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2009年人教版高考英语高一重点及]难点归纳总结2

2011-05-29  todayissh...

advise sb. to do sth.劝告(建议)某人做某事

eg: My mother advised me to listen to BBC news.

Advise+从句(从句用should+动词原形,should可省略)

eg: She advised me that I (should) study hard.

6.be busy with sth.忙于某事

be busy doing sth.忙于做某事

三、常用词语和句型

1.fault(性格上)的缺点,毛病,过错

eg: Talking too much is his greatest fault.

error=mistake(理解,判断上的)错误,误会

eg: She has an error in judging that man.

2.to be surprised被震惊

to one's surprise出乎某人意料的事

in one's surprise(内部)惊奇

3.start with/begin with从……开始

eg: The party started with a song.

end with ...以……结尾

eg: The trip ended with an unhappy quarrel.

4.drink to sb's health为某人的健康干杯

eg: Let's drink to Micky's health.

四、日常交际用语

Forgive me. I'm very sorry.

Oh, that's all right.

I apologise for ...

Oh, well, that's life.

I'm sorry. I didn't mean to ...

It's OK.

Oops. Sorry about that.

 

Unit 7 Culture relics

一、语法

The Passive Voice(1)

现在完成时被动语态

现在完成时的被动语态结构是“have/has been+过去分词”。如:

Great changes have taken place in China since 1978.

How many new shopping malls have been set up here?

二、聚焦高频考点

1.include包括;包含。如:

Price $14.90, postage included.

价格14.90美元,邮资包括在内。

He had included a large number of funny stories in the speech.

他在讲话中加进了许多引人发笑的故事。

比较以下两个句子:

Eight people hurt in the accident, including three children.

Eight people hurt in the accident, three children included.

2.give in“屈服”“投降”。如:

They prefer to die than give in.

give in“(植物等)枯死,成批死去”

The plants gave in to the cold weather.

with the help of ...“在……的帮助下”如:

With the help of the teacher, the students made great progress last term.

bring back“归还”;“使恢复”如:

Remember to bring back the book tomorrow.

The letter brought back many memories.

3.begin=start,其后都可以跟不定式或动名词做宾语。一般情况下,不定式或动名词可以互换。但以下三种情况只能用不定式:

1)主语是物时

I started/began to cry/crying.

The flower began/start to come out.

2)当begin,start本身是进行时态时

The teacher was beginning to get angry.

3)当非谓语动词是表示心理状态的动词时,如realize, understand, know等。

Finally, she began to realize the importance of English.

4.represent代表

We should choose someone to represent us.

5.“及物动词+名词+介词”这种短语动词转换为被动语态时有两种形式。一种是短语动词当作一个及物动词。

eg: They didn't pay any attention to his words.= His words were not paid any attention to.

另一种方式是把短语动词看成“动词+宾语+介词”结构。上句可等于: No attention was paid to his words.

6.It+be+adj.+that-clause 这是主语从句句型。主语从句在句中作主语,可置于主句谓语动词之前,但常用it作形式主语,而把它移到主句之后。如:

It is very important that we study English well.

三、常用词语和句型

1.lie(lay, lain, lying)躺

eg: Jack was still lying in bed.

Lie还表示保持在某种状态或位置

eg: Those towns lay in ruins.

2.keep使某人/物保持某种状态

keep the door open

keep the fire burning

keep the child happy

keep on doing继续作某事(含强调重复性和决心)

No matter what happens, just keep on trying.

Keep doing不停地,不断地做某事(表示连续不断的动作或持续的状态)

Why did the baby keep crying?

Keep sb./sth. doing sth.使某人/某物继续做某事

You have kept me waiting so long!

Keep sb./sth. from doing sth.

Sars keeps many people from traveling.

3.主语+be+ said to be ...据说……

eg: The man is said to be a professor before.

It is said that ...据说……

eg: It is said that there is going to be a storm.

