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高三最后冲刺:语法知识必考点10

2014-05-15  许愿真
   

l          代词必考点

代词分为九类:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、相互代词、指示代词\疑问代词、连接代词、不定代词、关系代词。大多数代词具有名词和形容词的作用。

1、人称代词

(1)人称代词作主语用主格,作宾语、表语用宾格,但应注意以下4中情况:

①作主语的人称代词如果孤立地使用于无谓语动词的句子中,或在这种句子中与动词不定式连用,常用宾格。

—Does any of you know where Tom lives?

—Me.

What! Me (to)play him at chess? No!

②句子中代词作宾语或宾语补足语时,与所替代的名词在人称、数、格在意义上一般要保持前后一致。

The thief was thought to be he.(the thief是主格,故用he代替)

They took me to be her.他们误以为我是她。(me是宾格,故用her

替代)

③作表语人称代词一般用宾格,但在强调句型中,被强调部分代词的格不变。

I met her in the hospital.→It was her who I met in the hospital.

④在比较级的句子中than、as后用主格、宾格都可以。如:He is taller than me(I).但在下列句中有区别。

I like Jack as much as her.=I like both Jack and her.

I like Jack as much as she.=I like Jack and she likes him, too.

(2)两个以上的人称代词并列,其次序排列原则:

①在并列主语中,“I”总是放在最后,排列顺序为:二 三 一(人称)。宾格me也一样。

You ,she and I will be in charge of the case.

Mr.Zhang asked Li Hua and me to help him.

②第三人称,男女两性并用,男先女后。

He and she still don’t agree to the plan.

(3)几个人称代词的特殊用法。

①we/you(口语)常用来泛指一般人。

②she可以代表国家、船只、大地、月亮等。

The “Titanic”was the largest, wasn’t she?

2.物主代词

(1)名词和形容词性物主代词各自的语法功能。

(2)one’s own…=...of one’s own句式的转换。

(3)某些固定结构中常用定冠词代替物主代词。

如: take sb. by the arm, be wounded in the leg.

3.反身代词

(1)反身代词的语法功能:宾语、表语、主语或宾语的同位语。

(2)反身代词和某些动词连有,构成固定短语。

enjoy oneself, feel oneself, make oneself at home, make oneself understood

(3)反身代词还可用于某些成语中。

for oneself为自己或独立地,of oneself自然地,自动地

by oneself独自地,in oneself本身性质,beside oneself喜怒哀愁至极

This problem gets a chapter to itself.这个问题占了一章(独有)。

Just between ourselves, I don’t think much of him.私下地说我并不怎么看重他。

They were discussing about it among themselves.(相互共同)

Left to himself he began to write.别人走后只留下他,他写了起来。

I’m very angry with myself.生自己的气。

4.相互代词(each other, one another)

相互代词无人称、数和格的区别,在句中作宾语。其所有格分别为each other’s 、one another’s ,作定语。

一般来说,each other指两者之间,one another指三者或三者以上之间,但现在区分已不明显。

5.指示代词(this, that , these, those, such, same)

指示代词具有形容词和代词两种词性,在句子中可以作定语、主语、宾语或表语等。

(1)指示代词this和that的区别。

①this (these)一般指时间或空间上较近的人或物;that(those)常指时间或空间较远的人或物。

This is my desk and that is yours.

In those days they could not go to school.

②this常指后面要讲到的事物,有启下的作用;that则指前面讲到过的事物,有承上的作用。

I want to tell you this:the English party will be held on Saturday

afternoon.

He hurt his leg yesterday. That’s why he didn’t come.

③为了避免重复,常用that或those代替前面已提过的名词。

The weather of Beijing is colder than that of Nanjing.

The ears of a rabbit are longer than those of a fox.

④this在电话用语中作自我介绍,that询问对方;this和that可以当副词用,意思相当于副词so。

(2)such和same的用法。

①such指“这样的”人或事,在句中作主语和定语。

Such was the story.

