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15种方法教会孩子什么是钱

2010-08-12  海右观澜
来源15 Ways to Teach Kids About Money
译者阿森納王子

Introducing Kids to Money

          让孩子认识金钱

Money gives people -- both young and old -- decision-making opportunities. Educating, motivating, and empowering children to become regular savers and investors will enable them to keep more of the money they earn and do more with the money they spend. Everyday spending decisions can have a far more negative impact on children's financial futures than any investment decisions they may ever make. Here are 15 simple ways to help educate children about personal finance and managing money:

          钱给了人们---不论老少---以做决定的机会。教育、激发和授权孩子成为日常节省家和投资家会让他们攒下更多钱、花同样的钱得到更多。日常花销的决定会比任何其他其他的投资决定对孩子更有负面影响。以下是十五种帮助您教育孩子关于个人资金和如何理财的简单方法:

 

As soon as children can count, introduce them to money. Take an active role in providing them with information. Observation and repetition are two important ways children learn.

          1. 孩子一能数数,就告诉他们钱是啥。积极地告诉他们关于钱的信息。观察和重复是孩子学习的两个最重要的方式。

Communicate with children as they grow about your values concerning money --- how to save it, how to make it grow, and most importantly, how to spend it wisely.

          2. 在孩子们成长过程中和他们交流关于你的金钱观---如何省钱,如何挣钱,最重要的是如何明智的花钱。

Help children learn the differences between needs, wants, and wishes. This will prepare them for making good spending decisions in the future.

          3. 帮助孩子认识到需要、想要和愿望之间的区别。这会为他们在未来做好的花销决定做准备。

Setting goals is fundamental to learning the value of money and saving. Young or old, people rarely reach goals they haven't set. Nearly every toy or other item children ask their parents to buy them can become the object of a goal-setting session. Such goal-setting helps children learn to become responsible for themselves.

          4. 设定目标是学习金钱价值和攒钱的基本。不论老少,人很少达到他们不曾定下的目标。几乎每一个玩具或别的东西都可以成为一个设定目标的训练课。这样的训练会让孩子们学会对自己负责。

 

Introduce children to the value of saving versus spending. Explain and demonstrate the concept of earning interest income on savings. Consider paying interest on money children save at home; children can help calculate the interest and see how fast money accumulates through the power of compound interest. Later on, they also will realize that the quickest way to a good credit rating is a history of regular, successful savings. Some parents even offer to match what children save on their own.

            5. 告诉孩子省钱和花钱的价值。阐释从储蓄中获得收益利息的概念。考虑给孩子们在家的储蓄支付利息;孩子可以帮着计算利息也看看钱是怎么通过复利快速积攒起来的。以后,他们会认识到最快获得好的信誉级别的方式是通过日常的一系列成功储蓄。有些家长甚至自己把孩子的储蓄和信誉级别匹配起来。

Allowance and Spending Decisions

            零钱和花钱

When giving children an allowance, give them the money in denominations that encourage saving. If the amount is $5, give them 5-1-dollar bills and encourage that at least one dollar be set aside in savings. (Saving $5 a week at 6 percent interest compounded quarterly will total about $266 after a year, $1,503 after 5 years, and $3,527 after 10 years!)

             6. 在给孩子们零花钱的时候,以一种可以鼓励攒钱的方式给予。如果给5美元,给他们五个一元的纸币并要求至少有一元钱要存起来。(每星期按6%的复利存5美元,在一年之后就有$266,五年后$1,503 ,10年后$3,527 !)

Take children to a credit union or bank to open their own savings accounts. Beginning the regular savings habit early is one of the keys to savings success. Remember, don't refuse them when they want to withdraw a portion of their savings for a purchase--This may discourage them from saving at all. You can also introduce children to U.S. savings bonds. Bonds are still a good value, costing one-half their face value and earning interest that in some instances will be tax-free if used for a college education. Perhaps more importantly, when given as a gift, bonds will not be spent immediately, reinforcing saving and goal-setting lessons.

            7. 带孩子去信用社或者银行,开通属于他们自己的储蓄账户。早点开始日常储蓄是成功攒钱的关键之一。记住,当他们要取钱买某样东西的时候,不要拒绝他们---这可能会让他们干脆放弃存钱。你也可以告诉孩子美国的储蓄国债。国债的价值还是不错的,只需花费其面值的一半,如果被用于大学教育那么在某些情况下所得的利息会免税。也许更重要的是,当作为礼物给孩子的时候,国债不会立即被花掉,加深了攒钱和定目标的概念。

Keeping good records of money saved, invested, or spent is another important skill young people must learn. To make it easy, use 12 envelopes, 1 for each month, with a larger envelope to hold all the envelopes for the year. Establish this system for each child. Encourage children to place receipts from all purchases in the envelopes and keep notes on what they do with their money.

             8. 好好记录攒的钱,投资的钱和花的钱,这是另一个年轻人应该掌握的重要技巧。简单的方法是:准备12个信封,每个信封装每个月的钱,用一个大一些的信封装当年的所有信封。为每个孩子都建立一个这种系统。鼓励孩子们把所有购物小票放进信封中并记录下他们用那些钱做了什么。

Use regular shopping trips as opportunities to teach children the value of money. Going to the grocery store is often a child's first spending experience. About a third of our take-home pay is spent on grocery and household items. Spending smarter at the grocery store (using coupons, shopping sales, comparing unit prices) can save more than $1,800 a year for a family of four. To help young people understand this lesson, demonstrate how to plan economical meals, avoid waste, and use leftovers efficiently. When you take children to other kinds of stores, explain how to plan purchases in advance and make unit-price comparisons. Show them how to check for value, quality, repairability, warranty, and other consumer concerns. Spending money can be fun and very productive when spending is well-planned. Unplanned spending, as a rule, usually results in 20-30 percent of our money being wasted because we obtain poor value with our purchases.