4.happen, take place, break out, belong to等不及物动词无被动语态

四、日常交际用语

What shall we put in?

Let's put in ...

What/How about ...?

Can't we put in ...?

Maybe we could put in ...

Why not ...?

Should we put in ...?

I'd like to choose ...

Why don't you ...?

I'd like to ...

Why not ...?

 

Unit 8 Sports

一、语法

The Passive Voice(2)

一般将来时被动语态

被动语态由助动词“be+过去分词”构成,其时态则通过be的不同形式体现出来。将来时态的被动语态由will/shall+be+过去分词构成,表示某事将要被干。一般将来时被动语态的各种句式:

主语+will/shall+be+过去分词+其它成分

The flower will be watered tomorrow.

主语+will/shall not+be+过去分词+其它成分

The flower will not be watered tomorrow.

Will/Shall+主语+ be+过去分词+其它成分

Will the flower be watered tomorrow?

When will the flower be watered?

二、聚焦高频考点

1.would rather和动词原形连用。否定形式为would rather not do sth.如:

I would rather leave now.

would rather do ... than do ...表示宁愿做什么而不愿做什么

如:They would rather die than surrender.

would rather和句子连用。通常动词用过去时,是虚拟语气。在表示以前的动作时,用had done。如:

I'd rather you went home now.

I'd rather he hadn't done that.

2.join in多指参加小规模的活动如“球赛,游戏”等。如:

Come on, join in the ball game.

He's going to join in the talk tonight.

take part in 指参加会议或群众性活动等,着重说明句子主语参加该项活动并在活动中发挥作用。如:

We'll take part in social practice during the summer vacation.

They often take part in outdoor activities.

Part前有形容词修饰时,要用不定冠词。如:

Lincoln took an active part in politics.

3.stand for代表,特征。如:

What do GRE stand for?

The dove stands for peace.

stand for赞同,支持,拥护。如:

Almost everyone in the world stand for peace.

stand for容忍。如:

She can't stand for his rudeness.

4.the same as意为“同……一样”。如:

Many of the sports were the same as they are now.

the same ... as意为“与……一样”,后跟从句。指的是两样东西。如:

The pen is the same as you bought yesterday.

the same ... that意为“与……一样,后跟从句。指的是同一件东西。如:

That's the same pen I lost.

5.prefer ... to ... 喜欢……而不喜欢……(to是介词)

eg: I prefer swimming to running.= His words were not paid any attention to.

prefer后可直接加名词,代词,动名词等;prefer to后跟动词原形。如:

Which one do you like, tea, milk or coffee?

I prefer milk.

Do you want to take a taxi?

No, I prefer to walk.

Do you like swimming?

Yes, but I prefer playing running

6.every可与表示数量的词连用,表示时间或空间的间隔。如:

Every four years athletes from all over the world take part in the Olympic Games.

I usually go to the cinema every three days(every third day).

Every后可接few, 但不能接a few, 因every一词已包含a之意;every后也不能接some, several, many等词。every后接序数词时,则修饰单数可数名词。

7.from/in/on/at/about/+which引导定语从句

关系代词which, whom在定语从句中作介词的宾语时,介词一般放在关系代词之前,有时也放在定语从句后面。

The train on which I was traveling was late.

The house in which the old man lived was on fire last night.

The old Olympic Games from which the modern games came began around the year 776 BC in Greece.

8.more ... than有两种含义:一是普通的比较级;另一种表示“与 其说是……”, “是……而不是”,指对同一事物的两种属性进行选择。

She is more diligent than wise. 与其说她聪明,不如说她勤奋。

三、常用词语和句型

1.prefer ... to ...喜欢……而不喜欢……, to是介词

I prefer swimming to running.

Prefer后可跟名词,代词,动名词

Would you like to take a taxi?

No, I prefer walking.

Prefer to后跟动词原形

I prefer to swim.

Which one do you like, tea, milk or coffee?

I prefer milk.

