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广深牛津版英语八年级下册知识点归纳和习题

2018-04-25  吾莫



一、重点词汇讲解

1. raise  v. 筹集;提升;增加

第三人称单数:raises    过去式:raised    过去分词:raised    现在分词:raising

搭配:raise money 筹款raise money for … 为……筹款

raise one’s voice 提高嗓门;  例如:They raised money for homeless people.

raise price 提高价格;raise one’s spirits 打起精神

raise = keep 有“饲养,抚养”的意思,如:

raise cattle = keep cattle(饲养牲口)和raise children(抚养孩子)

辨析:raise, rise(rise--rose--risen)的区别

(1) 这两个词都有“提高,上升,增加”的意思,但其用法不同。

    raise是及物动词,其主语通常是人;而rise是不及物动词,其主语通常是物。例如:The sun rises and bathes the earth. 太阳升起,普照大地。

Bath n. 沐浴,浴室    bathe v. 沐浴,洗,(光线)充满

(2) raise和rise用于同一事物时含义不同。例如:

     The price of TV sets has been raised recently. 最近电视机提价了。(政府或厂家主动行动)

     The price of TV sets has risen recently. 最近电视机提价了。(市场调节)

2. permission n. = agreement 准许;批准

搭配:Ask permission 报请批准

  Write a letter to the head teacher to                     to raise money. 给校长写一封信请求允许筹钱。

同根词:permit v. = allow you to do it 许可,准许;默许

  The guards permitted me to bring my camera and tape recorder.

知识拓展:

(1)   表示请求某人允许自己做某事,通常与动词ask, ask for, request连用。  

She asked for permission to leave work early.她请求许可早点下班。

(2)   表示允许某人做某事,通常与动词give连用。

Who gave you permission to come here? 谁准许你到这里来的

  (3)表示不允许某人做某事,通常与动词refuse/ deny 连用。

     The school has been refused permission to expand.学校扩充未得到允许

3. disabled adj. 丧失能力的;有残疾的

  I taught disabled children to sing.  我教残疾的孩子唱歌。

  同根词:disable v. = make (sb.) unable to do sth. 使残废,使伤残

  He is disabled from voting. 他失去了选举资格。

  enable v.  [ɪn'eɪb(ə)l]  = make (sb.) able to do sth. 使(某人)能够做某事

  The new test should enable doctors to detect the disease early.

  新的检测手段应该能够使医生们尽早查出这种疾病。

  搭配:mentally disabled 有智力缺陷    learning disabilities 学习障碍

4. offer v. = be willing to do something 主动提出

搭配: offer to do sth. 主动提出去做某事,愿意做某事

Peter offered to teach them water-skiing. 彼得主动提出教他们滑水。

搭配:offer one’s hand 伸出友好的手    offer sb. sth. 为某人提供某物

They have offered me a large sum of money to go away. 他们曾为我提供一大笔搬迁费

  辨析:provide, offer的区别:

  provide用于表示无主动慷慨之意地为人或物提供需要或有用的东西,仅仅是出于某种责任,强调提供必须用的东西,尤其是生活用品,多数情况是免费的。常用于provide sb. with sth.provide sth. for sb. 的固定搭配中。

offer表示主动提供服务、工作等,对方可以接受,也可以不接受。常用于offer sb. sth.offer sth. to sb. 固定搭配中。

例如:offer sb.主动提出帮助某人;offer sb. a good salary 给某人一个好工资。

  Somehow she managed to provide her children with food and clothing.

