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八上英语期末考试各单元重点知识(下)

2017-11-28  家有学子

Will people have robots?

话题:谈论对未来的语言,学习一般将来时will do sth。

语法:学习一般将来时will do sth。

一般将来时由“助动词will / shall 动词原型”构成,表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示将来的时间状语如tomorrow、next week,in 2 days(2天之后)等连用。(Shall用于第一人称,will可以用于各种人称。)(will not= won’t)

例如:We will visit the old man next week.下周我们将要看望这位老人。

She will finish the work in 2 weeks.她将在两周后完成这项工作。

一般疑问句:把肯定句中的will 提到句首即可。以上两句的一般疑问句为:

Will you visit the old man next week? Yes,we will.\No, we won’t .

Will she finish the work in 2 weeks? Yes,she will.\No, she won’t .

否定句:把肯定句中的will 变为won’t即可。以上两句的否定句为:

We won’t visit the old man next week. She won’t finish the work in 2 weeks.

本单元的短语和知识点:

1.(P49,图片)There be结构:There be(is/are/ was/ were) 某物/某人 某地/某时

“There be结构”的一般现在时:There is/are 某物/某人 某地/某时

There are 600 students in our school.在我们学校有600个学生。

一般过去时:There was/were 某物/某人 某地/某时

There was a school ten years ago. 10年前这里有所学校。

一般将来时:There will be 某物/某人 某地/某时.= There is going to be 某物/某人 某地/某时.   There will be a sport meeting next week.

=There is going to be a sport meeting next weeek.下周将有场运动会。

2.(P49,1a)on computers在电脑上, on paper在纸上

3.(P50,2a)a few 可数名词复数:有一些、有几个    

a little 不可数名词:有一些

few 可数名词复数:几乎没有(表示否定) 

little 不可数名词:几乎没有(表示否定)

many 可数名词复数:很多,许多   few 的比较级是fewer ,little的比较级是less 

much 不可数名词:很多,许多     many\much的比较级都是more

There will be less polution in the future.在未来将会有更少的污染。(polution为不可数名词)

We should plant more trees.我们应该种更多的树。(tree为可数名词)

There will be fewer cars in the future.在未来将会有更少的汽车。(car为可数名词)

4.(P50,2d)in(great)danger在(极度)危险中on the earth在地球上save the earth拯救地球

5.(P50,2d)play a part (in doing sth):参与(做某事)

We should play a part in planting trees every year.每年我们应该参与植树。

6.(P51,语法表格2行)in 一段时间:在…之后(多用于一般将来时)

He will come back in 2 days.两天之后他将回来。→How soon will he come back?多久他将回来?

7.(P53,2b,1段2行)help with sth在某方面帮忙

He often helps with housework at home.他经常在家帮助做家务。

8.(P53,2b,2段1行)Today there are already robots working in factories.现在有许多机器人正在工厂里工作。

句型 There is\are sb doing sth.有某人正在做某事。 There is a cat eating fish.有只猫正在吃鱼。

9.(P53,2b,3段1行)make sb do sth:让某人做某事

My mother often makes me clean my room.我的妈妈经常让我打扫我的房间。

10.(P53,2b,4段2行)hundreds of 名词:成百上千的…,许多…(表示模糊数字)

数字 hundred 名词:几百…(表示具体数字)

He has hundreds of book.他有很多书。He bought two hundred books.他买了二百本书。

11.(P53,2b,4段7行)seem to do sth:好像做某事I seem to know him.我好像认识他。

seem (to be) 形容词:好像怎么样 He seems (to be) angry.他好像生气了。

12.(P54,2d,4行)at some point: 在某些方面

13.(P55,3a,4行)free time空闲时间  in one’s free time在某人空闲时间

He often studies English in his free time.他经常在空闲时间学习英语。

How do you make a 

banana milk shake?

话题:描述做事情的顺序和过程。(First首先,Next下面,Then然后,Finally最后)


语法:复习一般现在时。


本单元的短语和知识点:

1.(P57,1a)  turn on打开            turn up调大

turn off关上           turn down调小

Please turn on the lights.请打开灯。

My father is sleeping,please turn down the radio.爸爸正在睡觉,请把收音机声音调小。


2. (P58,2a)   How many 可数名词复数:多少…

How much 不可数名词:多少…

He has eight books.他有八本书。→How many books does he have?他有多少本书?

How much water does he need?他需要多少水?


