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2012版英语一轮语法详细学案:动词和动词短语

2012-11-14  家有学子

2012版英语一轮语法详细学案:动词和动词短语
1.接不定式(不接动名词)作宾语的24个常用动词
afford(买得起;有能力做),agree(同意),arrange(安排),ask(要求;让),beg(请求),fail(失败),choose(选择),decide(决定),demand(要求),determine(决定),expect(期待),fear(害怕),help(帮助),hope(希望),learn(学习),manage(设法),offer(提出),plan(计划),prepare(准备),pretend(假装),promise(许诺),refuse(拒绝),want(想要),wish(希望)
It is a very important exam so I can’t afford to fail it.
这是非常重要的考试,我不可以失败。
My neighbour offered to help me when I was in trouble.
当我困难时,邻居主动提出帮我忙。
2.接动名词(不接不定式)作宾语的28个常用动词
admit(承认),advise(建议),allow(允许),appreciate(感激),avoid(避免),consider(考虑),delay(推迟),deny(否认),dislike(不喜欢),enjoy(喜欢),escape(逃避),fancy(想象),finish(完成),forbid(禁止),stand(忍受),imagine(想象),keep(继续),mention(提到),mind(介意),miss(错过),permit(允许),practise(练习),prohibit(禁止),report(报道),risk(冒险),stop(停止),suggest(建议),understand(理解)
I really appreciate working with someone who does such a good job.
我非常乐意与工作如此出色的人共事。
—Can I smoke here?
——我可以在这里吸烟吗?
—Sorry.We don’t allow smoking here.
——对不起,我们不允许在这里吸烟。
3.接不定式作宾补的33个常用动词
advise(建议),allow(允许),ask(要求),beg(请求),cause(导致),command(命令),drive(驱使),elect(选举),encourage(鼓励),expect(期望),forbid(禁止),force(强迫),get(使;要),help(帮助),intend(打算),invite(邀请),leave(委托),like(喜欢),mean(打算),need(需要),oblige(迫使),order(命令),permit(允许),persuade(说服),prefer(宁愿),request(要求),remind(提醒),teach(教),tell(告诉),train(训练),want(想要),warn(警告),wish(希望)
Mary wanted to travel around the world all by herself,but her parents did not allow her to do so.
玛丽想独自一人环游世界,但是她父母不允许她这样做。
Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.
参观者请勿触摸展品。
4.接现在分词作宾补的15个常用动词
catch(碰上;撞上),discover(发现),feel(感觉),find(发现),get(让,使),have(使),hear(听见),keep(使),listen to(听),look at(看),notice(注意到),observe(观察),see(看见),start(使),watch(观察)
She observed a man walking in the street.
她看到一个男子在大街上行走。
He had the light burning all night long.
他让灯着了整整一个晚上。
5.主动语态中接动词原形作宾补的11个常用动词
feel(感觉),have(使),hear(听见),let(让),listen to(听),look at(看),make(使;让),notice(注意),observe(观察),see(看见),watch(观察)
To be honest,I didn’t notice them come in.
诚实地说,我没注意到他进来。
6. 接不定式或动名词作宾语意思相同的12个动词
like(喜欢),love(喜爱),hate(讨厌),prefer(宁愿),begin(开始),start(开始),continue(继续),can’t bear(不能忍受),bother(费心),intend(想要),attempt(试图)
Having talked to him for a while I started to like him.
和他聊了一会儿,我开始喜欢他了。
They have already started planning for it.
他们早已开始计划此事了。
7.可接双宾语的34个常用单词
(1)双宾语易位时需借助介词to的19个常用动词
award(授予),bring(带来),hand(递),lend(借),mail(邮寄),offer(提供),owe(欠),pass(递),pay(付钱),post(寄),read(读),return(归还),send(送),sell(卖),show(展示),teach(教),tell(告诉),throw(扔),write(写)
They awarded the first prize to John.
他们授予约翰一等奖。
(2)双宾语易位时需借助介词for 的15个常用动词
book(预订),buy(购买),choose(选择),cook(煮),draw(画),fetch(去取),find(找到),fix(安装),get(取得,带来),make(做),order(订购),prepare(准备),save(节省),sing(唱),spare(留出)
I can’t spare time for a holiday at present.
