I don’t like _________ in line when a shop assistant _______ a long telephone conversation. When that happens, I usually say, “Would you mind _________ me?” And I don’t like it when shop _________ follow me around. Then I say, “Could you please not follow ______ around? I’ll ask you ______ I need some ________ .” __________, the shop assistants say they are sorry, but __________ they get mad. If that ___________, I won’t go back to that store again.

Unit 8 Why don’t you get her a scarf?

一、单词:

1. 关于person:

personal 私人的(adj.)  person (可数名词)    people 人们(可数,永为复数)

e.g.  For most people, they wouldn’t allow other persons to read their personal letters.

对于大多数人而言,他们不愿意别人看他们的私人信件。

     2. receive = get 收到,得到               

3. mouse 老鼠(单数)mice 老鼠(复数)

     4. company 公司,伙伴(复数companies)  

5. child孩子()children 孩子(复数)

     6. 关于asleep:

        asleep 睡着的(adj. 但不放在名词前,只放在系动词后,这样的词还有:alive<活着的>awake<醒着的>alone<单独的>);

        sleep  睡觉(n. & v. 作名词为不可数, 动词sleepsleptslept)     

sleepy 想睡觉的,困的(adj.)

        起床、睡学“六步曲”:go to bed 去睡觉; fall asleep 入睡; be asleep = be sleeping睡着; wake up 醒来; be awake 醒着的

         e.g. He went to sleep an hour ago. = He has been asleep for an hour. = He has slept for an hour.

      7. choose 选择 (choose to do sth 选择去做某事, choosechosechosen)

      8. 关于“而不是”rather thaninstead of

?  作为连词,连接名词时,两者的用法完全相同;

        e.g.  I would like this book rather than/instead of that one.

?  宁愿做某事而不做某事:would do sth rather than do sth= would rather do sth than do sth

would do sth instead of doing sth

        e.g. I would stay at home rather than go to see the movie.

           = I would rather stay at home than go to see the movie.

           = I would stay at home instead of going to see the movie.

?  instead of 而不(表示不做的事)instead 而是(表示要做的事) 两者可以进行同义替换。

He watched TV instead of reading books. = He didn’t read books. Instead, he watched TV.

拓展:关于rather than

He decided to go to the park rather than stay at home.

= He decided to go to the park instead of staying at home.

      He went to the park rather than stayed at home. = He went to the park instead of staying at home.

       9. 关于suggest:

?  suggest 建议(动词,动作), suggesting 建议(名词,一件事), suggestion 建议(可数名词,内容)

?  suggest sth (to sb.) (向某人)推荐某物

       e.g. Jim suggested a walk in the park. Jim建议在公园散步。

?  suggest (sb.) doing sth 建议某人做某事

e.g. He suggested me going to see a doctor.他建议我去看病。

?  suggest + that 从句(should) 建议…, 在此句型中,从句中应用should, 但经常被省略。

       e.g. We suggest that he (should) give up smoking.

       10. 关于复数:scarf- scarves child-children mouse-mice wolf()-wolves thief(小偷)-thieves

knife(小刀)-knives, leaf – leaves (树叶), sheep-sheep deer(鹿)-deer, fish-fish goldfish-goldfish

二、短语&句型:

1. give sth away               赠送;分发        2. hear of/about              听说

3. make friends with             和……交友        4. photo album                      像册

5. make a special meal      做一顿特别的饭    6. an 8-year-old child              一个八岁的孩子

7. these days                     最近              8. notat all                      根本不

9. different kinds of             不同种类          10. in different ways               以不同的方式

11. improve English = make progress in English     提高英语

12. encourage sb to do          鼓励某人做

13. get/ buy/make sb sth=get/buy/make sth for sb    给某人某物

14. a pig named Connie      一只名叫Connie的猪 (named = called, 名字的)

15. be noisy/ quiet          吵闹的/ 安静的     make a noise                吵闹 

make a lot of / much noise很吵

16. give money to charity    捐款给慈善组织     17. all over China= across China全国    

18. come from all age groups 来自各个年龄段          

19. the winner of mens/ womens competition   男子/女子组比赛冠军

20. a native speaker of English                   一个说英语的本地人      

21. Life with a pig is not always perfect.           和猪在一起的生活不总是完美的.

22. Gift giving is different in different countries.     在不同国家送礼物的习俗是不同的.

23. Later, the same gift may be given away to someone else.后来,同样的礼物可能被送给别人.

三、语法:

固定用法(非谓语动词):以下是带to的动词不定式常见搭配

希望做某事hope to do sth.                                         决定做某事decide to do sth.          