2.do one's best to sth.=try one's best to sth.尽某人最大努力做某事

As your best friend, I surely will try my best to help you.

As long as you try your best, you'll succeed.

3.such as 意为“例如,诸如”,与for example相似,但for example后常接完整的句子,只举一个例子,而such as后常接两个或以上的词或词组。

eg: He knows several foreign languages, such as French and Japanese.

4.mean to do sth.: 打算作某事

What do you mean to do with it?

mean doing sth.: 意味着做某事

That means wasting time.

5.win后接战争,比赛,奖品等名词作宾语,不能接竞争对手作宾语;而beat后常接竞争对手,意为“打败, 击败”。

win a race/a battle/a prize/a medal

beat the team/the country

四、日常交际用语

Which do you like, ... or ...?

What's your favourite sport?

Which sports do you like best?

Which do you prefer, ... or ...?

What about ...?

Are you interested in ...?

Sure. I love sports.

Yes, very much./No, not really.

Shooting, I think.

I like ... best.

I prefer ... to ...

I like watching it.

I'd rather watch it than play it.

 

Unit 9 Technology

一、语法

The Passive Voice(3)

现在进行时被动语态

现在进行时被动语态的构成是:be(is, am, are)+being done,表示某事现在正在被做或现阶段进行的被动动作,但不一定发生在说话的这一时刻。如:

The problem is being discussed now.

She is being questioned where she has been in the past two days.

The phones are being used as cameras and radios.

二、聚焦高频考点

1.remind提醒;使记起,常与介词of, about连用。如:

The letter reminded me of him.

Please remind me about it if I forget it.

He reminded me that I had done that before.

2.in case of 以防;如果,万一。如:

In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.

Today I will bring an umbrella with me in case of fire.

in the case of 至于;就……来说。如:

In the case of a student, smoking is very harmful.

3.take over接手;接管。如:

Alan will take over the farm after his father's death.

I had to take over his work because he was sent to the hospital.

4.make+it+形容词+(for sb.)+to do sth.“使某人做某事……”。能用此型的常见动词有:find, feel, think, consider等。如:

The computer makes it possible to get in touch with faraway world.

Marx found it important to learn Russian.

5.dare做情态动词时,否定句和疑问句不用do; 第三人称单数不加-s,后接不带to的动词不定式,主要用于否定,疑问,条件和表示怀疑的句中。如:

She daren't go out alone at night.

Listen, if you dare speak to me like that again, you'll be sorry.

dare做实义动词时,除了具有一般实义动词的特点外,在否定,疑问句中dare后的to可省略。如:

She didn't dare (to) tell her parents what had happened.

I wonder how she dared (to) do that.

6.whatever引导名词性从句。Whatever的含义为anything that,意为“所……的任何(一切)事(东西)”;具强调意义。

You can buy whatever you want.

7.stay/keep in touch with sb.保持联系;强调原本认识和联系的延续性。

Now, many young people stay/keep in touch with their friends by internet.

三、常用词语和句型

1.on the go忙碌,到处跑,如:

My mum is on the go all day.

Children are always on the go.

2.agree同意;赞成;答应

She agreed to my idea.

她同意我的想法。

I quite agree with what you say.

你所说的我很赞成。

agree on sth 表示双方达成协议

The two sides have agreed on the date of the meeting.

agree with一致;相符合

agree with sb.同意某人的话;适宜健康;与……相宜

The liquor did not agree with me.

这酒不适合我喝。

3.come up with 赶上,走近; 想出,提出

eg: Finally, I came up with the travelers.

He soon came up with a good idea.

4.seem, appear, look“看起来似”,区别是:

seem暗示有一定根据的判断,这种判断往往接近事实。后接不定式或从句。

Her health seems to be worse.

It seemed that something was wrong.

look着重由视觉得出的印象

Her mother looks young.

四、日常交际用语

Absolutely.

I disagree.

That's exactly what I was thinking.

I'm afraid I don’t agree.

