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2017中考英语考前突破(7)非谓语动词用法

2016-12-25  郑公书馆2...

2017中考英语考前突破(7)非谓语动词用法-可打印

前言

申申老师中考英语语法突破系列共8课时更新-都是我平时的授课资料

每个语法讲解都是直接引入考点和相关真题并辅以超详细的讲解。不可错过的学习资料。

希望同学们能好好利用这些学习资料

第七章申申老师中考英语语法考前突破非谓语动词考点

【非谓语动词命题趋势 】

根据对非谓语动词部分全国各省、市中考试题的分析可知,今后该部分仍将是重点考查点之一。其考查重点为:

1.it作形式主语、宾语的用法

2.感官动词后不定式作宾语补足语和动词ing形式作宾语补足语的用法;

3.动词不定式与疑问代词和疑问副词的连用

4.一些特殊动词的动词不定式作宾语补足语时不带to,但变为被动语态时就要带to;

5.有些动词既可接不定式也可接动词ing形式作宾语,但表达的意思不同。

【考点诠释】

一、考查非谓语动词用作主语

不定式或动名词用作主语,而分词不能担任句子中的主语。

【考例】It's very nicepictures for me. [天津]

A. of you to draw B. for you to draw C. for you drawing D. of you drawing

[答案]:A。[解析]考查It's+形容词+of/for sb. +to do sth.句中it为形式主语,to do是真正的主语,当形容词是表示品质意思时,应该用of sb.,其他形容词用for sb.,故此题答案为A。

二、考查非谓语动词用作宾语

【考例】一It's a bit cold Would you mind my ______all the windows?

一Do as you like,please.[07淄博市]

A.close B will close C.closing D.to close

[答案]C [解析]动词mind意为“介意”,后跟动词时,应使用ing形式。

Mary and I enjoy ____________ badminton[07黔岭东南州]

A.to play B playing C.played

[答案]B[解析] enjoy后跟动词的ing形式作宾语,即:enjoy doing something,意为“喜欢(做)某事”。

--So hot in the classroom.Would you mind ___the windows?

——0K.I'll do it right now.[黄冈市]

A. not closing B not opening C closing D.opening

[答案]D[解析] mind是中考的重点考查词汇,其后跟v—ing表示“介意……”。

---Mr. Wang,I have trouble _______the text.

一Remember ____it three times at least.[威海市]

A.to understand;reading B understanding;reading

C understanding;to read D.to understand;to read at night.

[答案]C [解析]have trouble doing something意为“做某事有困难”,所以答案在B与C中。remember to do something意为“记得(去)做某事”,remember doing something意为“记得做过某事”,由对话的语境可知,前者正确。

--How are you feeling here?

--It's quite hot. I don't knowto go or stay. [武汉]

A. how B. when C. whether D. where

[答案]:C。[解析]考查“疑问词+动词不定式”的用法。根据句意“我不知道是走还是留下来。”故选C。

Many people think it's very importantuslearn English well. [贵阳]

A. for, to B. to, to C. with, for

[答案]:A。[解析]考查“主语+feel/think/ make/ find +it +adj. +for sb. +to do sth.句中it为形式宾语,to do是真正的宾语,”故此题答案为A。

The menu has so many good things! I can’t decide__________.[河北]

A. what to eat B. how to eat C. where to eat D. when to eat

[答案]:A 。[解析] 考查“疑问词+动词不定式”的用法。根据句意“我不能决定吃什么。”故选A。

12.---My dad bought me a new MP4, but I don’t know ______________.

---Let’s read the instructions.[河南课改试验区]

A. what to use B. which one to use C. how to use it D. when to use it

[答案]:C。 [解析] 考查“疑问词+动词不定式”的用法。根据句意“我不知道如何使用。”故选C。

13.It took my daughter two weeks ________the novels _______by Yand Hongying.[潍坊]

A. read; written B. to read; written C. reading; to write D. to read; wrote

[答案]:B。[解析] It takes +sb.+some time +to do sth.表示花费多长时间做某事,novel与write的关系是动宾关系,应用过去分词,表示被动。故答案为B。

Drivers are warned ________when they are tired.[佛山]

A. to drive B. not drive C. not to drive

[答案]:C。[解析]考查动词不定式的否定结构。否定形式是在to前面加not。故选C。

If you want to know _______the mobile phone, you’d better read the instructions first.[大连]