同意做某事agree to do sth.                                         需要某人做某事need to do sth.             

使用某物做某事use sth to do sth                                 迫不及待做某事can’t wait to do

准备做某事get/be ready to do                                     尽力/努力做某事try to do sth               

计划做某事plan to do sth.                                          不得不have to do                 

轮流做某事take one’s turns to do sth.                          拒绝做某事refuse to do sth.

告诉某人做某事tell sb. to do sth.                               请某人做某事ask sb. to do sth.

希望某人做某事wish sb. to do sth.                      想要某人做某事want /would like sb. to do sth.

同意某人做某事agree sb. to do sth.                            教某人做某事teach sb. to do sth.

喜欢/想要某人做某事 like sb. to do sth.                     帮助某人做某事help sb. to do sth/help sb.do

encourage sb to do     鼓励某人做

It’s one’s turn to do sth. 轮到某人做某事                例句:It your turn to clean the blackboard.

It’s time(for sb.) to do sth.是某人做某事时候了                  例句:It’s time for me to go home.

It’s +adj. for/of sb. to do sth. 对于某人来说做某事是……(当adj.是表示性格、品德的形容词时用of

       例句: It is easy for me to learn it well.        It is very kind/foolish/nice of you to do so.              

  It takes sb. sometime to do sth. 某人做某事花了某时间   

   例句: 1.It takes me an hour to get to school by bike.  2.It took me an hour to watch TV last night.

              3.It will take her two weeks to finish the work.

too+adj./adv. to do sth.  …..而不能                                     : He was to angry to say a word.

find/think/feel it +adj. to do sth.发现/认为/感到做某事是 : I find/think/feel it hard to learn English well.    

序数词+to do …..个做某事 例句:Who is the first to get there?

我不知/忘记了怎么办。I didn't know/forgot what to do.

  离开房间时不要忘记/记住关灯 

       例句:Don’t forget/Remember to turn off the lights when you left the room

  be+adj+to do sth                          例句:I am very sorry to hear that.

I am ready to help others.                     I am happy/pleased/glad to meet you.

顺口溜:本领最多不定式,主表定补宾和状;样样成分都能干,只有谓语它不敢;大家千万要小心,有时它把句型改;作主语时用it,自己在后把身藏;疑问词后接上它,宾语从句可充当;逻辑主语不定式,不定式前加for sb.tonot是否定,各种用法区别开。

以下是不带to的动词不定式(即动词原形)的常见用法

  let sb. do sth让某人做某事                        make do sth使得某人做某事       

hear do sth do sth听见某人做某事            see do sth do sth看见某人做某事

  why not why don’t you +动词原形?为什么不….?(表示建议)例:Why not/Why don’t you take a walk?

  某人+had better( not)do 某人最好()做某事

  情态动词can/may /must /should+ 动词原形(包括情态动词的否定形式+动词原形)

   助动词do/does/did/will/would在构成疑问句或者构成否定句即don’t  /doesn’t /didn’t  /will not  /would not+ 动词原形

  be going to + 动词原形(表示即将”“打算做某事)

四、作文:

     It was Saturday yesterday. Mabel didn’t go to school. But she got up early. It was her fourteenth birthday. Her parents wanted to have a party for her. She told her friends about it the day before yesterday. She hoped to do something. She didn’t find her parents in their bedroom. She didn’t know where they went. She began to tidy(整理) the room. About an hour later her mother came back with a basket. The girl found there was much food and fruit in it. And then she heard the doorbell. Her father came in with a nice birthday cake!