That's a good point.

Well, it depends.

That's just how I see it.

Well, I don't know.

That's worth thinking about.Well, I'm not so sure about that.

What does it look like?

What size is it?

How much will it cost?

What is it used for?

 

Unit 10 The world around us

一、语法

Review Direct and Indirect Speech

直接引语和间接引语的相互转换

1.若直接引语为陈述句,则间接引语需改为由that所引导的宾语从句。如:

The man said,"I am hungry."

The man said that he was hungry.

2.若直接引语为祈使句,则间接引语需改为动词不定式,原动词say也要改为可以带动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词如tell, ask, order, advise等。如:

1)The teacher said,"Be careful with your spelling."

The teacher told us to be careful with our spelling.

2)"Don’t stick out your heads as the bus goes."said the driver.

The driver told us not to stick out our heads as the bus went.

3.若直接引语为一般疑问句,则间接引语需改为由if, whether引导的宾语从句,原动词say也要改为ask. 如:

1)"Is this pen yours or hers?"she asked.

She asked me if/whether that book was mine or hers.

2)The taxi driver said to the man,"Could you tell me the way to the bus station?"

The taxi driver asked the man if/whether he could tell him the way to the bus station?

4.若直接引语为特殊疑问句,则间接引语需改为以这个特殊疑问词为连接代词或连接副词所引导的宾语从句。如:

1)"What are you going to do next Sunday morning?"Jack asked me.

Jack asked me what I was going to do the next Sunday morning.

2)The boy asked,"How do you know the rule of that game?"

The boy asked how I knew the rule of that game.

二、聚焦高频考点

1.die out“消失,灭亡,消亡”,如:

This kind of bird is dying out.

This king of bird has died out.

2.be/get used to“习惯于……”,如:

I have got used to the life here since I've been here for five years.

used to“(过去)常常……”, 只用于一般过去时,只能与动词原形连用,表示“过去常做某事,现在已不做了”。如:

Tom used to work on a farm.

3.as,like表示“像,如同”时的区别

like用于说明相似关系,即两者在形态上或性质上有相似之处,但不等同。as指“身份”或“资格”等,意为“作为,看作”等,用于说明同一关系,即两者实为一体。如:

Like Lei Feng he has done a lot of good deeds.

She worked for a year in the countryside as an ordinary peasant.

4.care for“关心,照料,喜欢,愿意”;做“关心,照料”时,一般用于肯定句或疑问句。如:

When you're out, who will care for your children?

care about“关心,计较,在乎”

He doesn't care about his clothes too much.

三、常用词语和句型

1.endanger危害,危及,endanger one's life危及生命。如:

Smoking a lot will endanger your health.

2.adapt使适应,使适合;改编

adapt to适应……

You should adapt to the new life style here.

Adapt yourself to the new climate.

adapt sth. (for sth.) (from sth.)如:

This novel has been adapted for radio from the Russian original.

3.pick up(从收音机里)接收到或听到

My radio can pick up English programmes very clearly.

pick up拾起,捡起某物

She picked up her ticket.

pick up中途搭载某人,开车去接某人

I'll pick you up tonight.

4.devote ... to致力于;献身于。to后跟名词,代词或动名词。

She devoted herself to her career.

The young doctor devoted all her time to helping her patients.

四、日常交际用语

Why ...?

Because/As/Since ...

Because of ..., I ...

If ..., then ...

As a result of ...

It follows that ...

It will cause ...

It will lead to ...

 

Unit 11 The sounds of the world

一、语法

The Passive Voice in Different Tense

综合运用各种时态中的被动语态

1.一般现在时,如:New buildings are built every year.

2.一般过去时,如:That room was painted last night.

3.一般将来时,如:This problem will be discussed tomorrow.

4.过去将来时,如:He said the trees would be planted next year.

5.现在完成时,如:Those houses have been built this week.

6.过去完成时,如:He said that the work had been finished.