A. how to use B. how to make C. where to mend D. where to buy

[答案]:A。[解析] 考查“疑问词+动词不定式”的用法。根据句意“如果你想要知道如何使用手机的话,你最好先看一看说明书。”故选A。

China will spend about 52 billion yuan ____new airports and __old ones in the west of China in the 11th Five-Year Plan period(时期).[07临沂市]

A.repairing; building B to build;repair C.building;repairing D.to repair;build

[答案]C[解析]本题主要是考查动词spend的用法。spend...doing something意为“花费……做某事”,由此可排除B、D两项。再从句意上看,应是“修建”新机场,“维修”旧机场。

3. students should pay attention to ___________the teacher in class.[07泰州市]

A.hear B1istento C listening to D hearing of

[答案]C[解析]本题考查了介词后跟动词的情况。 pay attention to意为“注意”,其中to是介词,所以后面的动词应使用动名词形式。hear of意为“听说”,与句意不符。

三、考查非谓语动词用作宾语补足语

原则上,所有的非谓语动词形式均可用作宾语补足语,其区别是:不定式表未来,现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成和被动。

【考例】Alice asked me another bag for her. [北京市课标卷]

A. get B. got C. to get D. getting

[答案]:C。[解析] ask sb.to do sth.表示让某人做某事,此句话的意思为:“爱丽丝叫我给她再带一个包。”

Our parents often tell us notalone in the river in summer. [长沙]

A. swim B. to swim C. swimming

[答案]:B。[解析]考查动词不定式作宾语补足语的用法。tell sb.to do sth.表示告诉某人做某事,tell后边要加不定式,否定形式是在to前面加not,根据题意,应选B。

---What did your sister say to you last night?

---She asked me _________my father her secret.[绍兴]

A. to tell not B. not to tell C. don’t tell D. not tell

[答案]:B。[解析] tell sb.to do sth.表示告诉某人做某事,tell后边要加不定式,否定形式是在to前面加not,根据题意,应选B。

Betty is often seen _______the old man with his housework.[咸宁]

A. help B. to help C. helped D. helps

[答案]:B。[解析]考查感官动词后接动词不定式的用法。在make, let, have等使役动词和see, watch, notice, hear, listen to,look at,feel等感官动词后的复合宾语中,动词不定式不带to。当使役动词和感官动词变为被动语态时,不定式就成了主语补语,作主语补语的不定式必须加to。故选B。

Time goes by so fast. We must never miss the chance to show love for our parents and make them __________ how much they mean to us. [哈尔滨]

A. to know B. knowing C. know

[答案]:C。[解析]考查动词不定式作宾语补足语的用法。make sb. do sth. 表示“使某人……”,故选C。

---How do you feel when you see the national flag ofChina?

---It makes us ________proud.[包头]

A. feel B. to feel C. felt D. feeling

[答案]:A。[解析] 考查感官动词后接动词不定式的用法。在make, let, have等使役动词和see, watch, notice, hear, listen to,look at,feel等感官动词后的复合宾语中,动词不定式不带to。故选A。

四、考查非谓语动词用作定语

【考例】—Shopping with me?

—Sorry. I have a lot of clothes. (2004江西省南昌)

A.to wash B.washed C.wash D.to be washed

[答案]: A

[命题立意]:本题考查动词不定式作定语的用法。

[试题解析]:作定语用的不定式的逻辑主语是句中主语或宾语时,就用主动式的不定式来表被动意义。故选A。

五、考查非谓语动词用作状语

【考例】--Linda, I am very thirsty.

--Let's go to the nearest supermarketsome drinks, OK? [重庆]

A. buy B. bought C. to buy D. buying

[答案]:C。[解析]考查不定式作目的状语的用法。句意为:“咱们去最近的超级市场买些饮料。”

In order ________the word a friendly place, one must show a friendly face.[乐山]

A. makes B. making C. to make D. make

[答案]:C。[解析]考查动词不定式作目的状语的特殊结构。in order to do sth.表示“为了……”的意思,不定式作目的状语。故选C。

一There goes the bell.

