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初中英语必背知识

2013-05-31  曼特宁咖啡

重点短语

leave  for 前往(某地)give a talk 作演讲/报告 take care of / look after照顾,照料 look up(在词典/字典)查询 look for 寻找 look over(医生等)仔细检查 Look out/take care/be careful  小心 give advice to ……提建议hand  in 交上as soon as …………  be scared of 害怕enjoy oneself /have fun/have a good time过得愉快 not…until…直到…………be good at/ do well in 擅长…… /……做的好 fall off  摔下来 get  off下(车,船get on 上(车,船be/become interested in ……感兴趣 make into……制成……be made of/from    ……制成 be used for被用来做…slow down 减速 be proud of而骄傲/自豪 protect… from…保护不受的侵害keep/stop/prevent…from doing…阻止以免发生某事because of 因为 make friends with交朋友look like 看上去像  play a joke on开玩笑put on 穿上take off 脱下put up 支起/举起/建造put off 推迟/延期 put out 熄灭be famous for/as闻名regard  as当作send for 派人去请/  be filled  with/ be full of充满……take part in 参加 try on 试穿as long as只要turn on 打开turn off/ out 关掉  turn up 放大;调高turn down 关小;调低  hear  from收到的邮件/信件 hear of听说 help sb with sth…帮助某人做某事  be/get ready for做好准备be good for有益be bad for有害 grow up 成长/长大 up  to 达到 ring  up打电话 as  well  as  /give up 放弃 even if/though即使/纵然be able to/can / be over结束catch up with 跟上/赶上 fall behind落后/跟不上 be used for被用来干…be located in/on位于  get on/along well with相处很好think  of想起/考虑 find out查明/发现 come up with 发现/找到work out计算出/解决 wait for 等待  pay for……付款 have success in/succeed in……(方面)成功 work hard努力工作/学习fall ill/sick生病 come true实现go  over复习/检查It is said that据说 agree  with 同意be mad at/be angry with……的气 belong  to 属于 praise  for因为(某事)表扬(某人)except for……之外prefer to…更喜欢某事物  help oneself to 请随便吃点……devote oneself to sth/doing sth 致力于/献身于

                同音词

father (父亲)---- farther (较远,far的比较级)  hear (听见)--- here (这里)  high ()--- hi ()  eye (眼睛)--- I ()  know (知道)--- no ()  meat ()--- meet (遇见)  one () --- won (获胜,win的过去式)  our (我们的)--- hour (小时)  pear ()--- pair (一对;一双) sea ()---- see (看见)   son (儿子)--- sun (太阳)  their (他们的)--- there (那里)  weak (弱的)---- week (星期)  weather (天气)--- whether (是否)  write ()--- right (对的;)  wear (穿;)--- where (在哪里) whole (整个的)--- hole (

反义词

above ... -- below ...all 全部 -- none 全无 answer 回答 -- ask 询问 borrow借进 – lend借出/return归还best 最好的 -- worst 最坏的 better 更好的 -- worse 更坏的 both 两者都 -- neither 两者都不 busy 忙碌的 -- free 空闲的 buy -- sell cheap 便宜的 -- expensive/ dear 昂贵的 clean 干净的 -- dirty 肮脏的 clever 聪明的 -- foolish 愚蠢的 cold 寒冷的 -- hot 炎热的 cry - laugh cool 凉爽的 -- warm 温暖的careful小心的-careless粗心的 danger 危险 -- safety 安全safe 安全的 -- dangerous 危险的dark 黑暗的 -- bright 明亮的 dry 干燥的 -- wet 潮湿的 early 早的 -- late 迟的 easy 容易的 -- difficult/ hard 困难的;艰巨的 empty 空的 -- full 满的 far 远的 -- near 近的begin 开始-- finish 结束first 最初的 -- last 最后的 forget 忘记 -- remember 记得 soft 软的  -- hard 硬的 high 高的 -- low 低的 inside 在里面 -- outside 在外面 heavy 重的-- light 轻的 noisy吵闹的 – quiet安静的old 旧的 -- new 新的 old 年老的 -- young 年轻的 possible可能的 –impossible不可能的 pass 通过;及格 -- fail 未通过;不及格 poor 贫穷的 -- rich 富裕的 pull -- push plus - minus right 右边(的) -- left 左边(的) right 正确的 -- wrong 错误的same 相同的 -- different 不同的 short 短的 -- long 长的 short (个子)矮的 -- tall (个子)高的 sleep 睡觉 -- wake 醒来 small 小的 -- big, large, great 大的 strong 强壮的 -- weak 虚弱的 take 拿走 -- bring 带来 thin 瘦的 -- fat 胖的 thin 薄的 -thick 厚的 with -- without 没有 many许多-few几乎没有more更多-less更少polite礼貌的-rude粗鲁的receive收到-send/