3. (P58,2a) 量词的用法:不可数名词常用“数字 量词 不可数名词”来表示。如:

a piece of bread一片面包  比较:two pieces of bread两片面包(bread为不可数名词)

a glass of orange 一玻璃杯橘子汁   one spoon of butter 一勺黄油


4.(P58,2d)说明做某事的顺序为:

First…首先,Next…下面

Then…然后,Finally…最后


5.(P58,2d末行)one more thing = another one thing  

基数词 more 名词 = another 基数词 名词:又多少某物

He ate an apple,he wanted to eat two more apples.他吃了一个苹果,还想再吃两个。


6.(P59,3c)Do you know how to plant trees?你知道如何种树吗?

how to do sth.怎样做某事  (疑问词后跟动词须加to,即“疑问词 to do sth”)

He doesn’t know how to turn on the computer.他不知道如何打开电脑。


7.(P61,2b,4行)It’s time (for sb)  to do sth是某人该做某事的时间了。

It’s time for us to have lunch.是我们该吃午饭的时候了。

It’s time for sth是该做某事的时间了。It’s time for the class.是该上课的时候了。


8.(P61,2b,1段倒数3行)by doing sth:通过…方式

He learned English by listening to the radio.它通过听收音机学习英语。


9.(P61,2b,2段)fill…with… 用…装满, cover…with… 用…盖住


10.(P63,3a,3行)need to do sth:需要做某事He needs to buy a new pen.他需要买一枝新钢笔。

 

Can you come to my party?

话题:学会发出、接受或拒绝邀请。 


语法:复习情态动词。


本单元的短语和知识点:

1.(P65,图片)on Saturday afternoon 在星期六下午,在具体哪一天的是上午、下午或晚上用on,例如:on Sunday evening在星期天的晚上


2.(P65,图片)have to 必须(后跟动词原形)He has to get up early.他必须早起。→(一般疑问句)Does he get up early? Yes,he does.\No,he doesn’t.

(否定句)He doesn’t  have  to  get up early.他没有必要早起。


3.(P65,图片)How about 名词\代词\V·ing: …怎么样?(用来征询意见或提出建议)

How about=What about  I like apples,how about you?我喜欢苹果,你呢?(you为代词)

How about going shopping this afternoon?今天下午去购物怎么样?(go为动词)


4. (P65,图片)sth=want sth 想要某物Jim would like a new pen .吉姆香要一支钢笔。

Would like to do sth=want to do sth想做某事He’d like to watch TV.

Would you like to do sth ?   你愿意做...?(用来提出建议或征求对方意见)

------would you like to go shopping with me ? 你想和我一起去买东西吗?

------Yes,I’d love to ,but I’m doing my homework.我想去,但是我现在正在做家庭作业。

(=Sorry, I’m doing my homework.非常抱歉,我正在做家庭作业。)


5.(P65,1a)prepare for sth为…做准备

They are preparing for the work.他们正在为这项工作做准备。


6.(P65,1a)go to the doctor去看病

have the flu 患流感

help my parents给父母帮忙


7.(P66,2c)too much 不可数名词:许多,很多He has too much homework to do.他有很多家庭作业要做。

too many 可数名词复数:许多,很多They bought too many books yesterday.昨天他买了很多书。

much too 形容词\副词:太…,非常… His father is much too busy.他爸爸非常忙。


8.(P66,2d,8行)have an exam考试


9.(P66,2d,倒数3行)until 的用法:

<1>若动词为延续性动词则用肯定句式

He studied until 21:00pm.他一直学习到晚上九点。

<2>若动词为非延续性动词,则用not….until….(直到。。。。才。。。。)

He didn’t go to bed until his father came back.他一直到他爸爸回来才上床睡觉。


10.(P67,语法表格)study for a math test为数学考试做准备go to the party参加聚会


11.(P68,1c)What’s today?今天几号?Its Monday,the 14th.今天星期一,十四号。

补充:what day is it today?今天星期几?    it’s Monday今天星期一。

What’s the date today?今天几月几日?It’s October 20th .今天10月20日。


12.(P68,1d)go to the doctor去看病 

have a piano lesson上钢琴课


13.(P68,1d)look after 照看,照料  =  take care of

She is old to look after his brother她足够大了能够照看她的弟弟。

take good care of =look after…well好好照顾,好好照料

We should take good care of the children.

= We should look after the children well.我们应该好好照料儿童。


14.(P69,2d)accept an invitation 接受邀请 make an invitation发出邀请

 turn down an invitation拒绝邀请


15.(P69,2d,1段1行)感叹句的类型:

⑴ What  a∕an adj 可数名词单数 ( 主语 谓语)!

 What adj 可数名词复数∕不可数名词 ( 主语 谓语)!

What  a  fine day (it is) !多么好的天啊! (day为可数名词单数)     

What  an  interesting book it is !多么有趣的一本书啊!(book为可数名词单数)

What beautiful flowers they are !多么漂亮的花啊! (flowers为可数名词复数)

What  bad  weather it is!多么糟糕的天气啊!(weather为不可数名词)

⑵ How adj 主语 (谓语中的)系动词!