  她总算设法使她的孩子有饭吃,有衣穿。                             

  He offered me a glass of wine. = He offered a glass of wine to me. 他端给我一杯酒。

  5. illness  n. (某种)病

  The children there all suffer from serious illness. 那里的孩子都遭受疾病的折磨。

  同根词:ill adj. 有病的 (比较级:worse, 最高级:worst)

  辨析:ill,  illness, sick的区别:

illness是ill的名词形式,是可数名词。

ill和sick都有“生病的;有病的”之意,但用法并不完全相同。

  ill表示“生病的;有病的”这一意思时,一般用作表语,不能作定语;

sick既可以作表语又可以作定语,如“病人”可以说a sick man或the sick, 但不能说an ill man或the ill。例如:

  She is ill/sick in bed. 她卧病在床。

  She is looking after her sick father. 她在照顾她生病的父亲。

  sick 有“恶心的;厌倦的”之意。例如:The smell makes me sick. 这气味使我感到恶心。

  ill作定语修饰名词时是“坏的;邪恶的”之意。例如:

  He is an ill man. 他是一个邪恶的人。

一言辨异:Although I am ill, I have to look after my sick sister at home today. Because of illness, she can’t go to school.尽管我病了,但是今天我必须在家照看我生病的妹妹。因为疾病,她没有去上学。

6. organize v. 组织

  In the end, we all decided to organize a concert for Easter. 最终,我们一致决定组织一场复活节音乐会。

同根词:organization n. 组织;机构 organizer n. 组织者organized adj. 有组织的

  What do you know about our organization?  关于我们的组织你知道些什么?

  Students need organized activities. 学生们需要有组织的活动。

  Who is the organizer of the exhibition? 谁是这次展览会的组织者?

  7. express v. 表达;表露

  This helps them express their feelings. 这有助于他们表达他们的情感。

  同根词:expression n. 表现,表示,表达;表情

  She gave expression to her sadness. 她流露出了悲伤之情。

  8. lonely   adj. 孤独的;寂寞的;荒凉的 (比较级:lonelier最高级:loneliest)

  It felt like the loneliest place in the world. 感觉这就像是天底下最荒凉的地方。

  辨析:lonely, alone的区别:

  alone为形容词,意为“单独的”,只作表语,不能作定语。侧重说明独自一人,没有助手或同伴,没有感情色彩的只表示客观的状态。

  lonely意为“孤独的”,表示主观上感到孤独、寂寞,有较浓的感情色彩,指因缺少朋友、同情、友谊等产生的一种悲伤和忧郁的感情。它为形容词,在句中作表语或定语。作定语时,意为“荒凉;偏僻”,多修饰表示地点的名词。

  alone还可以作副词。

  alone adv. 单独;独自

  She went home alone.= She went home by herself. 她独自回家去了。

  The old man lives in a lonely town, he lives alone but he does’t feel lonely.

  这位老人住在偏僻的镇上,他独自一人住着,但他并不感到孤独。

一言辩异: I didn’t feel lonely though I was alone. 我虽孤身一人,但并不感到寂寞。

9. friendship n. 友情;友谊

  同根词:friend n. 朋友   复数:friends.

  True friendship is worth more than money. 真正的友谊比金钱更有价值。

  friendly   adj. 友好的

  Robert has a friendly relationship with his customers. 罗伯特和他的客户之间关系处得很好。

  friendliness n. 友善

  She also loves the friendliness of the people. 她也喜欢人们的友善。                        10. difficulty   n. = be not able to do something easily 困难;费劲

  The country is facing great economic difficulties. 该国正面临巨大的经济困难。

  同根词:difficult  adj. = hard to do 困难的

  The child is going through a difficult phase. 那孩子正经历困难的阶段。

  It’s difficult for me. 对我来说这很难。

  搭配:have difficulty (in) doing something 做……有困难

  I had no difficulty (in) making myself understood. 我毫不费力地表达了自己的意思。

  in difficulty/difficulties 处境困难

  The bank is in difficulty/difficulties. 这家银行处境困难。

  11. joy n. = a feeling of great happiness 愉快;喜悦

  I taught them to sing because music can bring them joy and peace.

  我教他们唱歌,因为音乐能带给他们喜悦与宁静。

  同根词:joyful  n. 快乐的,高兴的;令人开心的,使人喜悦的

  He was excited and joyful at the success. 他因成功而激动欣喜。

  搭配:to one’s joy 令人高兴的是,使某人高兴的是

  To her joy her son was permitted to a key university.