五、练习:

Ⅰ、用所给词的适当形式填空:

   1. What should we ________ (get) for our teacher?  2. Why don’t you _______ (open) the window?

   3. Why not ________ (show) your photos to us?    4. Let’s ________ (travel) to Hong Kong .

   5. Shall we _______ (visit) your school?           6. How about ________ (make) a meal?

   7. What about _________ (clean) the floor now?    8. Could you please ________ (wait) in line?

   9. Do you mind _______ (put) out the cigarette?  10. Will you please _______ (help) me with my math?

   11. The food in the restaurant is _________ (nice) than that one’s.

   12. His story made everyone _________ (laugh).    13. It’s _______ (clearly) that he told a lie.

   14. My daughter _________ (clean) her room when I arrived home.

   15. Tina was very tired. She fell _________ (sleep) soon.

   16. There are many __________ (mouse) in that house.

   17. The ________ (child) are playing happily in the swimming pool.

   18. I didn’t know that this watch __________ (cost) 10000 dollars ten years ago.

、句型转换:

   1. What do you think of that house? (同义句) ________ do you ________ that house?

2. I paid 10 dollars for the photo album. (提问) _______  _______ did you pay for the photo album?

3. Tom will have his birthday party on May 1st. (May 2nd改为选择疑问句)

  _______ Tom have his birthday party on May 1st _____ May 2nd?

4. Vack is too young to dress himself. (同义句) Vack is not _______  ______ to dress himself.

5. Dad will buy me a new computer. (同义句) Dad will buy a new computer ________  _______ .

6. We don’t know what we shall do. (同义句) We don’t know what ________  _________.

7. Lesson 8 is very difficult. He can’t understand it. (同义句)

  Lesson 8 is _______ difficult for him _______ understand.

8. Goldfish is not easy to take care of. (同义句) ____ is not easy _________  _____ care of goldfish.

、单项选择:

(    )1. It’s not easy ______ a house for my pets.  A. making  B. to make   C. keeping  D. kept

(    )2. I was _____ tired _____ read English. A. so, that   B. very, that   C. too, to  D. too, that

(    )3. ---It’s bright enough in the classroom, I think. You shouldn’t keep the lights on.

       --- Sorry, I’ll _______ now.  

A. take them away   B. put them down   C. take them down   D. turn them off

(    )4. Most students in my class are interested in _______ soccer games.

       A. watch           B. watching        C. watches         D. watched

(    )5. Do you think Chinese can sing English songs _______ English people?

       A. as good as        B. so good as      C. as well as        D. so well as

(    )6. Nancy is _______ girl. 

A. a 18-year old      B. an 18-years old   C. an 18-year-old   D. an 18-year old

(    )7. Jack lides swimming rather _____ hiking.  A. to   B. off   C. of   D. than

(    )8. I hope you will _____ during your visit to Hong Kong.

       A. get bored         B. be funny         C. bave fun        D. be boring

(    )9. Can you find good ways ______ our English? A. improve  B. to improve  C. to   D. improving

(    )10. Gift ______ is different in different countries.  A.give   B. gives    C. to give  D. giving

Ⅳ、短文填空 1 (根据3a, Section B改写)

         The __________ kind of pet these days is the pot-bellied pig. David Smith of North London has a pot-bellied pig __________ Connie. “Pot-bellied pigs _________ the best pets,” said David. “She ________TV on the sofa with me every night. She’s my best friend.” _________, life _______ a pig isn’t always ___________. “When I got my pig, she was small,” said David, “but she eats a lot. Now she’s ______ big ______ sleep in the house, so I _________ her a special pig house. Also, pigs need a lot of love. Sometimes I don’t have ________ time to spend _________ her.”

、短文填空 2

          Yesterday when school was over, I ______ back home. ______ my way home, I ______ a boy fall off(掉下) his bike and hurt himself. He ______ on the road. I _______ him to the nearest hospital at once. The doctor ________ over the boy carefully and _______, “There ______ nothing serious(严重的)”The boy _________ me he must be careful next time. We both _________ the doctor and left..

 
 

Unit 9 Have you ever been to an amusement park?

一、单词:

1. 再谈either, neither, too, so.

either

?  也不(副词, 用于否定句) [either用于否定,too用于肯定]

e.g. If you don’t go shopping, I won’t either.

?  两者之一的(形容词)

e.g. on either side of the river =on each side of the river = on both sides of the river 在河的两边

?  两者之一(代词, either of+ the/my,these…+复数”做主语,谓语动词用单数)

e.g. There’s coffee or tea you can have either.   有咖啡和茶,你可以喝茶或咖啡。

Is either of the sisters coming?             两姐妹中,有一个会来吗?