同义词()

     arrive in/at=get to=reach到达be fine=be well=be OK(身体)好be from=come from来自be in=be at home在家be away=be out=be not at home在外be busy doing sth.=be busy with sth.忙于做某事give sb a call=give sb a ring给某人打电话go on doing sth.=go on with sth.继续干某事hear from=receive /have/ get a letter from收到某人的来信help sb with sth=help sb (to)do sth帮某人干某事look out=be careful=take care小心prefer…to=like better than更喜欢ring sb up=call sb打电话send for sb=ask sb to come派人去请take exercise=do sport做运动teach oneself=learn all by oneself自学walk to=go to …on foot步行a lot of=lots of/plenty of许多a quarter past two=two fifteen 2:15 at times=sometimes有时at last=in the end=finally最后a moment ago=just now刚才at once=right now/away立刻/马上more than=over超过no longer=not…any longer=no more=not any more不再two and a half years=two years and a half两年半stay healthy=keep fit/healthy保持健康How do you like...?=What do you think of...?你认为...怎么样? one more =another (one)再一个 almost - nearly 几乎;差不多 answer-reply回答autumn-fall 秋天gift-present礼物grow-plantclever - bright 聪明的expensive - dear昂贵的difficult - hard 困难的;艰巨的 easy - simple 容易的;简单的 famous - well-known 著名的helpful - useful 有益的;有用的 ill - sick 生病的 maybe - perhaps -probably可能;大概 real - true 真正的;真实的 whether - if 是否

              名词复数

     1.-s  apple 苹果 boy 男孩 key 钥匙 2.s,x,ch,sh-es bus 公共汽车class课;班级box箱子watch手表match比赛brush刷子                                                 3.+y→ies  city 城市country 国家 library 图书馆 family家庭 factory.工厂 baby婴儿 story故事century 世纪dictionary字典4.0-es  hero 英雄 potato 马铃薯 tomato西红柿 5.O-s  Photo照片 piano 钢琴 radio 收音机 zoo动物园kilo 千克6.f(e)→ves  Knife小刀 leaf 树叶 life 生命thief 小偷7.单复同形 Chinese 中国人 Japanese日本人 sheep 绵羊 deer 鹿 fish8.词根变化man---men 男人 woman ---women妇女  foot---feet  tooth---teeth 牙齿 child---children 小孩  mouse---mice 老鼠 9.部分变复数girl friend ---girl friends 女朋友  10.全部变复数man teacher ---men teachers 男教师 11. German→Germans德国人12.不可数名词表数量a cup of tea 一杯茶 a piece of paper 一张纸three pieces of news 三条消息 five pairs of shoes 五双鞋  a bottle of water 一瓶水two glasses of milk 两玻璃杯牛奶 

形容词/副词的比较级和最高级

     1.-er/est  clean  tall  cold  low  2.e--r   fine  nice  large  late  3. +y→ier/iest  busy  easy  heavy  happy  healthy  early  4.双写末辅+er/est  big  fat  thin  hot  wet  5.more/most +多音节或部分双音节形容词/副词 careful 小心的useful有用的 famous著名的 quickly 快地  slowly慢地  interesting有趣的 beautiful 美丽的  important 重要的  popular 流行的;受欢迎的6.不规则变化  good / well→better; best   bad /badly/ ill→worse; worst  little几乎没有→less ;least  many / much→more; most   far→farther; farthest (具体的远)/further ;furthest(抽象的远)

基数词序数词

     1.-th four→ fourth  2. t-h  eight→ eighth  3. e-th  nine →ninth 4.ve→fth five→fifth twelve十二→ twelfth  5.y→ieth  twenty二十→twentieth 还有thirty三十 forty 四十fifty 五十sixty 六十seventy 七十eighty 八十ninety 九十  6.特殊变化one →first  two→ second  three →third  7.twenty-one二十一→twenty-first

重要分数:二分之一 one/a half    三分之二 two thirds   四分之一one fourth/one(a)quarter    四分之三three  fourths/three quarters

