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rather用法请帮忙说明一下以下几个的用法rather that;would...rather t...

2016-10-28  柔轩书屋
rather than 用法小结
rather than 是一个并列连词,用法比较复杂,现归纳如下:
1. rather than 与would 连用时,构成“would rather...than...”句式,意思是“宁愿……而不愿……”,表示主观愿望,即在两者之中选择其一.例如:
She'd rather die than lose the children. 她宁愿死也不愿失去孩子们.
2. rather than 不与would连用时,表示客观事实,意为“是……而不是……;与其……不如……”.它连接的并列成分可以是名词、代词、形容词、介词(短语)、动名词、分句、不定式、动词等.现分述如下:
(1) 连接两个名词或代词
He is an explorer rather than a sailor. 与其说他是一个海员,不如说他是一个探险者.
You rather than I are going to go camping. 是你而不是我要去要野营.
注意:rather than 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词应与rather than 前面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致.
(2) 连接两个形容词
The sweater she bought was beautiful rather than cheap. 与其说她买的这件羊毛衫便宜不如说它漂亮.
(3) 连接两个介词(短语)或动名词
We will have the meeting in the classroom rather than in the great hall. 我们是在教室里开会,不是在大厅里.
She enjoys singing rather than dancing. 她喜欢唱歌,而不喜欢跳舞.
(4) 连接两个分句
We should help him rather than he should help us. 是我们应该帮助他而不是他应该帮助我们.
(5) 连接两个不定式
I decided to write rather than (to) telephone. 我决定写信而不打电话.
注意:rather than 后接不定式时,不定式可以带to,也可以不带to, 如上句.但rather than位于句首时,则只能接不带to 的不定式.如:Rather than allow the vegetables to go bad, he sold them at half price. 他唯恐蔬菜烂掉,把它们以半价卖掉了.
(6) 连接两个动词
He ran rather than walked. 他是跑来的,而不是走来的.
注意:这里rather than 后用了walked,而没有用walk,表示客观事实,而不是主观愿望.如果换成walk,则作“宁愿……而不愿 ……”解.
would rather的用法
一、would rather意思是“宁愿、宁可、更、最好、还是为好”,后接动词原形,常省略为’d rather,表示优先选择的一种方式
其否定形式是would rather not do sth.would rather没有人称和数的变化,所有的人称一律用would rather.
“would rather+动词原形”是英语中常见的一个惯用句式,美国英语中多用had rather.would (had)在此决无“过去”之意,它是一个情态助动词,且无词性、时态变化.
例 Mr Li would rather not listen to rock music. 李先生不愿意听摇滚音乐.
If you’d rather be alone, we’ll all leave here. 如果你宁愿独自呆着,那我们都离开这儿.
He’d rather work in the countryside. 她宁可到农村去工作.
You would rather stay at home and do some reading this evening. 今晚你最好呆在家中读点书.
二、如果在两者中进行取舍,表示“宁愿……而不愿……,与其……宁可……”的意思时,则可用would rather…than…或would…rather than…的句型
例 I would rather watch TV at home than go to the cinema. 我宁可在家看电视而不愿去看电影.
The children would walk there rather than take a bus. 孩子们宁愿步行去那里而不愿乘公共汽车.
请注意 1) would rather…than…/would…rather than…也可以颠倒为:rather than…would….Would(rather)和than后都接不带to的动词不定式,若选用的动词相同,那么than 后的动词可以省略.
例 I would rather have noodles than rice. 我宁愿吃面条也不吃米饭.
He would rather drink wine than beer. 他喜欢喝红葡萄酒而不喜欢喝啤酒.
Rather than work in such bad condition, he would give up. 与其在这样差的条件下工作,他宁愿放弃.
2)使用would rather…than…句型时要注意“平行结构”,即在than 的前后要用两个同类的词或词组,如两个名词、两个不定式、两个介词短语等.
例 I would rather go to work by bike than by bus. 我宁愿骑自行车也不愿乘公共汽车去上班.
I would rather talk with his mother than with his father. 我宁愿和他妈说话而不愿和他爸说话.
三、在疑问句式中,would rather 与would rather…than…中的would要放在主语之前
例 Would you rather stay here or go home? 你愿意呆在这里,还是回家?
Which would you rather have, apples or bananas? 你喜欢吃苹果还是香蕉?
Would you rather read a novel than read a poem?你宁愿看小说而不愿朗读诗歌吗?
四、would rather+从句,是一个常用的虚拟语气句型 Would rather+从句,谓语一般用过去时来表示现在或将来.其意为“宁愿……,还是…… 好些”“一个人宁愿另一个人做某事”.引导从句的that常省略.在谈到过去的动作时,谓语则用过去完成时.
例 John wants to see me today. I would rather he came to tomorrow than today. 约翰今天想去看我.我宁愿他明天来看我而不是今天.(句中came不是表示过去而是表示将来)
We’d rather he paid us the money tomorrow. 我们宁愿他明天付给我们那笔钱.
Don’t come tomorrow. I’d rather you came next weekend. 明天别来.我希望你下周末来.
请注意 1) 如果谈到过去的动作,也就是表示过去已经发生的事情在选择上不恰当.此时,主句一般为I had rather ,其(that)从句则用过去完成时. 例 Would rather you had not done that. 我真希望你没有做那件事.
2)如果只涉及主语本人而不涉及另一个人,则would rather之后不接that从句而接have done结构.
例 I would rather have gone to the theatre than stayed home night. 我真希望昨天晚上去看了戏而不是呆在家里. He would rather be poor than have got money by dishonest methods. 他宁可穷也不愿意用不诚实的手段获取金钱.
Henry would rather that his girlfriend worked in the same department as he does.亨利希望他的女朋友和他在一个部门工作.
五、would rather/sooner和prefer/would prefer的区别 would rather和would sooner之间一般没有区别,但经常接触到的是would rather.
例Tom would rather/sooner read than talk. 汤姆宁可读书而不愿谈天. Tom prefers reading to talking.汤姆喜欢读书而不喜欢谈天.
请注意 1)would rather后跟不带to的不定式+than+不带 to的不定式,而prefer后跟动名词+to+动名词.有时prefer后面也可跟名词,而在would rather之后要求只带动词原形.
例 He prefers wine to beer.= He would rather drink wine than beer. 他喜欢喝红葡萄酒而不喜欢喝啤酒.
I prefer tennis to golf.= I’d rather play tennis than golf. 我喜欢打网球而不喜欢打高尔夫球. 2)某些 prefer+名词的情况不能用 would rather完全确切地表达出来:He prefers dogs to cats.(他喜欢狗而不喜欢猫.)和 He would rather have dogs than cats.(他宁可养狗而不愿养猫.)很明显,这两句的意思并不完全相同.
3) would rather+不带to的不定式有时可代替 would prefer+带 to的不定式.
例 I’d rather fly than go by sea.=I’d prefer to fly. 我宁愿乘飞机也不愿乘船.
这两个结构后面带名词时情况也一样:
例 —Would you like some gin?
—I’d prefer a coffee.=I’d rather have coffee than gin.
—您想喝点杜松子酒吗?
—我想喝点咖啡./我想喝点咖啡,不想喝杜松子酒.
4)would rather/sooner和would prefer后面都可跟完成式,但后者带to.
例 We went by sea but I’d rather have gone by air=I’d prefer to have gone by air. 我们是乘船去的,可我本想乘飞机去.(我愿意乘飞机去,可我的愿望未能实现.)这和 would like+不定式的完成式有点相似,would like+带to 的不定式的完成式也表示未能实现的愿望.

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