We have never seen such a tall building.

②same指“同样的”人或事,在句中作主语、表语、宾语和定语,same的前面要用定冠词the.

The same can be said of the other article.

另一篇文章也是同样的情况。(主语)

Whether he can do it or not,it is all the same to me.

他是否能做这事,对我来说都一样。(表语)

6、疑问代词(who,whom,which,what,whose)

疑问代词在句中作主语、宾语、定语和表语。

(1)who/what

①询问姓名或关系。——Who is he? ——He is my brother./He is

Henry.询问职业或地位。——What is he? ——He is a lawyer/teacher.

②What/who 作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于说话人的视点,可单数也可复数。

What is /are on the table?

Who is/are in the library?

(2)which与who、what

which表示在一定范围内,而who、what则无此限制。

I found two books on the desk.Which is yours?

7.连接代词和关系代词

连接代词与疑问代词的形式相同,主要有who、whom、whose、what、which以及它们与ever合成的代词whoever、whomever、whatever、whichever等。它们用来引导主语从句,宾语从句和表语从句,即连接复合句中的主句和从句,并在从句中担任一定的句子成分,以连接代词引起的名词性从句前不能再加that.

关系代词是用来引导定语从句的代词,它们包括who、whom、whose、which、that等。这两类代词的用法详见“名词性从句”和“定语从句”部分。

8、不定代词

不定代词主要有:all、each、every、both、either、neither、one、none、little、few、many、much、other、another、some、any、no等。还有由some、any、no和every构成合成代词,不定代词具有名词和形容词的性质,并有可数和不可数之分,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、同位语、定语、状语等(every、no只能作定语)。下面介绍几组主要不定代词的用法与区别。

(1)some与any

一般用法:some、any可与单、复数可数名词及不可数名词连有。some一般用于肯定句,any多用于疑问、否定或条件句。

He has some Chinese paintings.(定语)

Some like sports,others like music.(主语)

Ask me if you have any questions.(定语)

Do you have any questions to ask?(定语)

I don’t know any of the students.(宾语)

特殊用法:

①any用于肯定句表示“任何”的意思。

Any child can do that.(定语)

You may take any of them.(宾语)

②some用于单数可数名词前表示“某一”。

Smith went to some place in England.(定语)

③在期待对方回答yes 时,some用在表示请求或邀请的问句中。

Would you like some bananas?(邀请)

Mum,could you give me some money?(请求)

④some 用于否定句表示部分否定。

I don’t know some of the students.(宾语)

some和any在句中还可作状语,作副词。some意为“大约”相当于“about”,而any则表示程度,意为“稍,丝毫”。如:

There are some 300 workers on strike.

Do you feel any better today?

(2)one,both,all

①one作定语、表语、主语或宾语,可以指人或物,表示“一个”的意思,其复数为ones,指人时,其所有格是one’s,反身代词是oneself.

One should try one’s best to serve the people.(主语、定语)

This is not the one I want.(表语)

one、ones可以代替上文提到过的名词,以免重复,one、ones前面分别可以用this、that、these、those或the、which等词修饰。如:

These books are more interesting than those ones.

Here are three pens.Which one is yours,this one or that one or the one in the pencil-box?

②both用作定语、宾语、主语和同位语,可以指人或指物,表示“两者都”的意思。

This maths problem can be worked out in both ways.(定语)

Both of the boys are here.(主语)

We both are students.(同位语)

注意:both用于否定句,表示部分否定;表示完全否定时,用neither。如:Both of us are not teachers.我们俩并不都是教师。

Neither of us is a teacher. 我们俩都不是教师。

both不能放在the、these、those、my等之后,而应放在它们的前面。如:Both my parents like this film.

Both the /these boys are tall.