       反身代词构成的短语

1.enjoy oneself (过得愉快、玩得高兴))2.help oneself to(请随便吃点...)  3. teach oneself = learn by oneself (自学) 4.look after/take care of oneself (照顾自己)     5.hurt oneself (伤害自己) 6. leave one by oneself= leave one alone (把某人单独留下)

7.devote oneself to (致力于

第三人称单数(简称:现单三)

     1.-s  look  play   enjoy喜欢  2.s,x,ch,sh,o-es fix 修理;安装 watch观看  teach  wash wish希望  do  go  3.+y→ies  study 学习 try 尝试 4.have→has

现在分词

     1.-ing  help帮助  read   2.e(不发音)-ing  have  live  居住 write  3.双写末辅+ing  get sit put cut run swim  begin  4.ie→ying  lie  die

          

过去式,过去分词(规则变化和不规则变化)

     A.规则变化1.-ed  pant 种植 play   2.e--d   live  use   3.+y→ied study   worry 担心    4.双写末辅+ed  stop 停止 drop 掉下plan 计划

     B.不规则变化(见表)

AAA cut cut cut 切,割put put put set set set下沉;放置 fit fit fit合适 cost cost cost值(钱 read read read hurt hurt hurt伤害 shut shut shut 关闭ABBbuy bought bought think thought thought想;认为bring brought brought带来fight fought fought战斗;打/吵架teach taught taught catch caught caught捉住send sent sent送;寄 spend spent spent花费build built built建筑 lend lent lent 借出tell told told告诉sell sold sold sleep slept slept sweep swept sweptpay paid paid支付lay laid laid 放置;产卵 feel felt felt 感觉;触摸find found found 发现;找到hear heard heard听见keep kept kept 保持leave left left 离开;留下lose lost lost失去say said said   dig dug dug get got got 得到have/has had had /hold held held 握住;举行make made made制造;使得 meet met met 遇见sit sat satwin won wonshine shone shone发光;照射feed fed fed 喂养ABbeat beat beatenABA become became become 成为 come came come run ran run ABCam/is was been are were been begin began begun 开始sing sang sung swim swam swum游泳drink drank drunk ring rang rung 响;打电话grow grew grown 生长;种植know knew known 知道;认识blow blew blowndrive drove driven 驾驶draw drew drawn绘制;拉give gave given rise rose risen 升起take took taken 拿走show showed shown出示break broke broken 打破choose chose chosen选择speak spoke spoken 讲话do did donefall fell fallen 跌;落go went gonesee saw seen 看见wear wore worn 穿;戴eat ate eaten fly flew flown 放;飞lie lay lainwake woke woken 醒来steal stole stolen 偷盗hide hid hidden 隐藏ride rode ridden骑;乘forget forgot forgotten 忘记write wrote written    情态动词只有过去式:can could能;会 may might可以;可能 will would 将;会shall should应该have/ has to  had to不得不 must

名词

     1.+er  singer歌唱家teacher 教师 player比赛者 worker 工人 farmer农民 traveller旅行者 owner所有者 foreigner外国人 writer作者 driver 司机 winner 获胜者 runner赛跑者  swimmer游泳者 2.+or  visitor 参观者 inventor发明者act表演→ actor(男) 演员3.+ion  invention发明 describe→description描写operate 动手术→operation 手术4.+ing  building建筑 training训练  meaning意思  warning警告 smoke →smoking 吸烟 5.+ist  artist美术家 science科学→ scientist科学家 6.+ness  illness疾病 busy→ business 商业;生意happy→ happiness幸福;愉快7.+ment development 发展 8.t→ce different →difference 不同 confident → confidence 自信 important→  importance重要  9.不规则变化:advise →advice 建议proud →pride 骄傲 high高的→ height高度 weigh...重量→ weight重量 long长的→ length长度strong强壮的→strength力量 succeed→ success 成功safe→ safety 安全friend朋友 →friendship友谊die→death  encourage鼓励→courage勇气 law 法律 →lawyer律师 choose→ choice选择decide→ decision决定speak→ speech 说话think思考→thought思想 produce 生产→product产品