  How adv 主语 (谓语中的)实义动词!

How happy I am!我多麽高兴啊! (happy为adj,am为系动词)

How hard they are working !他们工作多么努力啊!(hard为adv,work为实义动词)

 

点拨:陈述句改为感叹句,可以采用“一判、二定、三移”。

一判:是判断出陈述句谓语动词后的中心词的词性(adj∕adv∕n);

二定:是根据判断出来的结果来确定引导词(中心词为名词用What;中心词为形容词或副词用How;)

三移:就是把主语和谓语移到后面。

注意:在感叹句中,不得出现so,very,very much等表示程度的单词。


例如:

①Our school is beautiful .

一判:beautiful为形容词;二定:beautiful为形容词,用How 来引导;三移:把Our school is移到How beautiful后面,即为感叹句How beautiful our school is!


②He is a clever boy.

一判:boy为名词;二定:boy为名词,用What来引导;三移:把He is移到What a clever boy 后面,即为感叹句What a clever boy he is!


③He studies English well.

一判:well为副词;二定:well为副词,用How 来引导;三移:把He studies移到How well后面,即为感叹句How well he studies!


练习:将下列句子变为感叹句。

①The room is very bright.                         

② We live a happy life today.                

③It is a nice present.                         

④This is difficult problem.              

⑤She played the piano wonderfully.


答案:

①How bright the room is!  

②What a happy life we live today.  

③What a nice present it is!

④What a difficult problem this is!   

⑤How wonderfully she played the piano !


16.(P69,2d,1段2行)the (best) way to do sth:做某事的(最好)方法

The best way to learn English学习英语的最好方法


17.(P69,2d,2段1行)thanks for 名词\V·ing:为什么而感谢

Thanks for your invitation.谢谢你的邀请。(invitation为名词)

Thanks for helping me.谢谢你帮助我。(help为动词)


18.(P69,2d,2段2行)take a trip参加郊游,at the end of this month在本月底


19.(P69,2d,3段2行)go back to 地点:回到某地

He will go back to Beijing in 2 days.两天后他将回北京。


20.(P69,2d,3段3行)have a surprise party for sb为某人举办一个惊喜的晚会


21.(P69,2d,3段倒数3行)without 名词\代词\ V·ing:没有…

He can’t finish the work without our help.没有我们的帮助,他不能够完成这项工作。(help为名词)

He went to school without having breakfast.他没有吃早饭就去上学。(have为动词)


23.(P69,2d,3段倒数2行)so that作“为了”时,引导目的状语从句,从句常出现情态动词。如:She got up early so that she could catch the bus.为了能赶上车,她起得很早。


24.(P69,2d,末段倒数2行)look forward to 名词\代词\V.ing:期待,盼望

I’m looking forward to buying a new car.我盼望着买辆新车。(buy为动词)   

The students are looking forward to an English party.学生们正盼望着一个英语晚会。


25.(P69,2d,末段倒数2行)hear from sb.收到某人的来信 = receive a letter from sb.

He often hears from his brother他经常收到他弟弟的来信。


26.(P70,2d末行)make it 在约定的时间内到达,能够来 =  arrive in time; 

 I’m glad you could make it.我非常高兴你能够按时来。


27.(P71,3a,1行)the opening of… :开幕/开业


28.(P71,3a,2行)在具体哪一天的上午、下午、晚上用on,比较:

in the morning在早晨  on Sunday morning在星期天的早晨


29.(P71,3a,5行)invite sb to 地点:邀请某人去某地(invite -- invitation )

We invited a scientist to our school last week.上周我们邀请一位科学家到我们学校。

invite sb to do sth 邀请某人做某事I invited him to sing.我邀请去唱歌。


30.(P71,3a,6行)reply in writing 写回信


31.(P71,3a,5)reply to sth / sb:回答某事/回答某人


32.(P72,4)go shopping 购物,do homework做家庭作业


33.(P72,self check)go to the concert参加音乐会

 

If you go to the party,

you’ll have a great time!