          9. 把日常的购物经历当做告诉孩子钱的价值的机会。去杂货店是一个孩子第一次的花钱经历。大约有三分之一的税后工资是用来买杂货和家庭用品的。在杂货店更聪明地花销(用优惠劵、商场特价、比较商品价格),一个家庭一年就可以剩下1800美元。想让孩子懂得这些,就要告诉他们如何计划经济餐,避免浪费,有效地利用剩下了的食物。当你带孩子去其他类型的商店时,解释如何事先计划所买的东西和如何做单价比较。展示给他们如何检查价格、数量、可修度、保修期和其他顾客要考虑的事情。好的计划可以让花钱变得有趣且有效率。没有计划的花钱经常会导致20%~30%的钱被浪费,因为我们没有从所买的东西获得最大价值。

Allow young people to make spending decisions. Whether good or poor, they will learn from their spending choices. You can then initiate an open discussion of spending pros and cons before more spending takes place. Encourage them to use common sense when buying. This means doing research before making major purchases, waiting for the right time to buy, and using the "spending-by-choice" technique. This technique involves selecting at least three other things the money could be spent on setting aside money for one of the items, and then making a choice of which item to purchase.

          10. 允许年轻人对花钱做自己的选择。不论好坏,他们都会从中学习。你可以在钱被花出去之前开启一个关于这次开销利与弊的讨论。鼓励他们在消费时利用常识。也就是在买大件物品前要做调查,等待合适的购买时间以及对“先做选择后花钱”的技巧的运用。这个技巧包括选择被攒起来买一样东西的这笔钱可以购买的至少三件其他东西,然后在这些物品中作出购买的选择。

Buying Smart

          聪明地花钱

Show children how to evaluate TV, radio, and print ads for products. Will a product really perform and do what the commercials say? Is a price offered truly a sale price? Are alternative products available that will do a better job, perhaps for less cost, or offer better value? Remind them that if something sounds too good to be true, it usually is.

          11. 将如何估价电视、广播和打印的商品广告展示给孩子们。一个商品真的会有广告中介绍的那些功能吗?打特价时的价格是真实的吗?有类似的产品可以做的更好吗,也许花费更少,或者有更大的价值?提醒他们如果有些东西听起来好的不真实,那么事实大抵如此。

Alert children to the dangers of borrowing and paying interest. If you charge interest on small loans you make to them, they will learn quickly how expensive it is to rent someone else's money for a specified period of time. For instance, paying for a $499 TV over 18 months at $31.85 a month at 18.8 percent interest means the buyer really pays about $575.

           12. 让孩子们警惕借钱和还利息的危险。如果你改变你借给他们的一小笔钱的利息,他们会很快地知道为了某一特殊时段而借别人的钱是多么的贵。比方说,为买一台$499的电视,以18.8%的利率在十八个月之中每个月偿还 $31.85,那么实际上买家花费了$575。

 

When using a credit card at a restaurant, take the opportunity to teach children about how credit cards work. Explain to children how to verify the charges, how to calculate the tip, and how to guard against credit card fraud.

          13. 在餐厅使用信用卡的时候,抓住机会教孩子信用卡是咋回事。解释如何核实付款,如何计算小费,如何防备信用卡骗子。

Be cautious about making credit cards available to young people, even when they are entering college. Credit cards have a message: "spend!" Some students report using the cards for cash advances and also to meet everyday needs, instead of for emergencies (as originally planned). Many of those same students find themselves having to cut back on classes to fit in part-time jobs just to pay for their credit card purchases.

          14. 让孩子们用信用卡的时候要警惕,甚至他们进了大学以后也是一样。信用卡代表这一个信息:“花钱!”一些学生反映把信用卡当做现金垫款以及满足日常需要来使用,而不是应急(原本的初衷)。很多这些学生需要翘课去做业余工作来还上买东西花掉的信用卡里的钱。

Establish a regular schedule for family discussions about finances. This is especially helpful to younger children--it can be the time when they tote up their savings and receive interest. Other discussion topics should include the difference between cash, checks, and credit cards; wise spending habits; how to avoid the use of credit; and the advantages of saving and investment growth. With teenagers, it's also useful to discuss what's happening with the national and local economies, how to economize at home, and alternatives to spending money. All of this information will be important as they take on more responsibility for their own financial well-being.

          15. 建立一个定期的关于财政的家庭讨论。这个对小孩子尤其重要---孩子们可以在这个时候结算他们的储蓄并得到利息。其他讨论的话题应该包括现金、支票、信用卡的区别;聪明地消费习惯;如何避免对信用卡的使用;以及存钱和投资增长的好处。和孩子们讨论国际和当地经济的新闻、如何在家实现经济化、以及其他存钱的方式也都很有帮助。所有这些信息都会对他们为自己管理好财政而负责有重要作用。

 

 

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