形容词

     1.+y  cloudy多云的 windy 刮风的snowy 下雪的rainy 下雨的lucky幸运的 healthy健康的   noise →noisy吵闹的 sunny晴朗的  funny可笑的  2.+ful careful useful  helpful有帮助的  peaceful和平的 thankful感激的 wonderful精彩的  colourful 艳丽的 successful成功的 painful病痛的  3.+ly  friendly友好的  lovely 可爱的 lively 热闹的;有生气的 4.+ous dangerous 5.+ing/ed  interesting  interested  exciting  excited 兴奋的 6. a-  alive活着的  asleep睡着的 awake清醒的  7.ce→t  difference →different  8. +ed  wounded 受伤的 close →closed 关着的 worry → worried担忧的 pleased高兴的;满意的 9. +ern  eastern东方的  western西方的  northern北方的  southern南方的 10.特殊变化 pride→ proud  well→ good  die→ dead  enjoy→ enjoyable愉快的 open→ open  person→personal个人的

               →  副词

     1.+ly  clear清楚的 quick careful quiet real真的 final最后的soft→softly  2.y→ ily  easy  lucky angry happy 3.不去e+ly  safe  wide 广泛的 polite 有礼貌的4.e+ly  true 真实的 5.e+y  terrible可怕的 6.特殊变化one→ once 一次;一倍 two→ twice两次;两倍 hard困难的→ hard努力地 high→ high  fast→ fast

英语时态复习

 一、一般现在时

概念:1.表示经常性,习惯性的动作;2.表示现在的事实或状态;3.表示自然规律或普遍真理。

如:I get up at 6:30 every day. She comes from China.

His shirt is blue. It snows in winter. The moon goes around the earth.

结构:1.动词原形或单三(口诀:He/She/It+单三;其它人称+动原)2. am /is /are+表语

如:I like apples. She likes pears. I am a teacher. You are a student.She is a nurse.     

标志语:often(经常),always(一直),usually(通常),sometimes(有时),every/ day /week /month /year(每天///年)

变否定句,疑问句选用do/does的口诀:

见到动原借助do,见到单三用does ,谓语动词皆为原。

二、一般过去时

概念:表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态

结构:过去式

标志语: yesterdaythe day before yesterdayagolast..., in 1998

变否定句,疑问句的口诀:

一切人称用did,谓语动词要还原(除was/were外)

三、一般将来时

概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态.

结构:will+动词原形 ,  be going to+动词原形

标志语: tomorrowthe day after tomorrownext...in + 时间段,in 2010

四、现在进行时

概念:表示正在发生的动作

结构:is/ am/ are + 动词-ing

标志语: now,置于句首的 LookListen

五、过去进行时

    概念:表示过去正在进行的动作

结构: was/ were + 动词-ing

标志语:at this timeat+时间点+过去时间(at 9:00 o'clock last night),whenwhile.

六、过去将来时

概念:表示从过去某时看将要发生的动作

结构: would+动词原形

标志语:常用于主句是一般过去时的宾语从句中

七、现在完成时

结构:has/have +过去分词

概念与标志语:

1)表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,与already, yet, ever, never, just,so far(到目前为止), before连用。

2)表示过去发生的动作持续到现在,还可能要持续下去,常与for+时间段, since+过去的时间点连用,提问用How long.

八、过去完成时

概念:过去某时之前已发生的动作

结构:had+过去分词 

标志语:1)以bybefore+过去时间  2)主句为一般过去时的宾语从句中。     

被动语态的构成

1.一般现在时:is/am/are+过去分词

2.一般过去时:was/were+过去分词

3.一般将来时:will+be+过去分词

4.含有情态动词的被动语态:can/may/must/shall/should+be+过去分词

5.现在进行时:is/am/are+being+过去分词

    6.现在完成时:have/has+been+过去分词

 

  动词不定式动名词,动词原形,

去分词

    .动词不定式

1.构成:肯定式: to +动词原形   

否定式:not  to +动词原形

2、动词不定式的用法

A、不定式作主语  To learn English  well is not easy→ It’s not easy to learn English  well.

B、不定式作宾语 I hope to be a doctor.

   Want/ would like(想要)/plan(计划)/decide(决定)/learn(学会)/ hope(希望)pretend(假装) can’t  wait(迫不及待)to do sth.

C、不定式作宾语补足语 My mother always likes me to get up early.

     want(想要)/ wish(希望)/tell(告诉)/ask(请、叫) /allow(允许)/warn(警告)/order (命令) /would like(想要) /encourage(鼓励)/teach()/ sb to do sth

D、不定式作定语

   Something to eat / something to drink/ much  work  to  do/lots of  housework to do

E、作表语

   His job is to feed animals.