?  不是就是…(连词, either…or…,就近一致原则)

      e.g. Either my father or my brother is coming. 不是我爸爸,就是我的哥哥会来。

neither

?  也不(副词, 用于否定句中, “neither + 助动词/be动词,情态动词+主语” )

[也:so +助动词/be动词, 情态动词+主语]  [的确:so+主语+助动词/be动词, 情态动词]

e.g. If you don’t go shopping, I won’t either. =  If you don’t go shopping, neither wil I

?  两者都不的(形容词)

e.g. Neither books is good. 两本书都不好。

?  两者都不(代词,“neither of+ the/my,these…+复数”做主语, 谓语动词用单数)

e.g. Neither of the sisters is coming here. 两姐妹中,没有一个会来这儿。

?  既不也不…(连词, neither…nor, 就近一致原则)

e.g. He can speak neither English nor Chinese. 他即不会说英语,也不会说汉语。

 附:Me too. = So + 助动词/be动词, 情态动词+I. 我也是。

     Me neither. = Neither + 助动词/be动词, 情态动词+I. 我也不。

2. population 人口(不可数名词) = the number of people

3. quarter 四分之一,一刻钟(可数名词)

4. whenever 无论何时= no matter when

5. 关于fear(害怕, 担心)

?  fear sb/sth = be afraid of sth害怕某人/某物

e.g. He fears snakes. = He is afraid of snakes. 他害怕蛇。

?  fear to do sth = be afraid to do sth 不敢去做某事(还没做)

e.g. She feared to tell him the truth. = She was afraid to tell him the true. 她不敢告诉他真相。

?  fear for sth/sb = worry about sth/sb = be worried about sth/sb 而担心

e.g. We fear for his safty. = We worry about his safty. = We are worried about his safty.

?  be afraid that + 从句  恐怕(表示委婉的观点或看法)

e.g. I’m afraid that I can’t arrive on time. 恐怕,我不能按时到达。

二、短语&句型:

1. take a ride                    兜风,搭车      give sb a ride= pick sb. up    让某人搭车

2. end up (with)            (作为)结束    3. take a holiday/vacation    度假

4. all year round= all the whole year  全年       5. during the daytime         在白天

6. wake up                           醒来            wake sb. up                叫醒某人

7. an English-speaking country 一个讲英语的国家8. be asleep=fall asleep      睡着

9. Three quarters of the population are Chinese.     四分之三的人口是中国人(谓语动词用复数形式)

10. Whats the population of China?                  中国的人口是多少?(不用how much提问)

11. The population of China is 1.3 billion             中国的人口是13亿。(谓动词用单形式)

12. an amusement park       一个游乐公园     13. space museum          太空博物

14. famous Disney characters 著名的迪斯尼人    15. several days= a few days  几天  

16. a theme park            一个主题公园     17. call it a.              称它为…     

18. on board               在船上           19. take different routes       走不同的路线 

20. reason for learning English学习英语的理由   21. an exchange student       一个交换生

22. the best way to do sth     做某事最好的方法 23. a flight attendant         一名空乘人员/空姐 

24. such as                 例如             25. have problem doing sth  费力干…,做某事有困难

26. be awake               醒着             27. be close to the equator    离赤道近

28. in a natural environment在一个自然的环境里                   

三、语法:

现在完成时

四、作文:

Dear Miss Li,

    I’m a student of Hilltop Language School. I enjoy traveling so much that I want to be a tour guide. However, I have to improve my English. So I’ve studied English at Hilltop Language School for almost three years. It has really helped me with my English. Now I could talk with a foreigner freely(自由地). If I am lucky enough to get the job, I’ll try my best to do it well.

Yours,

Lily

五、练习:

Ⅰ、用所给词的正确形式填空:

   1. I ________________ (not visit) them for three weeks.

   2. My brother ___________ (buy) a bike last month.

   3. Mrs. Smith ____________ (be) in hospital already since she __________ (come) here.

   4. Jack ______________ (not find) his watch yet.

   5. He _______________ (work) out that physics problem himself in class.

   6. The room is very cold. Who ______________ (open) the door?

   7. ---Where is Joan?   ---She _____________ (go) to the cinema.