目前我抽不出时间度假。
8.可用于“动词+sb.+of sth.”的8个常见动词
accuse(控告),cheat(欺骗),cure(治愈),inform(通知),remind(提醒),rid(摆脱),rob(抢劫),warn(警告)
This photo reminds me of my school days.
这张照片使我想起了学生时代。
9.可用于“动词+sb.+for doing sth.”的8个常见动词
blame(指责),criticise(批评),forgive(原谅),excuse(原谅),pardon(原谅),punish(惩罚),scold(指责),thank(感谢)
Forgive me for saying so,but I think that’s nonsense.
请原谅我这么说,我认为那是无稽之谈。
1.—In this day and age,women can have children and jobs as well.
—I can’t agree more.It’s great to have the two________.
A.linked         B.related
C.connected     D.combined
解析: 句意为:——在当今时代,妇女既可以带孩子又可以工作。——我完全赞成。把两者结合起来太棒了。本题考查动词词义辨析。link 指将两事物相连接;relate指将两事物联系起来;connect也指将两事物相连接或联系;combine 指把两者结合起来。根据句意,故D项正确。
答案: D
2.The majority of people in the town strongly________the plan to build a playground for children.
A.consider    B.support
C.confirm     D.submit
解析: 本题考查动词。句意为:这个镇上大部分人都非常支持为孩子们建操场的计划。consider 考虑,认为;support 支持,支撑,养活;confirm 确认;submit 提交,呈递,屈服。根据句意以及副词strongly可得知答案为B项。
答案: B
3.He telephoned the travel agency to________three air tickets to London.
A.order     B.arrange
C.take     D.book
解析: 句意为:他给旅行社打电话订了三张去伦敦的机票。本题考查动词辨析。order:request sb.to bring(food,drink,etc.)in a hotel,restaurant,etc.(在旅馆、饭店等)叫(饭菜、饮料等);book:reserve(a place,accommodation,etc.),buy(a ticket,etc.)in advance预订(位子,膳宿等),预购(票等);arrange安排,布置;take 拿走,取走。
答案: D
4.Parents________much importance to education.They will do their best to give their children that priceless gift.
A.attach     B.pay
C.link     D.apply
解析: 句意为:父母认为教育很重要。他们会尽全力给他们的孩子那份无价的礼物。本题考查动词短语搭配。attach much importance to...认为……很重要;link...to...把……与……联系起来;apply(...)to 运用,应用。
答案: A
5.The new movie________to be one of the biggest money-makers of all time.
A.promises      B.agrees
C.pretends     D.declines
解析: 句意为:这部新电影有望成为有史以来最赚钱的电影之一。本题考查动词辨析。promise to be有希望成为;agree to do sth.同意做某事;pretend to do sth.假装做某事;decline to do sth.拒绝做某事。
答案: A
1.常用短语
(1)base...on...把……建立在……基础上
(2)care about 在乎,计较,介意(常用于否定句和疑问句)
(3)cheer up高兴起来,振作起来
(4)carry out 实施,完成
(5)catch up with 赶上
(6)date back to/from 追溯至,始于……
(7)hold back 阻挡,忍住,保留,隐瞒
(8)knock down 撞倒,击倒
(9)lay aside 把……搁置一旁,储存
(10)work out 算出,制定出
2.与不同介词(副词)搭配的动词
break
break away from 脱离    break down 坏掉,出故障;垮掉
break into 闯入,破门而入   break out (战争)爆发
break in 破门而入   break off 打断,中断
break through 逾越,突破;冲破
break up 打碎;(物理)分解;分开;结束;制止
call
call for 需要;邀请   call on/at号召;访问
call in 召集;召来   call up 召唤,召集;打电话
call off 取消
come
come about 发生   come across 偶遇
come to 共计,达到,苏醒   come true 变为现实
come up 走上前,被提出   come up with 提出
come into being 形成
get
get about 四处走动;传开   get across 传达
get away 逃脱,设法离开   get down 下来;记下
get in 收割;到达   get off 出发;下班
get together 聚会   get through 接通;通过
get down to 开始认真干   get over 克服
get along/on with 进展;相处
give
give up 放弃   give in屈服
give out 用尽;分发   give away泄露;赠送;颁发
give off 发出   give back 归还,使恢复
go
go against 违背;对……不利   go ahead 开始,进展,进行
go after/for 追逐,追求   go without 勉强维持;凑合
go in for 爱好,参加,从事   go through 通过;经历
go over 复习;仔细审查   go by 过去,经过
hold
hold back 隐瞒;控制(情感)   hold out维持;抵抗;硬撑
hold up使……耽搁   hold on 坚持;别挂(电话)
hold together 团结一致   hold on to 保留,抓住不放
make
make up for 补偿,弥补   make out 辨认出
make fun of 取笑   make up one’s mind 下定决心
make sense 有道理(意义),讲得通
make good/full use of...充分利用……
make up 编造;组成;构成;补齐;凑足
put
put aside 把……放在一边   put away 把……收好
put down 扑灭,平息   put forward 提出
put off 延期;推诿   put out 扑灭;生产
put up with 忍受,容忍
put up 挂起,张贴;搭起;为某人提供食宿
turn
turn down拒绝;调低   turn in 上交
turn out 结果是,证明是   turn over 移交,交给
turn up 出现;调高   turn off 关掉
turn on打开   turn away 走开
turn to 求助于;翻到
1.Thousands of people________to watch yesterday’s match against Ireland.