F、作状语(表原因或目的等)

   I'm happy to hear that. He went to England to learn English.

G 不定式与疑问词连用,构成不定式短语,作宾语

   I don’t know where to go /what  to  do/how  to  get  there/which to choose .

H、常见固定搭配

 1.too  …  to  do

   The  desk  is  too  heavy  to  carry .

 2. / + enough  to  do

   The  room  is  big  enough  for  10  people  to  live  in .

 3.It’s  time  to  do  sth  It’s  time for  sbto  do  sth .

   It’s  time (for  us) to  play  football

4.It  takes  sb  some  time  to  do  sth .

   It   takes  me  three  days  to  finish  the  job .

二、动名词

 1.enjoy(喜欢)/finish(完成)/practise(练习)/mind(介意)/ be  worth(值得)/ keep (on)继续 / be busy (忙于)/feel like (想要)/ spend…in)花费时间 /have fun (做某事有趣)/devote  oneself to(致力于) doing sth

2.keep(保持) sb doing sth 使某人保持某种动作

3、介词+v-ing    Thanks for helping me.

4、词组搭配中ing的形式

No smoking禁止吸烟  No parking禁止停车 go swimminghiking ,   fishing,skating,shopping

do some cooking,reading,washing,cleaning,shopping)  三、动词原形

1.Why  not do sth/Why don’t  you do sth为什么不做某事?

2..had better do sth 最好干某事

3.Had better not do sth 最好不要干某事

4.Will you please do sth 请你做...好吗?

5.Will you please not do sth 请你不要做...好吗?

6.情态动词+动词原形

7.使役动词:Let/ make / have /sb do sth 使某人做某事

  感观动词:feel/hear/see/watch/find/notice sb do sth 感觉/听到/看见某人做过某事或经常做某事

         feel/hear/see/watch/find/notice sb doing sth 感觉/听到/看见某人正在做某事)

         以上使役动词和感观动词在主动语态中后接动词原形,但改为被动语态时要接带to的动词不定式。

   1)I saw him go into the classroom just now.

   2He saw a purse lying on the ground on her way home.

      

口诀:一感和一听,三让和四看,主动语态接动原,被动后接不定式。

      感观动词很特殊,一感一听和四看,后接动原表过程,后接分词表进行。

四、过去分词

1.have sth done 让别人做某事,表示动作由别人来完成

   1 I will have my hair cut.

   2 I had my  bad tooth pulled out.

2、常见短语:

A boy called Jim    a man named John     a broken glass

动名词与动词不定式的用法区别

1.stop doing sth停止正做的事           stop to do sth  停止一事干别事

2.go on doing sth 继续干某事           go on to do sth 接着干另一件事

3.forget to do sth 忘记要做某事        forget doing sth忘记做过某事

4.remember to do sth 记住要做某事      remember doing sth记得做过某事5.like doing sth (一直)喜欢做某事    like to do sth(偶然)喜欢做某事

6.hate doing sth(一直)不喜欢做某事   hate to do sth (偶然)不喜欢做某事

7need to do sth(需要做某事,人做主语)

  need doing sth (需要被做某事,物做主语)

交际用语

    .问候.1.A:Good morning/afternoon/ evening! B: Good morning/afternoon/ evening!  2.A :Hello/ Hi! B: Hello/ Hi! 3.A:How are you? B:Fine, thank you. And you? A:Very well, thanks. 4.A: How do you do?B: How do you do? 5.A: Nice/ Glad to meet you? B: Nice/ Glad to meet you,      too.

     .介绍My/ Her/ His name is …,This is…,I’m …,She/ He is…

     .告别1.A:I think it’s time for us to leave now /I must go now. Goodbye! B:Bye-bye/ Bye! /See you later/ tomorrow.2.A:It's nearly ten o'clock.It's time for you to go to bed.B:Good night.

     .打电话A:Hello,3256778 B:Hello, May I speak to Mr Smith,please? A:oh,sorry. He isn’t here/is out right now. B:Is that Mrs Smith? A:Yes,it is.Who is that? B:This is John.A:Hi! John, Can I take a message for you? B:Yes,please.I’ve got a bad cold.I’m afraid I can’t go to work today. A:I’m sorry to hear that.You’d better go to see a doctor and take good care of yourself. I’ll tell him as soon as he comes back. B:Thanks a lot. Good-bye.

.感谢和应答1.A:Thank you for offering us such a good meal!

