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耶基斯-多德森定律

2011-08-15  梦中家园
耶基斯-多德森定律
2010-06-17 04:14

....像太阳一样,可以增加你的压力。应力开发您和您的情绪智力的创造能力。这是你最大的老师。

....Like the SUN, stress can grow you. Stress develops your emotional intelligence and your creative capabilities. It's your greatest teacher.

下降的部分另一方面是由于负面影响的觉醒(或应力)的认知过程,如注意( “管状视, 视野狭隘” ) ,内存,和解决问题。
The downward part on the other hand is caused by negative effects of arousal (or stress) on cognitive processes, like attention ("tunnel vision"), memory, and problem-solving.

 

1909 叶克斯(R.M Yerkes,1916-1979)与杜德逊(J.D Dodson)通过动物实验发现的,被称为叶克斯-多德森定律(Yerkes-Dodson law)用来解释心理压力、工作难度与作业成绩三者之间的关系。

     在复杂困难的情绪扰乱认知性的心理活动所致,凡是复杂困难的工作,在工作程序上必定含有多种因素的交互配合的关系,如果心理压力过高,思考稍有疏忽,就难免忙中出错。简单工作多属重复性的活动,此种活动日久便会形成自动化的连锁功能,至此地步,不须认知思考,若有心理压力存在,不但不致影响自动化功能的进步,反而有可能使自动化的速度提升。

 

 

 

工作与生活的平衡:设置边界和界限

Work-life balance: Setting boundaries and limits

你觉得你有一个很好的平衡工作与生活? Do you feel you have a good balance between work and life?

“多少钱就够了吗? ” "How much is enough?"

让我分享了三个故事。我的一位朋友是感叹他的超负荷工作。自雇专业,他被淹没了客户,纸张,电话和传真,并受到不断的最后期限。他的作品往往波及到了晚上和周末。他说,他没有别的选择,因为所有这些东西的事。我问: “你是什么意思你没有选择呢?你为什么就这么多的客户呢? ”他说: “嗯,我明白你的意思。我想我做了一个选择。 ” Let me share three stories. A friend of mine was lamenting his overload of work. A self-employed professional, he was inundated with clients, paper, phone calls and faxes, and plagued by constant deadlines. His work often spilled over into his evenings and weekends. He said he had no choice because there was all this stuff to do. I asked: "What do you mean you have no choice? Why did you take on so many clients in the first place?" He said, "Hmm, I see what you mean. I guess I did have a choice."

在第二种情况下,病人回忆旋风访问芝加哥敲定生意。他提出在几个小时18-20天的庞大队伍包括律师,会计师,商界人士和前最后拖着自己家里,完全用尽。我问他是什么令人信服的紧迫感,这些人都日以继夜完成这一交易?他说, “只是他们做生意。 ”然后他说, “如果你想知道最惨的时候,我离开后,他们已经复苏的另一个马拉松会议结束明年处理。对于他们来说,它永远不会停止。 ”

In the second case, a patient recounted a whirlwind trip to Chicago to finalize a business deal. He put in several 18-20 hour days with a large team of lawyers, accountants, and business people before finally dragging himself home, utterly exhausted. I asked him what was the compelling urgency that had all these people working around the clock to complete this transaction? He said, "That's just the way they do business there." And then he said, "If you want to know the worst of it, after I left, they were already revving up for another marathon session to close the next deal. For them, it never stops."

在未来的故事涉及到谁只有一个人回家吃晚饭了几个晚一个星期。除了他的全职工作,他自愿的时间缩短至五年的社区组织。阿好家伙你无法找到,但他正撤出自己在这么多的方向,他几乎没有时间陪伴家人。

The next story involves a person who only got home for dinner a couple of nights a week. In addition to his full-time job, he volunteered his time to five community organizations. A nicer guy you couldn't find, but he was pulling himself in so many directions that he barely had time for his family.

对所有这些人我问两个问题: “你为什么要这样做? ”和“多少钱就够了吗? ”太多的我们都在超负荷。我认为,人谁工作时间长是自欺欺人。很少人能在10小时以上,每天(或每周50小时) ,并仍然是生产力。在这之后,不仅一切需要较长时间,但我们变得疲惫,效率低下。

To all of these people I asked two questions: "Why are you doing this?" and "How much is enough?" Too many of us are on overload. I think that people who work long hours are fooling themselves. Very few people can put in more than 10 hours a day (or 50 hours a week) and still be productive. After that, not only does everything take longer, but we become tired and inefficient.

说明了这一点经典耶基斯,多德森定律(如下图) ,这表明业绩之间的关系和压力。

This is illustrated by the classic Yerkes-Dodson Law (see diagram below), which shows the relationship between performance and stress.