A.turned on    B.turned in
C.turned around    D.turned out
解析: 句意为:结果成千上万的人观看了昨天对阵爱尔兰的比赛。本题考查动词短语。turn on打开(电器);turn in上交;turn around转身;turn out 结果是,证明是。
答案: D
2.We’ve just moved into a bigger house and there’s a lot to do.Let’s________it.
A.keep up with    B.do away with
C.get down to    D.look forward to
解析: 句意为:我们刚搬进一幢较大的房子,有许多事要做。让我们着手做吧。本题考查动词短语辨析。A项意为“跟上”;B项意为“废除,去掉”;C项意为“开始,着手做”;D项意为“期望”。
答案: C
3.After that,he knew he could________any emergency by doing what he could to the best of his ability.
A.get away with    B.get on with
C.get through    D.get across
解析: 句意为:之后,他明白了只要尽其所能,把能力发挥到最好就能解决任何紧急事件。get away with 意为“带着……逃脱,离开”;get on with 意为“继续做”;get through 意为“通过,做完,解决”;get across 意为“越过,被理解,通过”。根据句意可知答案为C项。
答案: C
4.No matter how low you consider yourself,there is always someone________you wishing they were that high.
A.getting rid of    B.getting along with
C.looking up to    D.looking down upon
解析: 句意为:无论你把自己看得多么的低微,总是有人仰慕你并希望(像你)那么高大。本题考查动词词组辨析。look up to 仰视、尊敬;get rid of 除掉;get along with 相处、进展;look down upon 轻视、看不起。
答案: C
5.Joining the firm as a clerk,he got rapid promotion,and________as a manager.
A.ended up     B.dropped out
C.came back     D.started off
解析: 句意为:他进入公司时只是一个小职员,后来晋升很快,最终当上了经理。本题考查动词短语辨析。end up as+职位/职业表示“最终做了某职位或职业”;drop out 退学或退出;come back 回来;start off 出发。
答案: A
6.The workers________the glasses and marked on each box “This Side Up”.
A.carried   B.delivered
C.pressed   D.packed
解析: 句意为:工人们把那些玻璃杯打包,并且在每个盒子上标上“请勿倒置”的字样。本题考查动词辨析。语境提到“玻璃杯”和“每个盒子”,可见这里表示工人把这些玻璃杯打包进行包装,因此选D。pack打包。carry搬,扛,运;deliver 分发,投递;press 按,压。
答案: D
7.Your house is always so neat—how do you________it with three children?
A.manage       B.serve
C.adapt      D.construct
解析: 句意为:你的房子总是这么整洁——有三个孩子,你是怎样做到这一点的?manage:succeed in doing(sth.)成功做成(某事);完成(困难的事),应付(困难局面);serve 服务;adapt 适应,改写;construct 建设,it 在这里指代“Your house is always so neat...”这一现象。
答案: A
8. Had she________her promise,she would have made it to Yale University.
A.looked up to    B.lived up to
C.kept up with    D.come up with
解析: 句意为:假如她当初遵守自己的诺言,她本可以被耶鲁大学录取的。本题考查动词短语辨析。live up to 符合,履行,look up to 抬头看;keep up with 赶上;come up with 想出。
答案: B
9.You look well.The air and the sea foods in Sanya must________you,I suppose.