  12. peace n. 平静;宁静

  the Nobel Peace Prize 诺贝尔和平奖

  One more question and I’ll leave you in peace. 再问一个问题,我就不打扰你了。

  同根词:peaceful  adj. 和平的;爱好和平的;安静的;平静的

  Evening in the country is a very peaceful time. 乡村里的今晚是平静安谧的时刻。

  13. hurt  v. = injure ['ɪndʒə] 使疼痛;受伤

  Tim hurt his legs in an accident, but he has lots of courage.

  提姆在一次事故中伤了腿,但他很勇敢。

  同根词:hurt  adj. 受伤的;痛苦的;(受)损坏的

  They did not seem to be badly hurt. 他们看起来没有受重伤。

  搭配:hurt oneself 自己受伤

  Have you hurt yourself? 你伤着自己了吗?

 注意:身体伤害重用badly修饰。精神、感情受到创伤用 very much/ rather/ deeply修饰

 The driver hurt himself badly in the accident. 那位司机在事故中伤得很重。

 Your words deeply hurt her. 你的话深深地伤害了她。

  14. courage  n. 勇气;勇敢

  同根词:encourage  v. 鼓励,鼓舞;支持;促进;鼓动

  My English teacher often encourages us to read English aloud.

  我的英语老师常常鼓励我们大声读英语。

  搭配:take one’s courage in both hands 鼓起勇气去做;敢作敢为

  gather courage鼓足勇气  lose courage 失去勇气

 gather ['gæðə] vt. 收集;收割

  Taking her courage in both hands, she opened the door and walked in.

  她壮着胆打开门,走了进去。

  Failure is the mother of success. Keep up your courage.失败是成功之母。鼓起你的勇气来。

15. Spirits n. 情绪,心境

他回到家里是情绪非常好。He felt in excellent spirits when he arrived home.

Spirit n. 精神,勇气,意志。

尽管他已经不再人世,但他的精神却至今还在。Even though he is no longer living, his spirit lives on today.

固定搭配:in spirit 在心里, 在精神上

16. pay v. 付款;偿还

  We paid 35 pounds for each ticket. 我们每张票付了35英镑。

  同根词:pay n. 工资;薪水;报答

  They complained about their pay and conditions. 他们抱怨他们的薪水和工作条件。

  搭配:pay off 偿清(债务);支付(债务)的全部数额

     pay attention to 注意    pay a visit to  去参观,拜访   pay for 为……付款

  辨析:take, spend, cost和pay的用法区别:

  总结:

  take一般用it作主语,例如:it takes sb. sometime to do sth.

  spend一般是人作主语,例如:I spend an hour finishing my homework.

  cost表示某物值什么的(价值或钱),例如:The book cost 200 yuan.

  pay一般是人作主语,例如:I pay lots of money for books.


  spend的主语必须是人常用于以下结构

  (1)spend time/money on sth. 在……上花费时间(金钱)。例如:

  I spent two hours on this math problem. 这道数学题花了我两个小时。

  (2)spend time/money (in) doing sth. 花费时间(金钱)做某事。例如:

  They spent two years (in) building this bridge. 造这座桥花了他们两年时间。

  (3)spend money for sth. 花钱买…… 例如:

  His money was spent for books. 他的钱用来买书了。

cost的主语是物或某种活动还可以表示“值”,常见用法如下:

  (1)sth. costs (sb.) + 金钱,某物花了(某人)多少钱。例如:

  A new computer costs a lot of money.

