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感官动词的用法

2014-05-13  越秀区桂...

感官动词的用法

1.see, hear, listen to, watch, notice等词,后接宾语,再接省略to的动词不定式或ing形式。前者表全过程,后者表正在进行。句中有频率词时,以上的词也常跟动词原形。

注释:省略to的动词不定式--to do是动词不定式,省略了to,剩下do,其形式和动词原形是一样的,但说法不同。
see sb do sth
看到某人做了某事
see sb doing sth
看到某人在做某事
hear sb do sth
听到某人做了某事
hear sb doing sth
听到某人在做某事
以此类推...

I heard someone knocking at the door when I fell asleep. (我入睡时有人正敲门,强调当时正在敲门)
I heard someone knock at the door three times. (
听到有人敲门的全过程
)
I often watch my classmates play volleyball after school. (
此处有频率词often)

(了解)若以上词用于被动语态,须将省略的to还原:
see sb do sth----sb be seen to do sth
hear sb do sth----sb be seen to do sth
以此类推...

We saw him go into the restaurant. → He was seen to go into the restaurant.
I hear the boy cry every day. → The boy is heard to cry every day.

2.感官动词look, sound, smell, taste, feel可当系动词,后接形容词。
He looks angry.
His explanation sounds reasonable.
The cakes smell nice.
The dishes taste delicious.
The silk feels smooth.   
注意:如果加介词like构成词组,则后不可接形容词,而接名词或代词:
sound like
听起来像...
look like 
看起来像
...
He looks like his mother.
That sounds like a good idea.  
It sounds like great fun.
It smells like a flower.  
It tastes like salt.

3.如何判断look是实义动词还是感官动词?
look理解为"看起来",是感官动词,后接形容词
.
The naughty boys broke the window.The teacher looked angry.

look理解为""或者与其它词构成词组时,是实义动词,需要用副词修饰.
The teacher looked anrily at the naughty boys.

 

 

  (A)感官动词(及物动词)有:
  see/notice/look at/watch/observe/listen to/hear/feel(Vt)/taste(Vt)/smell(Vt)
  (B)连系动词(含感官不及物动词)
 be/get/become/feel/look/sound/smell/taste/seem/ appear/grow/turn/prove/go/run

用法

  一、look, sound, smell, taste, feel,这五个动词均可作连系动词,后面接形容词作表语,说明主语所处的状态。其意思分别为"看/听/闻/尝/摸起来……"。除look之外,其它几个动词的主语往往是物,而不是人。
  例如:
  These flowers smell very sweet.这些花闻起来很香。
  The tomatoes feel very soft.这些西红柿摸起来很软。
  二、这些动词后面也可接介词like短语,like后面常用名词。
  例如:
  Her idea sounds like fun.她的主意听起来很有趣。
  三、这五个感官动词也可作实义动词,除look(当"看起来……"讲时)只能作不及物动词外,其余四个既可作及物动词也可作不及物动词,此时作为实义动词讲时其主语一般为人。(和1有区别)
  例如:
  She smelt the meat.她闻了闻那块肉。
  I felt in my pocket for cigarettes.我用手在口袋里摸香烟。
  四、taste, smell作不及物动词时,可用于"taste / smell + of +名词"结构,意为"有……味道/气味"。
  例如:
  The air in the room smells of earth.房间里的空气有股泥土味。
  五、它们(sound除外)可以直接作名词,与have或take构成短语。
  例如:
  May I have a tasteof the mooncakes?我可以尝一口这月饼吗?
  taste有品位,味道的意思
  例: I don't like the taste of the garlic. 我不喜欢大蒜的味道。
  She dresses in poor taste.她穿着没有品位。
  look有外观,特色的意思
  例:The place has a European look.此地具有欧洲特色。
  feel有感觉,感受的意思
  六、其中look, sound, feel还能构成"look / sound / feel + as if +从句"结构,意为"看起来/听起来/感觉好像……"。
  例如:
  It looks as if our class is going to win.看来我们班好像要获胜了.
  七、感官动词+do 与+doing的区别:
  感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do 表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性
  I saw him work in the garden yesterday.
  昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实) <我看见了全过程强调过程》
  I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)
  昨天我见他正在花园里干活。

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