A.agree with     B.agree to
C.agree on     D.agree about
解析: 句意为:你气色很好。我想,三亚的空气和海鲜肯定适合你。本题考查的是动词词组。agree with:suit sb.’s health or digestion (对某人的健康或胃口)适合。又如:If the type of food does not agree with you,it makes you feel ill.agree to 同意,愿意;agree on:If people agree on sth.,they all decide to accept or do sth.就某事达成一致协议。
答案: A
10.My mother opened the drawer to________the knives and spoons.
A.put away     B.put up
C.put on      D.put together
解析: 句意为:妈妈打开抽屉把刀和勺子收好。本题考查动词词组辨析。put away (使用完毕)将某物收起或放进抽屉、箱子里;put up举起,建造、搭起,张贴等;put on 穿上、戴上(衣帽),演出(戏剧);put together合计,合起来,组装。根据句意,A项正确。
答案: A
11.—How did you like Nick’s performance last night?
—To be honest,his singing didn’t________to me much.
A.appeal     B.belong
C.refer     D.occur
解析: 句意为:——你觉得Nick 昨天晚上表演得怎么样?——说实话,他的演唱对我没多大吸引力。appeal to sb.—attract or interest sb.(对某人)有吸引力;(使某人)感兴趣。belong to 属于;refer to 谈到、提到;occur to 发生。
答案: A
12.Smell the flowers before you go to sleep,and you may just________sweet dreams.
A.keep up with    B.put up with
C.end up with    D.catch up with
解析: 句意为:睡前闻闻这些花,你可能就会做美梦。本题考查动词短语辨析。 keep up with 跟上;put up with 忍受,容忍;end up with 以……结束;catch up with 追上,赶上。C项符合句意。
答案: C
13.Jenny was looking for a seat when,luckily,a man ________and left.
A.took up   B.got up
C.shut up   D.set up
解析: 句意为:Jenny 正在找座位,这时正好有个人起身离开了。本题考查动词短语辨析。take up从事,占据;get up 起床,起身;shut up 关闭,闭嘴;set up建立,搭起。
答案: B
14.(2010?山东卷)Sam________some knowledge of the computer just by watching others working on it.
A.brought up   B.looked up
C.picked up    D.set up
解析: 句意为:Sam 只通过观看别人操作电脑便学到了一些电脑知识。考查动词短语辨析。bring up 抚养;look up 抬头看,查询;pick up好转,开车接人,认出,学会;set up建造,搭起。根据句意故选C项。
答案: C
15.(2010?江苏卷)The experiment has________the possibility of the existence of any life on that planet,but it does not mean there is no life on other planets.
A.found out   B.pointed out
C.ruled out   D.carried out
解析: 句意为:试验排除了那个星球有生命存在的可能性,但是这并不意味着其他星球上就没有生命存在。本题考查动词短语。find out 查明;point out 指出;rule out 排除;carry out 贯彻,执行,根据句意可知答案为C项。
答案: C

预测题
1.(2011?山东淄博模拟)The headmaster will________a speech to the visiting foreign guests this afternoon.
A.deliver     B.address
C.announce    D.declare
解析: 句意为:今天下午校长将要对来访的外宾发表讲话。deliver 发表,deliver a speech 发表演讲。address sb.对某人讲话,对某人发表演说;announce 宣布,通告;declare 宣告,声明。
答案: A
2.(2011?东北三校模拟)—I think I should wear a dress instead of this jeans.
—It’s just a small informal party,so you don’t have to________.
A.warm up    B.put up
C.dress up    D.keep up
解析: 句意为:——我觉得我应该穿礼服不能穿牛仔服。——这只是一个不太正式的小聚会,因此,你不必刻意打扮。dress up 穿上特殊服装,乔装,化妆。
答案: C
3.(2011?山东临沂)If you keep practising your son in football,he ________to make a famous player.
A.wants    B.hopes
C.promises    D.wishes
解析: 句意为:如果你坚持对你儿子进行足球训练,他有希望成为一个著名的球员。promise 有前途,有……的可能。
答案: C
4.(2011?山东烟台模拟)Newly-developed materials for spaceships can________extreme weather conditions.
A.hold    B.support
C.stand    D.compete
解析: 句意为:新研发的航空材料能经受极端天气条件的考验。stand 抵抗,抵御,经受,符合语境。
答案: C
5.(2011?杭州模拟)Everyone in the village hoped that he would________after a few days’ treatment.
