xfshok / 中考 / 2018年中考英语总复习语法专题突破非谓语...

分享

   

2018年中考英语总复习语法专题突破非谓语动词精讲

2018-05-17  xfshok

非谓语动词

中考命题规律及趋势

中考单项选择题和词汇应用对非谓语动词的考查中,考动词不定式,如:不定式作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、目的状语等。也涉及到了不定式固定句型和用法的考查,如:固定搭配forget to do sth.,decide to do sth.,would like sb.to do sth.(想让某人做某事);疑问词+不定式when to start(何时开始)。也考查分词和动名词形式,设题形式以单句为主。

中考重难点突破

非谓语动词动词不定式作主语

作表语

作宾语

作宾补

作定语

作状语

分词现在分词

过去分词

动名词

【注意】

非谓语动词不能单独作谓语,无人称和数的变化。

1.动词不定式

(1) 作主语:

To do sports is healthy.

作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

(2) 作表语

His dream is to be an artist.

(3) 作宾语

I'd like to help homeless people.

常见的这类动词不定式做宾语:want,like,would like,love,prefer,hope,wish,try,ask,start,begin,learn,agree,forget,remember,need,decide,choose,afford,help,mean,order,plan,wish,expect,forget,hope,try,agree,promise,manage,volunteer,pretend,choose等。

【注意】

①begin和start后可以接to do,也可接doing,意思基本相同。

②forget to do 忘记还没有做的事情

forget doing 忘记已经做过的事情

③ remember to do 记得将要做某事

remember doing 记得做过的事情

④ like,love,prefer 接to do 表示短暂性动作,接doing时表示经常性或习惯性动作。

⑤ stop to do 表示停下来去做另一件事

stop doing 表示停止正在做的事

⑥need to do sth. 需要去做某事(主动含义)

need doing sth. 需要做某事(被动含义)

(4)作宾补

You could ask hospitals to let you visit the kids and cheer them up.

不定式做宾补,不定式的动作是宾语发出的,而不是主语发出的。常见的跟不定式作宾补的动词有以下:

want sb.to do sth. ask sb.to do sth.

need sb.to do sth. teach sb.to do sth.

tell sb.to do sth. invite sb.to do sth.

order sb.to do sth. allow sb.to do sth.

force sb.to do sth. advise sb.to do sth.

persuade sb.to do sth. would like sb.to do sth.

【注意】

①感官动词后接不带to的不定式或现在分词

感官动词后既可接不带to的不定式,也可接现在分词;接不定式时指“(看到、听到、见到)全过程”,接现在分词时指“瞬间动作”。这种用法常见的感官动词:see,hear,watch,notice,feel等。如:

I heard the girl singing in the next room.我听到那个女孩正在隔壁房间里唱歌。

I always hear the girl sing in the next room.我经常听到那个女孩在隔壁房间里唱歌。

②在使役动词make,let,have后跟不带to的动词不定式作宾补。如:

My mom often lets me help her clean the house.

(5) 作定语

The park is a great place to have fun.

He has no place to live in.

动词不定式作定语时,被修饰的名词为它的逻辑宾语。如果动词不定式是不及物动词时,要带上必要的介词。

(6) 作状语

主要作目的状语,也可作结果状语和原因状语。动词不定式的动作是主语发出的。如:

She volunteers there once a week to help kids learn to read.(目的状语)

Paul is too excited to say anything.(结果状语)

I am sorry to hear that your mother was ill in hospital.(原因状语)

(7)动词不定式的特殊句型

①too…to…表示“太……而不能……”。如:

The boy is too young to look after himself.那个男孩太小不能照顾自己。

②…enough to…表示“……足够……”。如:

He is old enough to go to school.他到了上学的年龄了。

③Why don't you +不带to的不定式?=Why not+不带to的不定式?如:

Why don't you get her a photo album?=Why not get her a photo album?为什么不给她买个相册呢?

④had better+(not)+不带to的不定式。如:

You'd better not stay there today.你今天最好别待在那儿。

⑤prefer to do sth.rather than do sth.“宁愿做某事而不愿做某事”。如:

She prefers to receive a small gift that has some thought behind it rather than receive a lot of money.她宁愿收到一份有意义的小礼物也不愿收到一大笔钱。

2.分词

分词分为现在分词和过去分词。

(1)现在分词

①现在分词作定语,可放在被修饰的名词前或之后。如:

Baking dogs seldom bites.

②现在分词作伴随状语,如:

The girl came in the room,carrying a bun of flowers.

(2) 过去分词

①做定语

I know the girl called Mary.

②作表语

His car is broken.

③作宾补:have sth.+done:使某事被做

Mr.Smith had his hair cut.

中考题例及解析

一、单项选择

根据语境或句意,选择可填入句子的最佳选项。

(   )1.____ up early is important for your health.

A.To get   B.Gets     C.Got

【解析】答案为A 动词不定式作主语。

(   )2.He is too fat.He has decided ____ some exercise to keep healthy.

A.to take B.taking C.take

【解析】答案为A decide to do sth.决定做某事,动词不定式作宾语。

(   )3.I'm sleepy.I prefer ____ at home to going out for a walk.

A.sleeping B.to sleep C.slept

【解析】答案为A prefer doing sth.to doing sth.宁愿做某事而不愿做某事。

(   )4.Many young people took part in ____ trees on Tree Planting Day.

A.planting B.plants C.to plant

【解析】答案为A 动名词作介词的宾语。

二、基础知识与运用

根据语境或句意,用括号中所给词的适当形式填空。

1.(2016贵阳中考)Our teacher often asks us ____(discuss)questions in groups.

【解析】答案为to discuss ask sb.to do sth.,动词不定式作宾语补足语。

2.(2017贵阳中考)To protect elephants,we must save the trees and not buy things ____(make) of ivory.

【解析】答案为made made 是过去分词作定语,修饰名称things,由……制成的。

    本站是提供个人知识管理的网络存储空间,所有内容均由用户发布,不代表本站观点。请注意甄别内容中的联系方式、诱导购买等信息,谨防诈骗。如发现有害或侵权内容,请点击一键举报。

    来自: xfshok > 《中考》

    0条评论

    发表

    请遵守用户 评论公约

    类似文章 更多
    喜欢该文的人也喜欢 更多

    ×
    ×

    ¥.00

    微信或支付宝扫码支付:

    开通即同意《个图VIP服务协议》

    全部>>