   8. What __________ here? There is some water on the desk.

   9. You can turn off the radio now. I ________ (hear) the news already. I _________ ()hear it at 8 o’clock.

   10. Alice ____________ (be) in Paris for twenty years.

   11. I _____________ (finish) today’s homework. What about you?

   12. Hurry up! The film _____________ (开始) for ten minutes.

   13. Great changes __________________ (happen) to our city and it is very tidy now.

   14. As soon as he _____________ (come) here, I will give it to him.

   15. Why _________ they _________ (not go) to see the play yesterday?

   16. I met Li Lei yesterday. We ___________ (not see) each other since we ________ (leave) the school.

   17. The boy is happy because he ____________ (sell) out all the newspapers.

   18. Miss Gao __________ (teach) us English last year. She ______________ (teach) us about 2 years.

   19. Where ________ you _________ (be) these days?

   20. Where is Tom? He __________ (go) to the post office?

   21. The train _________ just ____________ (arrive).

   22. ---________ you _________ (visit) the Summer Palace?

      ---Yes, we have. ---When _________ you _________ (visit) there?

   23. ________ Tom _________ (buy) a book yet?

   24. He went to the air port to wait for the _________ (fly) to China.

   25. How __________ (wonder) he is playing the piano!

   26. Most of the ___________ (Australia) speak English.

   27. The ___________ (clean) clean the roads early in the morning.

、翻译:

   1. I will go there, _________________________________ (你也一样).

   2. He hasn’t come yet, _____________________________ (她也一样).

   3. My aunt sings well, _____________________________ (他的阿姨也一样).

   4. We have been to Beijing, _________________________ (他们也一样).

   5. Kate doesn’t speak English, ______________________________ (Tom也一样).

   6. He didn’ t finish it, ______________________________ (她也一样)

   7. 他的爷爷去世两年了。

     His grandpa ________  ________  ________  _______ 2 years.

   8. 这台电脑你买了多久了?

     ________  ________  ________ you ________ the computer?

   9. 我参军五年了。

     I _______ the army _______  _________  ________.

     I _______  _______  ______ the army _______  _______  ________.

     I _______  ________  ________  _______ since 5 years ago.

     It _______ 5 years ________ I _______ the army.

、用正确的时间词填空:

   1. The film began ________  __________  _________ (五分钟前).

   2. Everyone has been here ________  ______  ______  ________ (五天前).

   3. She has gone to Hawaii ___________ (已经).

   4. My mom looked worried ___________ (昨天).

   5. He cried _______  ________  ________  _________ (今天早上8点钟).

   6. I have known him _______  ________  _______ ( 三年了).

   7. She waited for you ________  ________ (昨天夜里).

   8. Tom has stayed here _______  ________  _________  _________ (自从他来这里以后)

、句型转换:

   1. He has ever been to USA. (一般疑问句)      ________ he ever ________ to USA?

   2. The twins have finished their homework. (改为否定句)

     The twins _________  _________ their homework.

   3. I went to see my uncle five days ago. (提问)  _______  _______ you go see your uncle?

   4. I have stayed in the school since 2 hours ago. (提问)

     ________  _________ have you stayed in the school?

   5. Mr. Li has been there three times. (提问)  ________  ________ times _______ Mr. Li been there?

   6. Lily doesn’t like math, and neither does Lucy. (neither…nor…连接句子)

     ________ Lily _______ Lucy ________ math.

   7. The weather is good. (改为感叹句)  ________  _________ weather it is!

   8. “Don’t drop the litter everywhere.” he said to me. (改为间接引语)

     He _________ me _______ to drop the litter everywhere.

写出下列句子的同义句:

   1. The math problem is too difficult for him to work out.

     The math problem is ________ difficult ________ he can’t work it out.

   2. The little boy isn’t tall enough to reach the orange on the table.

     The little boy is _______  _________ to reach the orange on the table.

   3. I have received a letter from a stranger. She has also received a letter from a stanger.

     ______ she ______ I _______  _______ letters from a stranger.

   4. Maybe my mom will go, maybe my dad.   ________ my mom _________ my dad will go.

   5. They decided to have a picnic, not to go to movies.

     They decided to have a picnic _________  _________ going to movies.

     They decided to have a picnic _________  _________ go to movies.

、单选:

(    )1. How long has this shop _______ in town?  A. open  B. been open  C. opened  D. been opened

(    )2. Do you know how long _______ Nanjing?