A.pick up    B.come up
C.keep up    D.make up
解析: 句意为:村里的每一个人都希望他能在几天的治疗后康复。pick up 好转,恢复;come up 走上前来,发芽,发生;keep up 保持;make up 编造,弥补,化装,构成。
答案: A
6.(2011?山东枣庄调研)He didn’t ________what I said because his mind was on something else.
A.hold on    B.hang on
C.take in   D.get over
解析: 句意为:他没有理解我说的话,因为他刚才想别的呢。take in理解,领会;hold on 不挂断;hang on 坚持,不挂断,靠着,渴望;get over 爬过,克服,熬过,恢复。
答案: C
7.(2010?3月济南模拟)Stella was disappointed to find her new plan________and fell into great depression.
A.put away    B.carried out
C.turned down    D.left out
解析: 考查动词短语辨析。句意为:Stella 看到她的计划被拒绝非常失望,难以振作。put away 收起来,放好;carry out 完成;turn down 拒绝;leave out 漏掉,忽略。
答案: C
8.(2010?4月济南模拟)What the young man can’t________is that his mum always treats him like a baby.
A.support    B.undertake
C.hold    D.bear
解析: 考查动词辨析。bear 此处表示“忍受”;support 表示“支持”;undertake 表示“从事”;hold 则表示“容纳”。根据语意“那个年轻人无法容忍的是……”,选D项。
答案: D
9.(2010?4月济南模拟)Internet shopping is really________when people are sure of its safety.
A.taking off    B.taking up
C.setting off    D.setting up
解析: 考查动词词组辨析。句意为:当人们确认了它的安全性之后,网络购物真的迅速流行起来。take off 表示“迅速流行”;take up 表示“从事,占据”;set off 表示“出发”;set up 表示“建造,建立”。根据语意选A项。
答案: A
10.(2011?黑龙江检测)The girl nodded with a smile as if she had ________his mind.
A.read    B.found
C.watched    D.noticed
解析: 考查动词词义辨析。read one’s mind 是固定搭配,表示“读懂某人的心思”。
答案: A
11.(2011?福建龙岩检测)She is working hard all day long,which will surely________her success in her future work.
A.result from    B.contribute to
C.benefit from    D.stick to
解析: 考查动词词组辨析。语意表示“她整天努力工作,这肯定会有助于她未来工作的成功”。这里contribute to 表示“导致,有助于”;result from 表示“因……发生”;benefit from表示“从……中获益”;stick to 则表示“坚持”。根据句意,选B项。
答案: B
12.(2010?3月济南模拟)Thanks to the success of the business,we can________a flat this year.
A.make    B.devote
C.remove    D.afford
解析: 考查动词辨析。句意为:由于生意很好,今年我们能买得起房子了。afford 买得起,负担得起。
答案: D
13.(2010?黑龙江检测)I didn’t like the soap opera at first,but when I started watching one,I immediately became ________it.
A.accustomed to    B.addicted to
C.opposed to    D.allergic to
解析: 考查动词词组辨析。句意为:我起初不喜欢肥皂剧,但看了一个后我马上就上瘾了。这里用become addicted to 表示“对……上瘾/入迷”;become accustomed to 表示“习惯于……”;become opposed to 表示“反对……”;become allergic to 则表示“对……过敏”。根据语意选B项。
答案: B
14.(2010?海南五校联考)—Have you been________?
—Yeah.As a matter of fact,I’ve been going to the gym for half a year now.
A.carrying out    B.turning out
C.making out    D.working out
解析: 考查动词短语。——你一直健身吗?——是的,事实上,我去健身房已有半年了。work out 有“(定期)锻炼,健身”的意思,符合题意。make out 应付,过;carry out 实施,执行;turn out 出席,在场。
答案: D
15.(2010?南京第三次模拟)The idea of travelling abroad really________a lot of Chinese people.That’s why every year witnesses more people applying for passports.
A.takes to    B.caters to
C.attends to    D.appeals to
解析: 本题考查动词短语。根据题中的后一句可知,出国游吸引了很多中国人,因此选择appeal to(吸引)。cater to迎合,满足某人的要求;attend to 照看,处理;take to 开始喜欢。
答案: D

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