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实现学生课堂互动最大化的若干金点子 - 英语教学法著作选读201908(总第0145)

2020-07-21  昵称70926...

朋友们:

本篇文章承接上期,为方便大家参考,链接在此:

两个典型事例体现的选项、决定与行动:关于“课堂教学管理”的五六思考 - 英语教学法著作选读201906(总第0143期)

关于课堂互动的几点探讨 – 英语教学法著作选读201907(总第0144)

“英语教学法著作选读”系列文章2018年总目录(含2017、2016总目录)

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下文选自上海外语教育出版社出版的《学习教学:英语教师指南(Learning Teaching: A Guidebook for English language teachers)》(作者Jim Scrivener)第二章“An Introduction to Classroom Management”(课堂教学管理入门)。

选文、翻译:武太白

Maximizing student interaction in class: some ideas

学生课堂互动最大化:金点子

Remember the characteristics suggested by Carl Rogers for creating an effective learning environment. Be as honestly yourself as you can be. Respect the learners. Work on seeing things from their perspective as well as your own.

要记住卡尔·罗杰斯提出的、创造有效学习环境的若干特征。尽可能坦诚地做自己。尊重学习者。不但要从自身视角看待事物,还要努力学会从学习者视角看问题。

Encourage a friendly, relaxed learning environment. If there is a trusting, positive, supportive rapport amongst the learners and between learners and teacher, then there is a much better chance of useful interaction happening.

鼓励友好的、放松的学习环境。学习者之间、学习者和教师之间如果有信任、积极、支持的融洽关系,那么就更有可能发生有用的互动。

Ask questions rather than giving explanations.

提问,而非仅仅讲解。

When you want students to discuss something, ask ‘open’ questions (eg where, what, who, why, how, when questions that require a longer answer) rather than ‘closed’ questions (eg verb-subject questions that require nothing more than yes or no). For example, instead of ‘Is noise pollution a bad thing?’(answer = yes or no) you could ask ‘What do you think about noise pollution?’

当你想要让学生讨论点什么的时候,要问“开放式”问题(如在哪里,什么,谁,为什么,怎么样,什么时候,这样的问题需要更详尽的答复)而不是“封闭式”问题(如简单的主谓问句,只要答个yes、no)。例如,不要问“Is noise pollution a bad thing?”(答案是yes或no),可以问“What do you think about noise pollution?”。

Allow time for students to listen, think, process their answer and speak.

给学生时间聆听、思考、处理他们的答案,并开口发言。

Really listen to what they say. Let what they say really affect what you do next. Work on listening to the person, and, the meaning, as well as to the language and the mistakes.

实实在在地听听学生都说了些什么。让他们所说的对你下一步要做的事情起到真切的影响。在听学生所说的语言、所犯的错误的同时,要努力学会把他们当作真正的说话人来对待,听懂他们的意思。

Allow thinking time without talking over it. Allow silence.

给学生思考的时间,在此时间内不要说话。允许出现沉默时段。

Increase opportunities for STT (Student Talking Time).

增加STT(学生发言时间,Student Talking Time)的机会。

Use gestures to replace unnecessary teacher talk.

使用手势来取代不必要的教师言语。

Allow students to finish their own sentences.

让学生把自己的句子说完整。

Make use of pairs and small groups to maximize opportunities for students to speak.

利用结对和小组活动把学生开口发言的实践机会最大化。

If possible, arrange seating so that students can all see each other and talk to each other (ie circles, squares and horseshoes rather than parallel rows).

如果有可能,把座位安排成学生都能够相互看见对方、相互对话的格局(比如环形座位、四方形座位、马蹄形座位,而不是平行成排座位)。

Remember that the teacher doesn’t always need to be at the front of the class. Try out seating arrangements that allow the whole class to be the focus (eg teacher takes one seat in the circle).

要记得,教师并不总是需要位于全班同学面前。试着把座位安排成允许全班同学成为焦点的格局(比如教师在环形座位中占据一个位子)。

Encourage interaction between students rather than only between student and teacher and teacher and student. Get students to ask questions, give explanations, etc to each other rather than always to you. Use gestures and facial expressions to encourage them to speak and listen to each other.

鼓励学生之间的互动,而不仅仅是学生——教师、教师——学生之间的互动。让学生相互提问题、做出讲解,而不是总是向教师提问,听教师讲解。要用手势、面部表情等鼓励他们相互对话、聆听对方的发言。

Encourage co-operation rather than competition. In many activities (probably not in a test or exam) you may want to encourage students to copy ideas from others, or ‘cheat’. Although much of our own educational experience may suggest that this kind of co-operation is to be discouraged, it seems to me to be useful and positive — we learn from others and from working through our own mistakes. If this is true, then it means that the teacher can concentrate more on the process of learning than simply on a plunge towards the ‘right answers’. The result of a learning exercise becomes less important than the getting there.

鼓励合作而不是竞争。在很多活动中(大概要除了测试或测验),你会想要鼓励学生相互照搬点子,或者说“作弊”。尽管我们自身教育经历的大部分都可能会说,这种合作不应该得到鼓励,对我来说这样做却是有用的、积极的——我们从其他人那里学习,从改正错误中学习。如果这是对的,那么这就意味着教师可以更加专注于学习过程,而不是仅仅直奔“正确答案”。练习的答案变得不那么重要,如何得出答案才更加重要。

Allow students to become more responsible for their own progress. Put them in situations where they need to make decisions for themselves.

允许学生对他们自己的进步负担更大的责任。把他们放到需要他们为自己做出决定的场景中去。

If a student is speaking too quietly for you to hear, walk further away, rather than closer to them! (This sounds illogical - but if you can’t hear them,then it’s likely that the other students can’t either. Encourage the quiet speaker to speak louder so that the others can hear.) 

如果学生说话声音太小,你听不见,那你要走远点,而不是走近点!(这听起来不符合逻辑——但如果你听不见他们讲话,很可能其他学生也听不见。鼓励那些小声讲话的同学声音放大一点,以便其他人都能听见。)

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