B:I'm glad you all enjoy it.2. A:Thank you/ Thanks for helping me. BNot at all. /That’s all right./ You’re welcome.

.祝愿、祝贺和应答 1.A:Congratulations to you on passing the maths exam B:Thanks a lot.2.A:I did quite well in the English exam this time.B:Congratulations!3.A:Happy New Year! /Merry Christmas!B:The same to you.4.A:Happy birthday to you.B: Thank you. 5.A:I'm going to the south for a few days.B:Have a nice/ good time./Enjoy yourself! 6.AI have passed the maths exam!B Well done      / Congratulations!

.表达意愿1.A:I’m going to spend my summer holiday in Hawaii.B:What a lucky guy!Have a nice/ goodtime!And don't forget to send me a post card.2.A:Jack,I will go for a picnic with my parents after the exam.B:Have fun!/Enjoy yourself!

八.道歉和应答 A:I’m sorry to trouble you.  B:That’s all right./ It doesn’t matter. /That’s nothing.

.遗憾和同情1. A:I didn't pass the maths exam again.B:What a pity! 2.A:There was an earthquake in Yunnan on June3,2007and several persons lost their lives.B:I’m sorry to hear that.

.邀请和应答 1.A:Can you go shopping with me tomorrow? B:I’d love /like to,but I have to study for my chemistry test.2.A:Would you come to the party tonight? B:Yes,I'd like to.

十一.请求允许和应答  1.A:May I go on a trip to Beijing?B:Yes,you may. 2.A:May I borrow/have your pen,please? B:Sure./Certainly,here you are.  A:Thanks ./Thank you.B:That's all right.3.A:May I use your computer this afternoon? B:No problem.                                                                                                   

十二.表示同意和不同意 1.A:Sixteen-year-olds should not be allowed to drive. B:I agree.It's dangerous. 2.A:Is Mrs.Black really badly ill?B:I'm afraid so.She's in hospital.

十三.谈论天气 A:What’s the weather like today?/ How’s the weather today ? B:It’s fine/sunny/cloudy/ windy/ rainy/snowy.

十四.购物.A: Good morning , Madam. Can I help you?  /What can I do for you?/Is there anything I can do for you? B: I'm looking for a skirt for my daughter. A: What size does your daughter wear? B: Size M. She likes cotton skirt.A: How about this one ? It's made in China. B: OK, Let me have a look. How much is it ?/How much does it cost? A: It's 260 yuan. B: But I'm afraid it's a little more expensive,and I don't like the colour.A: Do you like this red one ? It's cheaper than that one. It's only 180 yuan. B: Hmm. it looks nice. Can she try it on? A:Sure. B: Well, it fits her well. I'll take it. Here is 200 yuan .A: Thank you. Here is your change.

十五.问路和应答1.A: Excuse me , can you tell me the way to the Children's Hospital ? / Excuse me,can you tell me how I can  get to the Children's Hospital ? B:Go down this street and then turn right at the second crossing. It's between the bank and the hotel. You can't miss it.A:How far Is it from here ? B: It's only 200 metres from here . You can walk there. A: Thanks a lot. B: You're welcome. 2.A:Excuse me,can you tell me the way to the hospital? B:Sorry,I don’t know. I’m new here. A:Thank you all the same.

十六.问时间或日期及应答 1.A:What day is it today? B: It’s Monday.2.A:What’s the date today? B:It’s on January 10th.3.A: What time is it?/ What’s the time, please? B: It’s half past five.4.A:When is the Spring Festival? B:It's in January or February. 5.A:When is New Year's Day? B:It's on January 1. 6.A:When is International Workers'Day? B:It's on May 1. 7.A:When is Children's Day? B:It's on June 1. 8.A:When is Teachers'Day? B:It's on September 10. 9.A:When is National Day? B:It's on October 1.

十七.请求 1.A:Would you mind feeding the pet at noon?B:No,not at all.2.Would you please pass me today's newspaper?B:Here you are.3.A:Would you mind if I use your telephone?B:Of course not.4.A  Tickets, please! May I see your ticket ? B Sure. Here it is.          

十八.劝告和建议1.A:Why not join us in the game,Kitty?B:I'd   like to,but I have to do my homework first.2.A:Shall we go out for a walk? B:Good idea! 3.Remember to close the door when you leave. B:OK,I will.4.A:How about going shopping on Nanjing Road this evening? B:Sounds great,but I have to prepare for tomorrow's exam.