       A. have I come to     B. have I been in       C. I have been to       D. I have been in

(    )3. It’s the first time that I _____ here.   A. am in   B. was in   C. have been  D. had been

(    )4. ---Where is Jim?  --- He _______ to London. He _______ back in three days’ time.

       A. has gone, will be   B. has gone, comes      C. has gone, was       D. went, came

(    )5. She’s hardly got to sleep during the night, ______?

       A. is she            B. has she             C. isn’t she            D. hasn’t she

(    )6. Who _____ an article for the newspaper? 

A. has written        B. has write           C. have write           D. have written

(    )7. We’ll have a ______ holiday. what about going to the West Lake?

       A. two days          B. two-days           C. two-day             D. two-days

 

Ⅵ、短文填空 1 (根据3a, Section B 改写)

Mei Shan has been a _______  ________ for _______ years. She eanted to ________ all over the world. She studied __________ for five years. David wants to be a ________  ________ . He has never been to an ___________ country. He has been _________ at the school for one year. He is thinking of being an English _________ instead.

 

Ⅶ、短文填空 2

Mr Johnson had a factory. He once ________ on TV that animals coul be taught to _______ some work for people if they were given ___________ to eat. He loved the idea. He thought it would be ________ to have a dog look after his __________ and an elephant do most heavy jobs _______ his factory. He bought a dog ________ an elephant in the market and decided to teach them to do some work for him. Of course, he also bought a lot of ________ for them. Several months later, the dog gnd the elephant _________ fatter and fatter, but they __________ do any work for him. At last, Mr. Johnson had to give up.

 

Unit 10 It’s a nice day, isn’t it?

一、单词:

1. 关于sure

?  的确,当然(adv.) = certainly = of coruse , 常用来回答一般疑问句。

e.g.   ---Would you like to come with us?  ---Sure.

      He is sure a lovely boy. 他的确是一个可爱的男孩。

?  确定的,肯定的,有把握的(adj.):

be sure of/about sth 有把握       e.g. I’m sure of the answer. 我对这个答案有把握。

be sure to do sth   一定要()做某事   e.g. He is sure to come. 他一定会来。

be sure that + 从句 确信            e.g. I’m sure that he will come. 我确信他会来。

2. 关于crossacross(穿过, 越过):

?  cross (v.) = 动词 + across (prep.)  

e.g. They crossed the road. = They went across the road

?  across (prep.)  (呈十字交叉)穿过; through (prep.)  (从空间,从内部)穿过

e.g. They went across the street. 他们横穿这条街。  He swam across the river. 他横渡这条河。

   They went through the forest.他们穿过这片森林。He walked through the park.他穿过这座公园。

?  crossing 十字路口(n.)  e.g. He is standing at the crossing.他正站在十字路口。

3. 关于traffic

不可数名词, 意为“交通,路上行驶的车辆”,在表达“交通拥挤”时,可用下列句子:

The traffic is very busy/heavy at this time. = There is a lot of traffic at this time.

4. 关于both

? 两者都(形容词; 行前,be动词、助动词或情态动词后)

e.g. Both the boys will go there. = The boys will both go there.

? 两者都(代词,“both of+ the/my,these…+复数”做主语, 谓语动词用复数)

e.g. Both of the sisters are coming here. 两姐妹都会来这儿。

? …(连词, both…and…, 谓语动词用复数)

    e.g. Both you and I are good students. 你和我都是好学生。

二、短语&句型:

1. feel like doing = want to do sth. = would like to do 想做某事

2. like sb. to do = would like sb. to do sth                  想要某人做某事

3. feel like sth.                    觉得像….  e.g. She felt like a fool. 她觉得自己像个大笨蛋。

4. have a hard/difficult time doing sth                       费了很大劲做某事

have problem doing sth                                        做某事有困难

have fun doing sth                                               乐于做某事

5. need to do sth.                                                     需要做某事(主语是人,强调主动)

6. need doing = need to be done                                需要被…(主语是物,强调被动)

 e.g. I need to do my homework

The bike needs mending/reparing. = The bike needs to be mended/repaired. 自行车需要()修理。

7. thank-you note/letter                                            感谢信

8. look through                浏览               look at                看着

  look the same            看起来一样         look like               看起来像