包劲 / 文件夹1 / 阅读理解词义猜测题满分攻略

分享

   

阅读理解词义猜测题满分攻略

2016-05-15  包劲

猜测词义是应用英语的重要能力,这种题型也是高考中的必考题型。因此,掌握一定的猜词技巧,对突破高考阅读理解、提高我们的英语语言能力有非常重要的意义。


1

考查“不明身份”的代词指代

代词指代题要求考生依据语境的逻辑关系,判断画线的人称代词或指示代词在文章中指代的对象,包括考查it(指动物、无生命的事物、特定的事件或人)they/them(指代人、物、事件的复数名词)he/she等人称代词的指代意义,以及指示代词thisthatthesethose等在文章中的指代意义,以考查考生对文章中叙述的特定的人、物、事件的再认能力。

解答代词指代题时,我们要认真阅读画线词所在句和前后邻近句的内容,分析人称转换和动作变换的详细过程,理清其来龙去脉和前后的因果关系,从而准确推断其指代的对象。

In an effort to prevent language loss, scholars from a number of organizations — UNESCO and National Geographic among them — have for many years been documenting dying languages and the cultures they reflect.

Mark Turin, a scientist at the Macmillan Center, Yale University, who specializes in the languages and oral traditions of the Himalayas, is following in that__tradition. His recently published book, A Grammar of Thangmi with an Ethnolinguistic Introduction to the Speakers and Their Culture, grows out of his experience living, working, and raising a family in a village in Nepal.

33What does that tradition in Paragraph 3 refer to?

A. Having full records of the languages.

B. Writing books on language teaching.

C. Telling stories about language users.

D. Living with the native speakers.

【分析】 A 根据画线词上一段的内容可知,有很多学者一直致力于对快要绝迹的语言和文化的记录工作。再结合画线词所在句可知,耶鲁大学的Mark Turin也在做这件事,即记录语言,防止语言的消失。


2

考查熟词生义的单词词义

英语单词的含义丰富、搭配灵活,一些熟词在不同的语境或不同的搭配中有不同的含义,而这些含义与其本义有时没有密切的联系,这就需要我们结合语境来推断其含义;有时这些单词的新义既体现了其基本含义,又有迁移与拓展。在解答此类词义猜测题时就要求我们将单词的本义和语境有机地结合起来,综合考虑,然后准确推断其在特定语境中的含义。

My husband rushed to their home to find a kind family holding all his papers and documents. Their young daughter had gone to the trash can and found a pile of unfamiliar papers...At last they had seen a halfwritten letter in the pile in which my husband had given his new telephone number to a friend.

That family not only restored the important documents to us that day but also restored our faith and trust in people. We still remember their kindness and often send a warm wish their way.

23What does the underlined word restored in the last paragraph mean?

A. Showed.    B. Sent out.    

C. Delivered.  D. Gave back.

【分析】 D restore的含义是恢复,使复原,修复,但在本文的语境中,根据上文中的found、画线词后面的内容及故事情节的发展可知,此处指作者的丈夫找回了丢失的重要文件,因此give back归还,还给,符合语境。


3

考查深奥难懂的单词词义

这种类型是最常见的词义猜测题的命题方式,考查考生猜测文章中某个生词或短语的含义,或考查该词能被哪个单词或短语代替。此时我们可以借助下面这些方法来答题:

1.“拆猜并用解决问题

阅读中常常会遇到一些由熟悉的单词派生或合成的新词。此时可以用拆猜的方式,先把该词的各种词缀或前后两个合成部分拆开,再结合我们掌握的构词法知识,根据中心词的含义和词缀的含义猜测其意思。

Passenger pigeons (旅鸽) once flew over much of the United States in unbelievable numbers...described flocks () so large that they darkened the sky for hours.

It was calculated that when its population reached its highest point, there were more than 3 billion passenger pigeons...making it perhaps the most abundant bird in the world... was seen near Cincinnati.

Sadly, the abundance of passenger pigeons may have been their undoing. Where the birds were most abundant, people believed there was an ever lasting supply and killed them by the thousands.

25The underlined word undoing probably refers to the pigeons'______

A. escape B. ruin C. liberation D. evolution

【分析】 B 画线词undoing可分解为否定前缀un-和doing。画线词前面叙述了旅鸽数量很多,画线词后提到大量的旅鸽被杀害,结合否定前缀un-和选项看,该词的含义与ruin毁灭相近。

2.利用同义词、近义词猜

在单词所出现的上下文中,有时会出现与之同义或近义的词语或结构,这时考生可从熟悉的词语中推测其含义。

3.利用反义词猜词

对比是描述、说明事物的常用方式。在对比中,对比的事物有可能是相反的,因此可以根据反义关系推测其含义。

4.利用上下文语境猜词

考生可以利用上下文提供的情景和线索,进行合乎逻辑的综合分析进而推测词义。

5.利用定义或解释猜词

释义是对单词以定语(从句)、表语甚至用逗号、破折号等标点符号引出并加以解释说明的方式。有些文章,特别是科研报告类的文章,通常会给一些关键词下定义,考生可以利用定义来猜测这些词的意思。

6利用例证猜词

为了进行说明或证实,文章中经常会举例,用来列举说明前面较难理解的词,这些例子可帮助考生猜测单词词义。举例时,常常会用一些表列举的词,如:such as, like, for example, for instance等。

7.利用复述或同等关系猜词

为了强调某个观点或把某事叙述得更明白,作者有时会运用不同语句来复述同一概念,这时考生可以利用这些重复叙述的语句和表达形式的变化来猜测词义。虽然复述不如定义那样严谨、详细,但是提供的信息足以使考生猜出单词词义。只要我们找出其中一个或几个词或短语,便可确定同等关系中单词的词性、作用和大概的意思。

8利用词义搭配、关联猜词

任何一个单词在句子中总是与其他词相关联的,考生可以通过这些前后的关联来猜测单词的词义。

9.利用语义转折猜词

有时作者为了增强表达效果,在文章中会用一些表示转折意思的连词、副词或短语,如:though, although, but, yet, instead, however, while, rather than等,考生可以根据转折的语境猜测词义。


4

考查句意理解

版权声明

    本站是提供个人知识管理的网络存储空间,所有内容均由用户发布,不代表本站观点。请注意甄别内容中的联系方式、诱导购买等信息,谨防诈骗。如发现有害或侵权内容,请点击一键举报。

    0条评论

    发表

    请遵守用户 评论公约

    类似文章 更多
    喜欢该文的人也喜欢 更多

    ×
    ×

    ¥.00

    微信或支付宝扫码支付:

    开通即同意《个图VIP服务协议》

    全部>>