十九.禁止和警告ADon’t draw on the wall.B Sorry, I won’t

二十.表示感情 1.A:How do you like the TV play?B:It's wonderful.2.A:What do you think of the film? /How do you like the film? B:It's very interesting.3.A:Mum,I don't feel like eating.B:Oh dear!What's wrong?

二十一.就餐1.A:Would you like some dumplings? B:No,thanks!2.A:Would you like some soup? B:Yes,please! 3.Help yourself to some fish. B Thank you.

二十二.看病.  A:Good morning,doctor. B:Good morning,Jim.What's wrong with you?/What's the matter/trouble with you? A:I don't feel well.I've got a headache and a cough.B:Have you taken your temperature yet? A:Yes,I've got a fever.B:How long have you been like this? A:Ever since yesterday afternoon. B:Have you had anything to eat? A:Just a little.I don't feel like eating.B:You've  got a bad cold,Jim.Take this medicine three times a day,and you'd better stay in bed for two days.You'll be well soon.A:Thanks a lot,doctor.Good-bye.B:Good-bye.

二十三.问岁数 A:How old are you?  B:I'm thirteen (years old).

二十四. 称赞,表扬及应答1.A:You speak good English.B:Thank you  2.AWhat a beautiful hat you wear today!B:Thank you 3.AYou looked so beautiful at the party.B Thank you very much.  

二十五.常见标志和说明

BUSINESS HOURS营业(办公)时间, OFFICE HOURS办公时间, OPEN正在营业, CLOSED停止营业, PULL, PUSH, ON开(启), OFF关(闭), ENTRANCE入口, EXIT出口, INSTRUCTIONS注意事项(说明), FRAGILE易碎,  THIS SIDE UP此端向上,  MENU菜单, NO SMOKING请勿吸烟, NO PARKING禁止停车, NO PHOTOS禁止,拍照 DANGER!危险!, PLAY放送, STOP停止, PAUSE暂停(中止). We can often see this sign “THIS SIDE UP” on a box.

           重要单词

week 星期 Sunday 星期日 Monday 星期一 Tuesday 星期二  Wednesday星期三  Thursday星期四  Friday星期五  Saturday 星期六    Month January 一月 February   March 三月  April   May五月  June 六月  July 七月  August 八月  September 九月  October 十月  November十一月 December 十二月   season  季节 spring春天 summer夏天  autumn/fall秋天  winter冬天     Holiday 假日festival节日National Day 国庆节 Teachers' Day教师节  Women's Day妇女节   Children's Day儿童节  borrow review复习 hungry饿的 breakfast早餐 lunch午餐 supper /dinner晚餐 dumpling饺子 vegetable 蔬菜noodle面条 family家庭 daughter女儿 police 警察birthday生日 talk 谈话computer 电脑doctor医生 help帮助 hundred thousand million 百万billion十亿 lonely孤独的 date日期 country 国家capital首都 address地址 animal动物 arrive到达 because因为 camera照相机 classmate 同班同学clean弄干净 exercise 练习favourite最喜爱的 film电影;胶卷cinema 电影 flower fruit 水果grape葡萄 happen 发生invite邀请 juice果汁 kilometre公里;千米 minute 分钟picture图画;照片 stamp邮票 station 车站student学生 temperature温度 thirsty渴的 tired累的 together一起 towards traffic交通 train火车 trip旅行 umbrella雨伞 water水;浇水 across从表面穿过through从中间穿过  activity活动 between在两者之间  celebrate庆祝 collect收集 company公司 cook烹饪;厨师 decorate装饰 delicious 美味的dictionary 字典;词典 excellent杰出的 except之外 hobby爱好 improve改善;提高 information 信息introduce 介绍  join 参加kitchen厨房 language语言 member成员 nervous 紧张的quarter 一刻钟;四分之一subject科目 university大学 without没有 wonder想知道 abroad/到国外American美国人change改变;零钱 during在期 engineer工程师;技师 environment环境 experiment实验 fail失败 keep饲养;保留 lazy 懒惰的medicine percent百分之几plant种植 population人口 pretty漂亮的 problem问题 protect保护 receive收到 repair修理;修补search 搜寻secondsound听起来 taste尝起来 world世界 accident事故 against反对 allow允许 believe相信 besides除之外(还有) blind瞎的  deaf聋的 bridge century世纪 develop发展 disease疾病 example例子 experience经验 habit 习惯;行为 hospital医院 include 包括instead代替 magazine 杂志modern现代的 money patient病人 price价格 produce生产 public公共的 record记录 research研究 result结果 save节省;救 serious严重的 sight视力;景象 situation形势 spare空闲的 spirit精神 technology 技术accept接受 angry生气的 behave 表现chance 机会culture文化;文明 duty 责任;义务express表达 fetch 去取forever 永远graduate毕业 greeting问侯 handsome英俊的 honest诚实的 manner 方式;习惯match比赛;火柴;相配 nature大自然 offer 提供perfect完美的 pilot 飞行员poet诗人 progress 进步provide提供 raise饲养realize认识到 recite背诵 respect尊重 secret秘密(的) serve提供 share分享 society社会 symbol象征trouble麻烦 unless 除非;如果不vacation 假期