一It's time for class. Let's stop_________.[福州市]

A. talk B to talk C.talking D.not talk

[答案]C[解析] 动词stop后既可接动词不定式作宾语,即:stop to do sth,也可以接动词的一ing形式作定语,即:stop doing sth。前者表示停下来(开始)做后面的动作,后者表示停止当前的动作。由语境“铃响了,到了上课时间,应停止交谈”可知,应选C项。

【语法回顾】

动词不定式

动词不定式由“to+动词原形”构成。其主动式有一般式、进行时、完成式和完成进行式。其被动式、进行式和完成式。如下表:

时态\语态主动被动
一般式to doto be done
完成式to have doneto have been done

动词不定式主动式的句法功能

1、动词不定式作主语

当动词不定式作主语时,其谓语动词常用单数。例如:

To say something is one thing; to do it is another.说是一回事,做是另一回事。

To help animals is helping people.(帮助动物就是帮助人)/

It is very difficult (for us) to learn Chinese well.((对于我们而言)学好汉语是非常的困难)/

It took me half an hour to work out this problem.(解出这道题花了我一个小时的时间)

当动词不定式在句子中作主语时,通常使用it作形式主语而真正主语则是不定式或不定式短语,以使句子保持平衡。例如:

It's so nice to hear your voice. 听到你的声音真高兴。

It is not difficult to work out the problem.弄清这个节目的情况并不困难。

It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们,他真好。

It's for sb.和 It's of sb.

这样的句子中,由于表语形容词性质的不同,导致了不定式逻辑主语标志用for或of的区别。

1)for sb. 句型中的形容词一般为表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等:例如:

It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。

2)of sb句型中的形容词一般为表示性格,品德,心智能力,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。例如:

It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。

2、动词不定式作表语

不定式可放在be动词后面,形成表语。例如:

My work is to clean the room every day. 我的工作是每天清扫房间。

His dream is to be a doctor. 他的梦想是成为一名医生。

3、动词不定式作宾语

1)及物动词ask,agree,beg,care,choose,decide,expect,force,fail,hesitate,claim,hope,learn,long,manage,offer,pretend,plan,prepare,promise,refuse,want,wish等要求动词不定式作宾语。例如:

We want to learn some body language.我们想学习一点身势语。

She has decided to go to Guangzhou tomorrow.她已经决定明天去广州。

No one can afford to buy such an expensive suit.没有人能担负起买如此昂贵的服装。

4、动词不定式作宾语补足语

有的动词后接带to的动词不定式作补语;有的动词后接不带to的动词不定式。

1)能以带to的不定式作宾补的动词有:ask,allow, get,warn,tell,invite,force, oblige, beg, wish,want, like, hate, expect, encourage, advise, persuade,permit, request, order, cause, know, call on等。例如:

Would you like me to help you? 你要我帮忙吗?

Father will not allow us to play on the street.

2)用不带to的不定式作宾补的动词有see,hear,watch,notice,observe,listen to,look at,feel,let,have,make等。但是,这类句子变为被动语态时,不定式符号to仍保留。例如:

I saw him dance. 我看见他跳舞。

=He was seen to dance.

The boss made them work the whole night. 老板让他们整夜干活。

=They were made to work the whole night.

5、动词不定式与疑问词、介词的连用

(1)decide,find out, forget,know,learn,remember,wonder等动词常接“疑问词+ 动词不定式”这个结构,用作宾语。疑问词一般是what,who(m),where,how,whether,why,which。例如:

Would you teach us how to drive a car? 你愿意教我们如何开车吗?

Let me tell you what to do now.让我来告诉你现在该做什么。

当宾语是不定式(短语)时,如果其后有宾语补足语,则须用it作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语放在补语之后,即:“主语 +谓语 + it +宾补不定式(短语)”。常见的谓语动词有think, make, feel, find, etc.例如:

I don't think it is necessary to buy a bigger computer.我认为没有必要买那个大功能的计算机。

He found it important to study the situation in Russian.他发现研究俄国形势非常重要。

6、动词不定式作定语

不定式做定语通常要放在被修饰的词后,往往表示未发生的动作。例如:

I have a lot of work to do. 我有许多事要做。

There was nothing to bring home that morning. 那天早上(他回家时)两手空空。

7、动词不定式作状语

不定式通常在句子里可作目的、条件、原因和结果状语。

1)目的状语

常用结构为to do , only to do(仅仅为了), in order to do, so as to do, so(such)… as to…(如此…以便…)。例如:

He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。

I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。

2)作结果状语,可以表示没有预料到的或事与愿违的结果,不定式要放在句子后面。

I awoke to find my truck gone. 我醒来发现箱子不见了。

He searched the room only to find nothing. 他搜索了房间,没发现什么。

3) 表原因

I'm glad to see you. 见到你很高兴。

She wept to see the sight. 她一看到这情形就哭了。

4)表示理由和条件

He must be a fool to say so.他可定是傻子才这样说。

You will do well to speak more carefully.如果你仔细说,你会做得更好。

III.不定式的否定和省略形式

一、不定式的否定

不定式的否定通常应直接在不定式前加否定词not。注:否定词never也可构成不定式的否定形式。

Tell him not to shut the window。让他别关窗。

She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候,她假装没看见。

关于too......to.......表示否定的情况

表示“如此......以致不能......,”一般表示否定。例如:

He is too young to go to school.(=He is so young that he can't go to school.)他年龄太小,不能上学。

She was too excited to say a word.(=She was so excited that she could not say a word.)他激动的连一句话也说不出来。

二、不定式的省略形式

1) 情态动词 ( 除ought 外) 后。

2) 使役动词 let, have, make后,感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后。

注意:被动语态中不能省去to。例如:

I saw him dance. 我看见他跳舞。

=He was seen to dance.

The boss made them work the whole night. 老板让他们整夜干活。

=They were made to work the whole night.

3) would rather,had better句型后

4) Why… / why no…句型后

5) help 后可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth:

6) but和except后。but前是实义动词do时,后面出现的不定式不带to。

比较:He wants to do nothing but go out. 他只想出去玩。

He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. 除了吃这药,他什么都信。

7) 由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去:

8) 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think等词后作宾补时,可以省去to be。例如:

He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。

第二节 动名词

1、 动名词作主语

1) 动名词作主语与不定式作主语的区别。一般地说,动名词表示抽象的、一般的行为,尤其是强调多次性的动作;不定式表示具体的、某一次的动作,特别是将来的动作。例如:

Checking information is very important.核实情况是非常重要的。

Learning a foreign language is very useful to me.学习一门外语,来说是非常重要的。

2、动名词作宾语

1) 有些动词只能用动名词作直接宾语,不 能用不定式作直接宾语。如:admit, advise, avoid, consider,delay,finish, mind, miss, permit, practise, enjoy, resist,risk, appreciate, imagine, 例如:

He finished reading the book yesterday.他昨天看完这本书。

Have you considered looking for one special friend?你是否考虑过找一位特别亲密的朋友呢?

2)动名词作介词宾语的用法。

be used to, prevent......from, depend on,feel like, be fond of, be proud of, put off, give up, devote oneself to ,help yourself to, be busy in,be afraid of, apologize for 等。例如:

I don't feel like walking very much today.今天我不想走太多的路。

The Great Green will stop the wind from blowing the earth away.绿色长城将阻止风刮走土。

注意: 动名词前的介词有时可以省略。如: have difficulty (in) doing ; have no trouble (in) doing; lose no time (in) doing; prevent/stop......(from) doing; there is no use (in) doing等。例如:

I have some difficult in pronouncing some of the words in English.我发某些英语单词的音有一些困难。

The heavy rain kept them from going out.大雨阻止了他们外出。

We must stop them (from) making the same mistake again.我们必须防止犯同样的错误。

3)有些动词即可用动名词作直接宾语,也可以用不定式作直接宾语,两者有着截然不同的意义。

(1)like,love,prefer,hate......等表示喜爱、厌恶、偏好的情感动词,后跟不定式表示“仅一时的爱憎情感或指特定或具体某次行为”;后跟动名词表示“抽象性的一种倾向、爱好或习惯性的动作”例如:

I don't like to read this novel.我不喜欢看这本小说。

I don't like reading in bed.我不喜欢在床上看书。

I prefer to work rather than sit idle.我情愿工作而不愿闲坐着。

注意:这几个词前面有would, should 时,后面都只跟不定式。例如:

Would you like to dine out? 你愿意在外面吃顿饭吗?