③all用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语,指“全部的”、“整个的”,可与可数或不可数名词连用,除少数情况外,一般不与单数可数名词连用,与复数名词连用时,表示“所有的”、“全部的”,指三个或三个以上的人或物。

He gave me all the money.他把全部的钱给了我。

All the schools are flooded.所有的学校都被淹了。

I told him all about it. 我把一切都告诉了他。

That’s all for today.今天就在这儿。

They have all been to Xi’an.他们都去过西安。

注意:all 用于否定句,表示部分否定,完全否定用none。如:

Not all the ants go out for food.(or:All the ants don’t go out for food.)并不是所有的蚂蚁都出去寻找食物。

None of the money is mine.这钱一分也不是我的。

(3)many和much

many和much都表示“许多”,但many修饰或代替复数可数名词,much修饰或代替不可数名词。它们在句中可作主语、宾语、定语。much有时用作状语。

(4)few, little; a few, a little

few和little表示没有多少,含否定意义;而a few 和a little表示有一些,有几个,含肯定意义。另外,few、a few 修饰可数名词;little、a little修饰不可数名词。它们在句中常用作定语、主语和宾语。

(5)no和none

no=not any,表示“没有”,用来修饰可数名词或不可数名词,通常作定语,none代替不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词作主语时,谓语动词可用单数也可用复数形式。none还可以在句中作宾语。

注意:none既可以指人又可以指物,no one只能指人。

(6)each和every

each(各个),指两个或两个以上的人或物,侧重个体,在句中作主语、宾语、定语和同位语。every(每个),指三个或三个以上的人或物,侧重整体,在句中只能作定语。

Every student it our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调班上“所有的人”)

Each student in our class has a dictionary.(定语,强调各个个体)

Each of them has been there.(主语)

The teacher gave each of the students a new textbook.(宾语)

We each got a ticket.(同位语)

(7)either和neither

either是“两者中任何一个”的意思,可修饰或代替单数可数名词,neither是“两者中没有一个”的意思,可以修饰或代替单数可数名词,它们可在句在作主语、宾语或定语。如:

Here are two pens. You may take either of them.(宾语)

Neither boy knows French.(定语)

注意:①either也作副词,其意为“也”,用于否定句的句末。He doesn’like tea, and I don’t either.(状语)②either与or构成连词,意为“不是……就是……”或“要么……要么……”。He is either Japanese or Chinese. ③neither用作副词,意为“也不”,即“not…either”。He can’t do it, neither can I. ④neither可与nor构成连词,意为“既不……也不”。Neither he nor you are a student.

(8)other和another, the others 和others

the other表示“两者中的另一个”;“the other + 复数可数名词”

表示“其余(他)的……”;the others表示“其他的人或物”。“others及other + 复数名词”泛指“其他的(别的)人或物”。这些词语在句中可作主语、宾语和定语。如:

He got two books; one is  textbook, the other is a novel.

Five of the pencils are red, the others(the other pens)are yellow.

Some are singing, others are dancing.

another修饰或代替单数可数名词,意为“(三个或三个以上的)另一个”,不能指两者中的另一个,在句中可作宾语和定语。

This coat is too dark. Please show me another.(宾语)

Please give me another book.(定语)

注意:another修饰复数名词时,意为“再,又”。如:Please give me another ten minutes. one … another(a second)… a third…the other…意为“一个……一个……一个……一个”用于三者或三者以上的排列。some…others…others…,意为“一些……一些……一些”。

【2010考题回顾】

1. (10福建22) When you introduce me to Mr. Johnson, could you please say       for me?

A. everything             B. anything                   C. something              D. nothing

答案:C

考点:考查不定代词的辨析

解析:句子的意思是当你向Mr. John介绍我的时候,你可以为我说一些好话吗? A.

everything 所有的;B. anything 任何事;D nothing 什么也没有 C. something表示一些,

某些

2.(10上海27) If our parents do everything for us children, we won't learn to depend on        

A. themselves      B. them             C. us               D. ourselves

答案:D

考点:本题考查反身代词

解析:主语为we,因此应为ourselves. depend on oneself:自力更生。根据句意,选D。

3.(10安徽21)You are a team star! Working with_______ is really your cup of tea.