  (2)(doing) sth. costs (sb.) + 时间,某物(做某事)花了(某人)多少时间。例如:

  Remembering these new words cost him a lot of time.他花了大量时间才记住了这些单词。

  注意:cost的过去式及过去分词都是cost,并且不能用于被动句。

  take后面常跟双宾语,常见用法有以下几种:

  (1)It takes sb. + 时间 + to do sth. 做某事花了某人多少时间。例如:

  It took them three years to build this road. 他们用三年时间修完了这条路。

  (2)doing sth. takes sb. + 时间,做某事花了某人多少时间。例如:

  Repairing this car took him the whole afternoon. 他花了一下午修车。

  pay的基本用法是:

  (1)pay (sb.) money for sth.付钱(给某人)买…… 例如:

  I have to pay them 20 pounds for this room each month. 我每个月要付20英镑的房租。

  (2)pay for sth. 付……的钱 例如:

  I have to pay for the book lost. 我不得不赔丢失的书款。

  (3)pay for sb. 替某人付钱 例如:

  Don’t worry! I’ll pay for you. 别担心,我会给你付钱的。

  (4)pay sb. 付钱给某人 例如:

  They pay us every month. 他们每月给我们报酬。

  (5)pay money back 还钱  例如:

  May I borrow 12 yuan from you? I’ll pay it back next week.

  (6)pay off one’s money 还清钱。

17. voluntary  adj.自愿的;志愿的

 He made a voluntary statement to the police.

他自愿为警方作供。

18. be used for doing 被用来做(某事)

   be used to do  被用来去做``````

   be used as  把······用作,被用来当作······

   be used by (某物)被某人使用,by后接动词的执行者

**be used to (doing) sth. 习惯于(做某事)

**used to do sth. 过去常常做某事

This medicine is used for curing cancer. 这种药物是用于治疗癌症的。

Clothes are used to keep warm. 衣服是用来保暖的。

The box is used as a table. 这个箱子被当作桌子用。

This car is used by Mr. Li.这是李先生的专用轿车。

My father is used to getting up early. 我爸爸习惯于早起。

I used to dance after school. 我过去常常放学后跳舞。

In the past, people used to use horses as their transport. 过去人们常常使用马匹作为他们的交通工具。

19. since then 自从那时起
since I was born 自从我出生时
since+ 时间点(用于完成时)

l  自从5点开始他就在等了。

l  He has waited since 5 o’clock.

l  陈先生自从2岁起就住在这儿。

l  Mr. Chen has lived here since 2 years old.

l  我们自从七年前开始就学习英语了。

l  We have learned English since 7 years ago.


Grammar 动词不定式

(1)基本形式:

      to+动词原形 (在某些情况下可以不带  to)

(2)特点  : 

A .没有人称和数的变化

B .可以有自己的宾语和状语 

C .有时态和语态的变化(被动语态的形式为  to  be  + 动词过去分词)

D.动词不定式的否定式直接在不定式的前面加not.


(3)动词不定式用法

A、作主语

动词不定式作主语时,句子的谓语动词常用单数,其位置有以下两种:   

(1)   把不定式置于句首。

如:To get there by bike will take us half an hour.

To learn a foreign language is not easy. = It’s not easy to learn a foreign language.

(2)用it作形式主语,把真正的主语不定式置于句后,常用于下列句式中。

It is good to help others.    帮助他人是件好事。 

It is exciting to surf   the Internet.    上网是件令人兴奋的事。

B、作表语 (表语是用来说明主语的身份、性质、品性、特征和状态的,表语常由名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式、动词的-ing、从句来充当,它常位于系动词(be, become, appear, seem,look,sound,feel,get,smell等词)之后。如果句子的表语也是由一个句子充当的,那么这个充当表语的句子就叫做表语从句)

The important thing is to finish the work on time. (完成工作)

What you have to do now is to clean the classroom.  (打扫教室).

C  作宾语 

1)      动词 + to do 常见动词有 agree, choose, decide, forget, fail,   go on, learn, hope, mean (意味;想要) need, offer, plan, regret, require, remember,   seem, stop, try, wish, want等

[注意]:部分动词后接不定式与接动名词的含义不同。如stop, forget, remember

1. He decided   to buy (buy) the camera.

2. I want to listen to (listen to) some music after class.

3. I hope to travel (travel) all over the world one day.

2) 动词+疑问代(副)词 + to do

I don’t know     what to do. (做什么)

                    how to do it / that. (怎么做)

                   where to go (去哪里)

                   when to leave (什么时候出发)

                  Which one to choose (选择哪个)

例:I haven’t decided when to take     a holiday yet.