(2)动词remember,forget,stop,go on,try,regret,can't help等既能以动词不定式又能以动名词作宾语,但表达的意思却不同。与动词不定式连用时,表示未完成的动作。例如:

remember 后用动名词表示 “记起过去做过的一件事”;后用动词不定式表示“记住要去做某一件事情”。例如:

Remember to go to the post office after school. 记着放学后去趟邮局。

Don't you remember seeing the man before? 你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

forget 后用动词不定式表示.“忘记要去做某件事情”;后用动名词表示“忘记过去做过的一件事情”。例如:

The light in the office is still on. He forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着,他忘记关了。(没有做关灯的动作)

He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。(已做过关灯的动作)

stop 后用动词不定式表示 “停下来做另一件事情”(停下来的目的);后用动名词表示“停止正在做的事情”。例如:

They stop to smoke a cigarette.  他们停下来,抽了根烟。

I must stop smoking.      我必须戒烟了。

go on doing sth 表示“继续不停地做某事”或“一件事没有做完,停顿后继续做下去;与原来所做的事相同。”例如:

After he had finished his maths,he went on to do his physics. 做完数学后,他接着去做物理。

Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one. 作完这个练习后,接着做其他的练习

try 用动词不定式表示“设法去做某件事情”;后用动名词表示“试一试某种办法”。例如:

You must try to be more careful. 你可要多加小心。

I tried gardening but didn't succeed. 我试着种果木花卉,但未成功。

mean后用动词不定式表示“打算、想要做某事”;后用动名词表示“意味着、意思是”。例如:

I meant to tell you yesterday,but you were not in your office.我打算昨天告诉你,但是你不在办公室。

Missing the train means waiting for an hour错过这趟火车就意味着还要等一个小时。

can't help 后用动词不定式表示“不能帮助做......”。后用动名词表示“禁不住....;不得不”。例如:

He couldn't help finishing it.他不得不把这件事完成。

We couldn't help to finish it. 我们不能帮助完成这件事。

be afraid doing/to do

be afraid to do 不敢,胆怯去做某事,是主观上的原因不去做,意为"怕",be afraid of doing 担心出现doing的状况、结果。doing 是客观上造成的,意为"生怕,恐怕"。例如:

She was afraid to wake her husband. 她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。

She was afraid of waking her husband. 她生怕吵醒她丈夫。

learn后跟不定式表示“学会了做某事”或“学着做某事”;跟动名词表示“学过做某事”,但不一定会了。例如:

He has learned to type.他学会了打字。(指会使用打字机)

He has learned typing. 他学过打字。(他不一定会使用打字机)

4)动词need, want, require,以及 be worth之后动名词的主动语态含有被动的意思,相当于不定式的被动语态。例如:

His clothes need mending(to be mended).他的衣服需要缝补。

Our teacher said that the way of study needed improving.老师说我们的这种学习方法需要改进。

These babies will require taking good care of.这些婴儿需要细心照料。

His talk is well worth listening to.他的报告很值得一听。

3、动名词的否定形式的表达方式

动名词否定结构由“not+动名词”构成。

I regret not having worked(not working) hard at school.我后悔过去上学时学习不努力。

It is no use buying books but not reading them.买了书却不读是没有什么用处的。

第三节 分 词

分词是非谓语动词中的一种形式,是英语教学过程中的重点、难点,也是历届高考考查语法点之一。分词分为现在分词和过去分词两种。它在句子里可作表语、宾语补足语定语和状语。但要注意分词具有主动和进行的意味而过去分词却具有被动和完成的意味。

一、分词在句中的功能

1、分词作表语

现在分词作表语,多表示主语所具有的特征或性质,意为“令人怎样.......”,含主动意味。如:astonishing,disappointing,exciting,amusing,frightening,interesting,surprising,relaxing,shocking,tiring,worrying,puzzle;ing,moving; 过去分词作表语多表示主语的状态,意为“对什么感受怎样”,有被动意味。如:astonished,disappointed,excited,amused,frightened,interested,surprised,relaxed,shocked,tired,worried,puzzled,moved。例如:

Our trip was disappointing.我们的这次旅行让人失望。

We was disappointed at our trip.我们对这次旅行感到失望。

This story is interesting.这个故事有趣。

I am interested in this story.我对这故事感兴趣。

2、分词作宾语补足语

分词作宾语补足语时,也要注意主动与被动的关系这种关系主要体现在宾补与宾语之间的主动与被动的关系。

He's going to have his hair cut.他将要去理发。

I must get my bike repaired.我得去修理我的自行车。

动词have,let,make等也可带用过去分词表示的宾语补足语,在这种结构中主语通常不是分词所表示的动作的发出者。能带分词作宾语补足语的动词常见的有:see,feel,watch,make, let,have等。例如:

You often see musicians performing in the streets.你经常看到音乐家在街上演奏。

We watched three old men sharing their food with each other.我们观看三个老人相互分享他们的食物。

3、分词作定语

不及物动词的现在分词作定语表达强调动作正在进行,过去分词强调完成;及物动词的现在分词作定语强调主动,

过去分词强调被动。分词的完成式一般不作定语。分词作其他成分时,也是如此。分词作定语,单个的分词作定

语一般前置;分词词组,个别分词如given, left等,修饰不定代词等的分词,作定语需后置。例如:

We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日

He is a retired worker.  他是位退休的工人

There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里

This is the question given.   这是所给的问题

There is nothing interesting.  没有有趣的东西

分词作定语相当于定语从句,如Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists. = Most of the people who were invited to the party were famous scientists.

分词: 包含现在分词和过去分词。(高中学习重点)

① 主要区别:现在分词一般有主动的意思或表示动作正在进行的意思;过去分词有被动或动 作已经完成的意思。分词可以有自己的宾语或状语。

② 分词或分词短语在句子中作定语、状语和复合宾语等。

[A] 作定语:分词作定语时,一般要放在修饰的名词之前,分词短语作定语时,则要放在所修饰的名词之后。 如:

I have got a running nose.(我流鼻涕)

The woman running after the thief shouted very loudly ,“Stop the thief!”(跟着小偷追的妇女大喊:捉小偷!)

Yesterday I met a man called Mr. Black.(昨天我遇见了一个名叫布莱克先生的人)

He only gave me a broken glass, so I was very angry with him.(他只给了我一个坏玻璃杯,所以我很生他的气)

[B] 现在分词可以作下列动词的宾语补足语。(参考不定式作宾语补足语)

谓语动词(vt.)宾语宾语补足语
keep(保持) / see(看到) /hear(听到) / watch(注意到) / feel(感觉到)sb./sth.(do)ing

如:

Mum kept me working all the week.(妈妈让我一个星期都在工作)

When I entered the room, I saw Jack eating a big pear.(我进入房间时看到杰克正在吃一只大梨子)

In the dark I felt something very cold moving on my foot.(黑暗之中我感到有个冷的东西在我的脚上移动)

[C] 现在分词可以作状语,表示伴随情况。如:

She came into the classroom, holding a pile of papers in her hand.(他走进教室,手上抓着一沓纸)/ I am very busy these days getting ready for the coming oral test.(这些日子我正忙着准备即将来到的口语考试)

[D] 过去分词可以作表语,放在连系动词后面,但要注意不要与被动语态混淆,“主系表”主要表示状态,而被动语态则表示动作。常用过去分词作表语的结构有:be worried (焦虑) / be pleased (高兴) / be tired (疲劳) / get dressed (打扮好) / get lost (迷路) / get caught (遭遇) / become frustrated (沮丧) / become intereted in (对…感兴趣)等等。例略。

[E] 过去分词可以作宾语补足语。如:

I had my hair cut this morning.(今天早上我让人给我理了发)(注意:have sth. done表示动作由别人来做,而have done sth.则为现在完成时的结构,两个结构不可以混淆)

【语法过关】

1.Tom likes cars. He enjoys ______ model cars of all kinds.

A. collects B. collecting C. to collect D. collected

2.The heavy snowstorm made the mountain climbers ______ halfway.

A. stop B. to stop C. stopping D. stopped

3.I'11 give a talk tomorrow. I'm thinking about.

A. what to say B. how to say C. what can I say D. how can I say

4.My sister doesn't like the dress. She thinks it makes herfat.

A. look B. looks C. to look D. looked

5.You may be ____if you have a ___ problem.

A. exciting; excited B. excited; exciting C. worrying; worried D. worried; worrying

6。China's badminton team won the Sudirman Cup for the fifth time; they deserved_____.(湖北黄石)

A. to reward B. rewarding C. to be rewarded D. being rewarded

7。-- Mum, I'm hungry.

-- What about going to McDonald's ______ fried chicken?

A. eat B. to eat C. eating D. and eat

8.Your father is sleeping. You’d better ___________.

A. not to wake him up B. not wake him up C. not wake up him D. not to wake up him

9.If everyone makes a contribution _____ the environment, our country will become more beautiful.

A. to protect B. in protecting C. to protecting D. for protecting

10.I've made it possible for my computers the same programs by means of networking.

A. to share B. share C. shared D. shares

11.Internet bars mustn’t let people under 18 in or let anybody_ bad things.