耶基斯,多德森定律 Yerkes-Dodson Law

在第一部分的曲线,压力实际上提高我们的效率。但是,过去的某个时刻,发生了扭转:正在进行的压力妨碍我们的效力。事实上,工作时间或难以超越这一点不仅是徒劳的,它的反作用。我们甚至可以称之为法的收益递减。我们的身体和思想需要恢复的时间来恢复我们全功能。 In the first part of the curve, stress actually improves our efficiency. But past a certain point, the reverse occurs: ongoing stress impairs our effectiveness. In fact, working longer or harder beyond that point is not only unproductive, it's counter-productive. We might even call this the law of diminishing returns. Our bodies and minds need recovery time to restore us to full function.

不是推销难度和速度,最好的办法是,避免了一方的曲线完全。这是建立边界和界限是非常有益的。 Instead of peddling harder and faster, the best approach is to avoid the down side of the curve altogether. This is where setting boundaries and limits is most useful.

以下是一些参数使用效率保持在我的工作,我生命中的平衡:

Here are some parameters I use to maintain efficiency in my work, and balance in my life:

我通常从上午8:00至下午6:00的时间,午餐和休息的行使在下午。

我只有几个晚上一个月。

我很少在周末工作。

我几乎从未做商务旅行周六或周日。

我很少出去超过两晚连续,即使社会或做运动。

这些都是我已经建立了边界多年来。他们不是硬性的,但我不违反非常频繁。什么工程,一人可能无法正常工作的另一个,但这些准则的例子,你可以设置你自己的生活中根据您的具体情况。

I usually work from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. with time for lunch and an exercise break in the afternoon.

I work only a few evenings a month.

I rarely work on weekends.

I almost never do business travel on Saturday or Sunday.

I rarely go out more than two evenings in a row, even socially or to play sports.

These are boundaries I've established over the years. They're not hard and fast, but I don't violate them very often. What works for one person may not work for another, but these are examples of guidelines that you can set in your own life depending on your circumstances.

You can also establish boundaries by location. For example:

Don't do work at home.

If you do work at home, limit yourself to only one room or place in the house.

Whatever the specifics you decide on, the important thing is to fix some kind of limits. Ask yourself "How much is enough?" (work, income, success) and set boundaries accordingly. You need to know what your limits are regarding energy and productivity. Then you need to say, "ENOUGH" before your body goes "TILT."

所有资料的版权,医学博士大卫湾波森

All material copyrighted, David B. Posen M.D.

 


当一个人感到自己未能完成要做的事情,而这个结果对他来说又是重要时, “压力”便会随之而生(麦格拉思, 1970年) ,唤醒程度亦会随之而增高。



耶基斯与多德森( 1908年)发现,从低唤醒水平开始,提高唤醒水平有利于表现;但当唤醒水平到达一定程度时,继续提高唤醒水平反而会使表现下降,这就是著名的“倒U ”型理论(倒U型原则) 。



与“倒U ”型理论有关的发现还包括:粗肌动技能和简单技能的最理想唤醒水平较高,而精细肌动技能和复杂技能的最理想唤醒水平较低;而唤醒水平则可透过深呼吸,渐进放松法或影像训练等来调节。因此,运动员必须懂得按照运动项目的特点,适当地调节唤醒水平(特别在唤醒水平过高的时候) ,否则便有可能影响到作出最正确的抉择。

 

“唤醒水平”有关的理论就是“倒U ”型理论(倒U型原理;耶克斯与多德森, 1908年) 。根据“倒U ”型理论,在某一程度之下,运动员的“唤醒水平”越高,其表现越好。但超过了这个程度之后,运动员的“唤醒水平”越高,其表现就会越差。



罗威( 1971年)就曾验证“唤醒水平”与棒球表现的关系。整体而言,其研究结果亦支持“倒U ”型理论。不过,其研究还有以下两点重大的发现: ( 1 )个别球员的“最理想唤醒水平”有所不同,及( 2 )任务的难度亦会影响到个别球员的“最理想唤醒水平。 ”其他学者的研究亦得到相类似的结果( Fenz与爱泼斯坦, 1969年:跳伞运动员; Klavora , 1979年; Sonstroem与贝尔纳多, 1982年:篮球运动员;古尔德, Petlichkoff ,西门子与Vevera , 1987年:射击运动员;伯顿, 1988年:游泳运动员) 。



一般来说,如果任务只涉及简单的动作,因为要求表现的水平一般较低,所以其“理想唤醒水平区”会较宽。亦即是说, “唤醒水平”无论是过高或过低,对这类任务的表现都不会构成重大的负面影响。反过来说,要是任务涉及到较为复杂的动作,因为要求表现的水平相对较高,所以其“理想唤醒水平区”亦会较窄。换句话说,只要“唤醒水平”稍为不足,又或者是偏高,都会对表现造成负面影响。

 

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