 

常见句型结构

情态动词can/may/must/will/shall/should+动原

let sb do sth   让某人做某事

make/have sb do sth   使某人做某事

make sb/sth+形容词   使某人或某物保持某种状态)

see sb do sth看见某人做过某事或经常做某事

see sb doing sth看见某人正在做某事)

hear sb do sth听见某人做过某事或经常做某事

hear sb doing sth听见某人正在做某事)

find sb do sth发现某人做过某事或经常做某事

find sb doing sth发现某人正在做某事) 

help sb(to)do sth / help sb with sth帮助某人做某事

Why  not do sth/Why don’t  you do sth为什么不做某事?

had better do sth 最好干某事

Had better not do sth 最好不要干某事

Will you please do sth 请你做...好吗?

Will you please not do sth 请你不要做...好吗?

 

want/would like to do sth想要做某事

hope/wish to do sth 希望做某事

learn to do sth学做某事

be ready to do sth准备好做某事

try/strive to do sth 努力做某事 

(try doing sth 试着做某事)

try/do one’s best to do sth. 尽力去做某事

need to do sth需要做某事(人做主语)

need doing sth)需要被做某事(物做主语)

plan to do sth计划做某事

decide to do sth 决定做某事

pretend to do sth 假装做某事

agree to do sth 同意做某事

 

used to do sth. 过去常做某事  be used to doing sth 习惯做某事

refuse to do sth 拒绝做某事

can’t  wait to do sth. 迫不及待做某事

can’t afford to do sth负担不起做某事

prefer to do sth. 喜欢()做某事

prefer to do sth rather than do sth. 宁愿做某事,而不愿做某事

prefer doing sth to doing sth. 喜欢做某事,胜过做某事

want/would like sb to do sth.想要某人做某事.

ask sb to do sth /叫某人做某事

tell sb to do sth 告诉某人做某事

wish sb to do sth   希望某人做某事

teach sb to do sth教某人做某事

encourage sb to do sth 鼓励某人做某事

invite sb to do sth邀请某人做某事

order sb to do sth  命令某人做某事

allow sb to do sth  允许某人做某事

warn sb to do sth   警告某人做某事

 

It’s one’s turn to do sth 轮到某人做某事

too  …  to  do sth 而不能做某事

/ + enough  to  do sth 足够做某事

It’s time(for sb) to do sth(某人)做某事的时间了

It  takes  sb  some  time  to  do  sth .花费某人一段时间做某事

sb spend some time (in) doing sth

It’s  形容词 to do sth做某事怎么样

It’s形容词 for sb to do sth对某人来说做某事怎么样

 

介词+动词-ing (介词:in,on,at,for,of,from,about)

Finish doing sth完成做某事

be busy doing sth忙于做某事

have fun doing sth /It’s fun to do sth 做某事有趣

practise doing sth 练习做某事

feel like doing sth想要做某事

keep (on) doing sth继续做某事

keep sb doing sth 让某人做某事

(keep sb +形容词   使某人保持某种状态)

mind doing sth 介意做某事

be  worth doing sth 值得做某事

can’t help doing sth 禁不住做某事

devote oneself to doing sth 致力于做某事

There be sb doing sth 有某人正在做某事

make a contribution to sth/doing sth

 

like/enjoy doing sth (一直)喜欢做某事

(like to do sth)(偶尔)喜欢做某

stop doing sth 停止正做的事      (stop to do sth  停止一事干别事)

forget doing sth忘记做过某事     (forget to do sth 忘记要做某事)   

remember doing sth记得做过某事   (remember to do sth 记住要做某事 )

go on doing sth 继续干某事        go on to do sth 接着干另一件事

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