7.现在进行时,如:The old building is being repaired.

8.过去进行时,如:The new tool was being made.

二、聚焦高频考点

1.satisfy 满足;使满意;符合(要求)。如:

We must satisfy the people’s needs.

I'm satisfied with the new house.

2.pick cotton/apples/tea leaves“摘棉花,苹果,茶叶”

pick sb's pocket“窃取某人口袋中的东西”

pick out 选出;挑出

pick out a new bike

pick out a beautiful tie for sb.

3.advice为不可数名词,a piece of advice

give advice on ...就……给某人提出建议

My teacher gave me some advice on how to learn English well.

4.turn into“把……变成”;有时表示“改写;翻译”如:

You are able to turn failure into success.

Can you turn it into Japanese?

三、常用词语和句型

1.practise 实行,实践。如:

You should practice what you tell others to do.

Practise doing练习。如:

He is practising playing the piano.

2.in common “共同的,共用的”

We had all things in common at that time.

The swimming pool is used in common by all the children in the school.

3.make records/make a record“录制唱片”

She likes making records of her songs.

4.on the other hand另一方面

I want to go to the party, but on the other hand I ought to be studying.

5.beat(n.)一击;有规律的敲击声

a drumbeat鼓点声

a heartbeat心跳声

beat(v.)敲打

The rain was beating against/on the deck.

beat(v.)表示连续的拍打

四、日常交际用语

Maybe we could ...?

Well, but what about ...?

Can I ask you for some advice?

I suggest (that) ...

What can you suggest?

Maybe it would be better to ...

Have you considered doing ...?

That's a good idea.

Can you help me ...?

How about ...?

That's a good idea/suggestion.

 

Unit 12 Art and literature

一、语法

Review the Attributive Clause

复习定语从句的用法。

关系代词:指人:who, whom, whose, 指物:which, whose, 指人或物:that

1.关系代词在从句中作主语,如:

The woman who/that came to see me is a friend of mine.

2.关系代词在句中作宾语,如:

Where is the boy (who/whom/that) I saw this afternoon?

3.关系代词whose, of which在从句中作定语。如:

Here comes the man whose mother is a doctor.

This is the house of which the door broke last night.

4.在句中作状语,由when, why, where来引导。如:

That is the day when I met him.

That is the place where I was born.

That is the reason why she was late for school.

二、聚焦高频考点

1.share(属于或由某人做的)部分,一份,如:

We gave each of the five children an equal share.股份;股票

Do not part with the shares on any account.无论如何不要放弃这些股票。

(常与in连用)共用;分摊;共有

We shared the sweets. 我们分吃了糖果。

They share their joys and sorrows. 他们同甘共苦。

2.come across“(偶然)遇见或发现”

I came across an old friend of yours the other day.

I came across the new book here.

3.sound like听起来像;feel like感到像;smell like闻起来像

That sounds like a good idea.

What does the perfume smell like?

The material feels like silk.

4.be about to ... when “正要做……突然”;如:

We were about to leave when it started to rain.

Can you turn it into Japanese?

三、常用词语和句型

1.trick戏法;把戏;花样。如:

I can do magic tricks.

play a trick on sb.恶作剧,开某人玩笑。如:

Children will play a trick on their teacher.

2.treat“对待;看待”treat ... as ...把……当作……

You should treat him fairly.

The old man treated the boy as his son.

treat请客;款待

Whose turn is it to treat next?

3.have trouble (in) doing sth.

= have problems (in) doing sth.

= have difficulties (in) doing sth.

The little child has trouble in dressing himself.

be in trouble 处于困境中

It seems he is in trouble.

trouble sb. to do sth.

What is troubling your mother?

4.believe后可跟名词,表示“相信”;后接从句或复合宾语时,表示“认为;料想;相信”

I believe his words.

We believe that she will succeed.

believe in表示“信奉;信仰”和信任(have trust in)

They believe in God.

I believe in having plenty of exercise.

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