A. both            B. either              C. others             D. the other

答案:C.

考点:本题考查不定代词的用法。

解析:句意为“你是球队明星!与他人合作必须是你喜欢做的事。”习语“one’s cup of tea”

意为“the type of thing or person that you like”。

4. (10山东32)

 Helping others is a habit, _______ you can learn even at an early age.

   A. it          B. that         C. what        D. one

答案:D

考点:本题考查代词的用法。

解析:句意应为“帮助别人是一种习惯,一个你在很小时就能学会的习惯。”空格处与前

句中的habit构成同位关系,所以选择D项。句中you can learn even at an early age是省略

了关系代词that 的定语从句,that在定语从句中作learn的宾语使用。

5. (10天津6)

     in my life impressed me so deeply as my first visit to the Palace Museum.

A. Anything        B. Nothing       C. Everything     D. Something

答案:B.

考点:考查复合不定代词的用法。

句意:我一生中什么都没有我第一次参观故宫给我的印象更深刻。

解析:nothing用于句中表示否定意义,而其他三个词则表示肯定意义。

6. (陕西12) The cost of renting a house in central Xi’an is higher than ____ in any other area of the city.

A. that    B. this    C. it     D. one        

答案:A.

考点:考查代词。

解析:所填词用于比较状语从句中,指代句子的主语cost,即指代不可数名词,用that。

This指代下文即将提到的事物;it指代“同一物”;one指代“同类中的一个”之意。

7.(10四川7)

  On my desk is a photo that my father took of          when I was a baby.    

A. him          B. his              C. me             D. mine

答案:C

考点:考查代词。

解析: take a photo of sb意为给某人照相,此处应用人称代词的宾格。正确答案为C。

8. (10全国Ⅱ12) Neither side is prepared to talk to _________unless we can smooth things over between them.

A. others    B. the other  C. another  D. one other

答案:B

考点:不定代词考查。

解析: Neither含有“两者都不”之意,一方对应另一方,故用the other指“两者中的另

一个”。

9. (10重庆23)

 He had lost his temper and his health in the war and never found         of them again.

A. neither                   B. either                       C. each                         D. all

答案     B

考点:考查代词。

解析:由“his temper and health”可以排除C项和D项,由后面的never表否定,选either,

never either是全部否定,相当于neither 。

10. (10重庆25)

 To improve the quality of our products, we asked for suggestions       had used the

products.

A. whatever             B. who                          C. whichever                  D. which

答案A

考点:考查关系代词。

解析:这儿_______ used the products。是个宾语从句,从句中缺少主语,并且指人,所

以用whoever.

11(10江西34) Nowadays some hospitals refer to patients ______ name, not case number.

A of            B as        C by                     D with

答案:C.

考点:考察介词

解析:方式方法可以用by也可以用with, by+ n(方式), with+修饰词+ n(工具).

12(10浙江14)

      that’s important is that you are doing your best and moving in the right direction.

A.One                         B.All                           C.Everything         D.Anything

答案:B

考点:本题考查不定代词。

解析:分析四个选项的意思,根据语境:重要的是你正在努力并且朝着正确的方向前行。

从而判断此处选择all意思最合适。

【2011最新模拟演练·代词考点】

1.【2011·浙江杭州学军中学第二次月考】13. I prefer a flat in the suburb to        in downtown , because I want to live near my Mom’s .
    A.one            B.that            C.it                D.this

A考查代词的用法。此处one替代a flat。

2.【2011·浙江杭州学军中学第二次月考】3. If you can make what the teachers teach ________, you’ll make rapid progress.