A. watch B. to watch C. watching D. watches

12.—Shopping with me?

—Sorry. I have a lot of clothes .

A.to wash B.washed C.wash D.to be washed

13.I want to buy a digital camera online. Can you show me ______ the Internet?

A.search        B.to search     C.how to search   D.what to search

14.It _______ Yang Liwei about 21 hours _____the earth 14 times in his spaceship.

A. spent, circling B. took, traveling C. spent, to travel D. took, to circle

15.The little girl saw the gorilla in the park with a toy bear.

A. to play B. playing C. is playing D. plays

16.How about ______ to the cinema on Sunday?

A.go B.to go C.going D.will go

17.Jim asked Lin Feng ______ forget to change water.

A.to not B.don't C.not D.not to

18.Listen! Can you hear a baby ________?

A. cry      B. to cry     C. crying    D. cries

19.You’d better _________ on Sundays. It’s too crowded.

A. go shopping B. not go shopping C. not to go shopping D. to go shopping

20.The little girl was too frightened ________ a word.

A. not to tell    B. not to say   C. to tell     D. to say

21.My watch doesn’t work. I must have it ________.

A. repaired    B. repairs     C. repair     D. repairing

22.Stop ________ so much noise! My father is sleeping.

A. to make    B. making     C. to hear     D. hearing

【参考答案】

1。答案B 解析:enjoy表示“喜欢”后接名词或动名词作宾语。故选B。2。答案A 解析:make sb. do sth. 表示“使某人做某事”,make表示“使、让”的意思,是使役动词,后接不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。故选A。3.答案A 解析:依据上句“明天我将做一个讲演”,我正考虑讲什么, 是说的内容,应选what。 C、D语序不对。故只能选A。

4.答案A 解析:make后接不带to的动词不定时作宾语补足语。

5。答案D 解析: 现在分词作表语,多表示主语所具有的特征或性质,意为“令人怎样.......”,含主动意味。过去分词作表语多表示主语的状态,意为“对什么感受怎样”,有被动意味。分词作定语时,如果分词的动作是中心词发出的,则要用现在分词;如果中心词是分词动作的承受者,则要用过去分词。

6。答案C 解析:deserve表示“值得,应当受到”的意思,后接动词不定式。They与reward之间存在动宾关系,故应选C。

7.答案B 解析:依据题意:去McDonald's吃烤鸡怎么样?用不定式表示目的,故选B。

8.答案B 解析:had better 后接动词原形,排除A、D;其否定结构为:had better not do sth.

9.答案C 解析:make a contribution to 表示“为……作贡献”,其中to为介词,后应接名词或动名词。

10.答案A 解析:依据句子结构:S+ V +it +adj. for sb. to do sth. it作形式宾语,其真正主语是动词不定式。故应选A。

11.答案 A 解析:let是使役动词,后接不带to的不定式作宾补。故应选A。

12.答案A 解析:作定语用的不定式的逻辑主语是句中主语或宾语时,就用主动式的不定式来表被动意义。故选A。

13。答案C 解析:依据题意:我想买一部数码照相机,你能教我如何在因特网上搜寻吗?show sb. how to do sth.故选C。

14.答案D 解析:依据It takes/took sb. sometime to do sth.句型,可判断出此题应选D。

15。答案B 解析:see sb.doing sth.表示“看见某人正在做某事”;see sb. do sth.表示“看见某人做某事”,强调看见的整个过程;故应选B。16.答案C 解析:How about 后接名词、代词或动名词结构。故选C。

17.答案D 解析:动词不定式的否定结构为:not to do sth.故选D。

18。答案 C 解析:感官动词后接不带to的不定时,表示“整个过程”;接分词,表示“正在发生的动作”;依据句意可知,应选C。

19.答案B 解析:had better 后接不带to的动词不定式。依据题意:你最好不要在星期天买东西,表示否定。故选B。

20.答案D 解析:too...to....表示“如此......以致不能......,”。故应选D。

21.答案A 解析:it指代上句的my watch;与被修饰语存在动宾关系,手表是由别人来修理,故用过去分词。应选A。

22.答案B 解析:stop后用动词不定式表示“停下来做另一件事情”(停下来的目的);后用动名词表示“停止正在做的事情”。依据题意:应用动名词;制造噪音,词组为:“make noise”。故选B。

2017中考英语考前突破(7)非谓语动词用法-可打印

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