话题:谈论事情可能的结果。


语法:在条件状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来——即主将从现。

If you go to the party,   we will have a great time

从句(一般现在时)   (主句一般将来时)


解释:在条件状语从句,时间状语从句中,若主句用一般将来时,从句则用一般现在时表示将来-------简称主将从现

If it is fine tomorrow,I’ll visit shanghai   


区分:宾语从句若主句为一般现在时,从句可以根据需要用任何时态

I think  I”ll finish the work in 2 days. 我认为我在两天内将完成这项工作。

主句(一般现在时) 宾语从句           


本单元的短语和知识点:

1.(P73,图片)have a great /good time 玩的开心


2.(P73,1a)stay at home呆在家里

take the bus乘公交车

go to the party参加晚会


3.(P73,1c)tomorrow night明天晚上


4.(P74,2a)talk about sth谈论某事

have a class party开班级晚会

have a class meeting 开班会


5.(P74,2a)疑问词 to do sth     

He didn’t know where to go.他不知道去哪里。

(常用的疑问词有:who,what,where,when,why,how—简单记忆为:5 w 1 h)


6.(P74,2a)plan to do sth计划做某They are planning to go shopping.他们正在计划购物。   


7.(P74,2b)half the class 全班一半人,make some food 做食物


8.(P74,2d,1行)ask sb. to do sth 请某人做某事

My parents often ask me to study hard.我的父母亲经常要我努力学习。

ask sb. not to do sth 请某人不要做某事

My techer often asks us not to be late.我的老师要我们不要迟到。


9.(P74,2d,3行,4行)order food 预定食物  potato chips薯条


10.(P74,2d,5行)too 形容词 to do sth:太…以至于不能…

so 形容词 that 句子:如此…以至于…

形容词 enough to do sth:足够…能够做某事(注意三个句型常常可以互换转换)

He is so young that he can′t go to school.他如此年轻以至于不能去上学。  

= He is too young to go to school.他太年轻了以至于不能去上学。

= He isn′t old enough to go to school.


11.(P75,3a,4行)tell sb. to do sth 高速某人做某事

My parents often tell me to get up early.我的父母亲经常告诉我早起。

tell sb. not to do sth 告诉某人不要做某事

My techer often tells us not to play computer games.我的老师经常告诉我们不要玩电子游戏。


12.(P75,3a,末行)give sb some advice给某人建议/劝告 (adivce为不可数名词)


13.(P76,1a)travel around the world 周游世界, go to college 上大学,

make(a lot of)money 挣钱, get an education接受教育


14.(P76,1c)work hard 努力工作,a soccer player 一个足球运动员


15.(P77,2b)talk to sb.与某人谈话,keep…to oneself 把…留给自己/独处


16.(P77,2b,1段2行)have problems with sth:在某方面有困难

have problems (in)doing sth:做方面有困难         (2个句型常常可以互换)

She has problems with English.她在学习英语方面有困难。

= She has problems (in) learning English.她学习英语有困难。


17.(P77,2b,1段8行)unless=if…not如果…不

Unless it is sunny tomorrow,I won’t go shopping.如果明天不是晴天,我将不去购物。

=If it isn’t sunny tomorrow,I won’t go shopping.


18.(P77,2b,2段1行)be afraid to do sth:不敢做某事

He is afraid to talk in public.他不敢当众讲话。

be afraid of sth:害怕某物The boy is afraid of dogs.这个男孩害怕狗。


19.(P77,2b,2段1行)tell sb about sth:告诉某人某事

My mother often tells me about my grandfather.我妈妈经常告诉我爷爷的事。


20.(P77,2b,2段3行)keep doing sth:一直做某事He is keeping writing letters.他一直在写信。


21.(P77,2b,2段4行)be angry with sb生某人的气He is angry with his son.他在生他儿子的气。

be angry about\at sth 因某事而生气He is angry about\at his work.他因为工作生气。


22.(P77,2b,2段5行)make mistakes犯错误


23.(P77,2b,2段6行)remember to do sth记着去做某事(事情还未做)

remember doing sth记着已经做过某事(事情做完,但是还记着)

Please remember to close the door when you leave.当你离开的时候记着关上门。(门还未关).

He remembered closing the door.他记着已经关上门了。(门已经关上)


24.(P77,2b,3段1行)advise sb to do sth劝说某人做某事

My mother often advices me to study hard.我的妈妈经常劝说我努力学习。


25.(P77,2b,3段2行)It’s best (not)to do sth. 最好(不要)做某事

It’s best not to play computer games.最好别玩电子游戏。


26.(P77,2b,3段2行)run away from逃避Don’t run away from your problems.不要逃避你的问题。


27.(P77,2b,3段3行)try to do sth试着去做某事


28.(P77,2b,3段6行)in half 成半


29.(P77,2b,3段7行)solve a problem解决难题


30.(P78,2d,8行)agree with sb:同意某人(的看法、意见、观点等)

Do you agree with me?你同意我的观点吗?


31.(P80,2b,4)old people’s home 敬老院,school clean-up学校大扫除


32.(P80,self check,1,3)worry about :担心

My parents often worry about my study.我的父母亲经常担心我的学习。

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