  1. A.      took  B. taking  C. to take  D.take

3) 动词 + it(形式宾语)+宾补 +to do

I find it important to learn English

我发现很难和他好好相处.  I find it hard to get on well with him.

我发现在炎热的夏天很容易入睡. I find it easy to fall asleep in hot summer.


动词不定式做宾补

1) 动词 + 宾语 +to do

Li Mei asked me to show her the new dictionary.

注:有以上结构的常用动词有 tell. wish, ask, want,like, beg(请求), invite(邀请), warn(警告,提醒), allow, encourage, advise 等。

2) 动词 + 宾语 + do (不带 to  的不定式)

注:常用的动词是:感官动词see, hear, feel, watch, notice; 使役动词 have ,make, let.(如果将其改成被动语态,必须将不定式符号to还原。)

例:Colors can change our moods(情绪) and make us feel happy or sad.

  1. A.      Feel  B. to feel  C. felt   D. feeling

固定搭配:make sb. do sth.


E、作状语(可以表目的、表结果、表原因)。为了强调目的, 有时可以把不定式放在句首,或在不定式前面加in order to…或so as not to…

I came here to tell you good news. ( 告诉你一个好消息)

She stydied hard to pass the exam.她刻苦学习,以便通过考试。


F、作定语 (必须后置)

我们每天有很多作业要做.  We have a lot of homework to do every day.

我有个好消息要告诉你. I have good news to tell you.


不带to的不定式结构

以下几种情况使用不带to的动词不定式:

1.在固定词组had better之后。注意:had better的否定形式是had better not do sth.。例如:

  You had better go home now.你最好现在回家。

It's cold outside. You'd better not go out.外面很冷,你最好不要出去。

2.will (would) you please之后动词不定式不带to.

Would you please say it again more slowly? 请你再慢慢说它一下好吗?

2.在感官动词see, watch, feel, hear, look at, listen to和使役动词have, make,let后要跟不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。例如:

  I made them give me the money back.我迫使他们把钱还给我。

  I didn't see you come in.我没看见你进来。

3.在引导疑问句的why not之后。

'Why not+不带to的不定式'是Why don't you do…的省略,可以用来提出建议或劝告。


在动词help之后做宾语或宾语补足语的不定式,to可省略也可保留。

Will you help me (to) move the table? 请帮我搬一下桌子好吗?


当but, except, besides之前有一个实义动词时,这个介词之后的动词不定式不带to.

What do you like to do besides swim? 除了游泳,你还爱好什么?


Quiz

1. The workers want us ______ together with them.
   A. work  B. working  C. to work  D. worked
2. There isn’t any difference between the two.

   I really don’t know _________.

     A. where to choose   B. which to choose
     C. to choose what     D. to choose which

3. The teacher told them ____make so much noise.
     A. don’t   B. not   C. will not   D. not to

4.He gave us some advice on how____ English.

A. learning   B . learned   C. to learn  D . learn

5.I’m thirsty. Would you please give me something

   ________.

  A .drunk            B .to drink  

  C .to be drunk   D  .for drinking

6.Tom is the first _____ to school.

    A . get     B . to get     C. getting    D  . Got

7. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,

     but his mother told him ______.
  A. not to  B. not to do   C. not do it  D. do not to

8. I saw him _______ out of the room.
  A. go  B. had gone  C. has gone  D. goes

9.---_______ more about tomorrow’s weather, call 121.

---OK, I will. Thank you. 

    A. Know        B. Knowing     C. To know     D. Known

10.We must do everything we can ____ waste water from

running into rivers.

     A. keep         B. kept        C. to keep       D. keeping

11.Let’s ____ play in the street. Father tells me __ do so.

      A. not to;not to      B. not;not to 

      C. don’t;to not      D. not to;don’t 

12.When I came into the room, he pretended ____ his  homework.   

 A. to do       B. be doing      C. doing        D. to be doing      

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    来自: 吾莫 > 《英语》

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