A. yours           B. yourself         C. you       D. your

A考查代词的用法。此处为名词性物主代词作宾补。句意:如果你把老师教的变成你的东西,你会取得很大的进步。

3.【2011·江苏盐城摸底】26.It is meeting       side effect the new medicine will bring about, although the experts have tried it on about 2,000 patients.

         A.that                             B.what                           C.whether                    D.which

B考查what作定语。此处what side effect 意为:什么副作用。

4.【2011·高考备考模拟四】23.—What do you think of the performance today?

—Great! ______ but a musical genius could perform so successfully.

A.All                                   B.None

C.Anybody                        D.Everybody

B考查不定代词。none but “只有”,符合句意。

5.【2011·高考备考模拟八】27.When ______ comes to repairing a machine, I have little knowledge of it.

A.that  B.it

C.one  D.this

B考查习惯用法。固定句型 when it comes to sth./doing sth. 表示“当……的时候”或“到了……的场合”。

6.【2011·高考备考模拟八】22.Although he likes playing tennis, he is ______ but a good tennis player.

A.anything  B.something

C.nothing  D.everything

A考查不定代词的用法。anything but 绝不是;nothing but 正是,只是。根据句意:虽然他喜欢打羽毛球,但他绝不是一名好的羽毛球运动员。

7.【2011·黄冈中学单元训练】34.—        do you like the film?

一It’s quite different from       I saw last Sunday.

A.How;that      B.What;that     C.What;the one   D.How;the one

D考查代词及语境。语境:----你认为那部电影怎么样?----和我上周日看得那部很不一样。The one特指“那部电影”;how do you like。。。你认为。。。怎么样?

8.【2011·高考备考模拟】5.The man had expected to see all his relatives when in hospital,but______,came to see him while many of his friends offered him their help.

        A.anyone                        B.no one                       C.someone                  D.none

D考查代词的用法。此处none一般用来回答有范围的句子,此处是none of his relatives的省略形式。none可回答how many、how much提问的问句表示”一个也没有”;而no one表示”什么人也没有”,可回答who提问的问句。亲戚当中堤有一个来看他的。 

9.【2011·高考备考模拟】2.I stayed there for only two days but ______ felt like two weeks.

A.it                                  B.what                              C.when                      D.then

A考查代词it的用法。在这儿it替代前面提到的only two days.

10.【2011·江苏无锡高三上期中】   I have bought a good book, ______ that will surely interest ______ of the students.

A. one; everyone  B. the one; everyone  C. one; every one   D. the one; every one

C考查代词的用法。第一空one和a good book之间是同位语关系;第二空意为:使每个学生都感兴趣,每个人every one应分写。

11.【2011·江西师大附中高三上期中】    Will you see to _____ that my children are taken good care of while I am away?

A. it      B. me                     C. yourself      D. them

A考查代词的用法。此处it为形式宾语,后为that引导的宾语从句。

12.【2011·江西师大附中高三上期中】Everyone knows that Canada is the second largest country in the world, larger than _____ country in Asia.

A. any           B. any other              C. other              D. another

A考查代词的用法。此处因加拿大不在亚洲范围内,故用any。

13.【2011·江西南昌三中高三第三次月考】     -Which of the two computer games did you prefer?

-Actually I didn’t like____.

A. both of them     B. either of them   C. none of them   D. neither of them  

B考查代词的用法。句意:事实上,我哪个也不喜欢。

14.【2011·山东烟台高三上模块检测】             — Which share is meant for me?

— You can take          half.They are exactly the same.

A.this        B.any       C.each     D.either

D考查代词的用法。语境:---那一部分股份是我的?---你可以拿任何一半。他们是绝对相同的。此处either是两者中的任何一部分。

15.【2011·山东烟台高三上模块检测】                                people study Latin today than 50 years ago, and still          

people study Greek.

A.A fewer;a fewer    B.Fewer;a fewer  C.Fewer;fewer      D.A fewer;fewer

B考查代词的用法。此处fewer是没多少人;a fewer仍有一点。

 

 

 

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